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|English to Arabic translations [Non-PRO]|
General / Conversation / Greetings / Letters / General
|English term or phrase: hi, hello|
|An informal greeting, when you meet someone (not when you leave). "Salaam" is maybe too formal, but I don't know the EXACT meaning of "marhaba". I can't decide, but maybe a third word, I don't know. Must be understood in ALL Arabic countries, though.|
I'm looking for 1 word only and how to spell/say and write it according to the Unicode table on my website at http://www.wildboar.net/multilingual/middleeastern/arabic/la...
I need the numbers for each character (right to left in sequence) WITH ALL VOWELS.
Coming late to this thread, I shall prescind the spelling and orthography of ASSALAMU "ALAYKUM from the original question of how to casually greet someone in modern standard Arabic.
First word: ASSALAMU
ALIF LAM: These two letters represent the definite article. The alif is a false alif, standing as it does for a gliding hamza. no diacritics are inserted here.
SEEN: The required diacritic is a fat-ha, denoting a short A. Some texts place a shadda as well, indicating that the preceding LAM is "solar," not "lunar." As such, the lam takes on the sound of the following consonant, resulting in an intensive S sound, hence the shadda. I personally do not insert a shadda, as the intensive S sound is naturally achieved by the inversion of the L sound.
LAM ALIF: These are two distinct letters, to wit, a consonant and a long vowel, but in traditional Arabic orthography, they are represented by a single character whenever they are juxtaposed in that order. In modern word processing, you do not have to remember this rule, as the built-in algorithm takes care of that. There is no need for any diacritic over the lam, since the alif clearly indicates the vowel quality. Some texts place a fat-ha. I find it superfluous.
MEEM: The required diacritic is a dhamma. This is a syntactical vowel. Given a different syntax, a different vowel may be called for.
Second word "ALAYKUM:
"AYN: The required diacritic is a fat-ha.
LAM: the required diacritic is a fat-ha.
YA: No diacritic is required, although some texts place a sukoon, which denotes the absence of a vowel. A sukoon here only adds clutter in my opinion.
KAF: the required diacritic is a dhamma.
MEEM: No diacritic is required. A sukoon is sometimes used.
Note added at 2002-06-16 22:38:07 (GMT) Post-grading
What follows is an answer to further queries sent to me by e-mail about writing the word SALAM by itself, rahter than ASSLAMU ALAYKUM:
Words that stand alone, such as \"Salam!\" are not exactly syntax-free, but are syntactically versatile, i.e., one can interpret their syntactical function in several legitimate ways. For instance, one can say that \"Salam!\" by itself could mean \"Peace be with you!\" (nominative case), or \"I give you peace!\" (accusative case), etc. So to some extent, one is free to use whatever inflection one pleases.
In Arabic, Indefinite nouns (except unmorphed nouns, like feminine proper nouns) acquire an N sound after the inflection, so that \"Salam\" becomes SALAMUN, SALAMAN, or SALAMIN, depending on syntax. This practice is called TANWEEN, and is orthographically represented by doubling the diacritical sign of the inflection: two dhammas, two fat-has, or two kasras. The two dhammas are often joined together in a single diacritic that looks like a dhamma with a pony tail.
If the infletion is a fat-ha with a tanween, then an alif is added. The two fat-has are placed right above this extra alif.
In natural speech, the inflection of the last word in the utterance (a sentence or a phrase followed by a pause) is not pronounced. The same applies to words that stand alone, like \"Salam!\" If the inflection is a fat-ha with a tanween, then the extra alif is pronounced as a prolonged fat-ha, but not the tanween. So \"Salaman!\" becomes \"Salama!\"
Since diacritics are aids to pronunciation, I tend to drop the diacritical inflecion of any word where I expect the reader to pause for a full or a half cadence. So if the word is SALAMUN, I place no dhamma or tanween over the meem. If the word is SLAMAN, I place no fat-ha or tanween over the final extra alif. Of course, inflections the are not based on diacritics are not dropped. One does not, for instance, drop the WOW NOON in AL-MUHARWILOON.
Most people would abbreviate ASSALAMU ALAYKUM to SALAM rather than SALAMAN, but SALAMAN is not wrong. In fact, most social phrases seem to take the accusative case: SHUKRAN, AFWAN, KHAYRAN, RAJA-AN, \"UTHRAN, HUBBAN WA KARAMATAN, etc. Many of these can be treated as adverbs.
The stress in SALAM is on the second syllable, which is long. The first A is short, represented by a fat-ha, not an alif. In fact, A is not an exact equivalent of the Arabic fat-ha, which is closer to the e in \"set\" or the u in \"sun\" than it is the letter A, as A is mostly understood as a long vowel in English.
\"Solar\" and \"Lunar\" are my jocular refernces to the phonetic behavior of the L in the definite article. The L in the definite article is converted to the sound of the consonat sound that follows if the consonant sound is T (both kinds), TH (both kinds), D, R, Z, S (both kinds), SH, DH, ZH, or N. In all other cases, the L retains its natural sound. The former is calld LAM SHAMSIYYA, the other LAM QAMARIYYA, as the word SHAMS (sun) and the word QAMAR (moon) fall nicely into the two consonantal categories, hence my joke anout the solar and lunar L.
Selected response from:
|Thank you all very much!|
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