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hi, hello

Arabic translation: السَـلامُ عَلَيكُم

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:hi, hello
Arabic translation:السَـلامُ عَلَيكُم
Entered by: bochkor
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13:49 Jun 14, 2002
English to Arabic translations [Non-PRO]
General / Conversation / Greetings / Letters / General
English term or phrase: hi, hello
An informal greeting, when you meet someone (not when you leave). "Salaam" is maybe too formal, but I don't know the EXACT meaning of "marhaba". I can't decide, but maybe a third word, I don't know. Must be understood in ALL Arabic countries, though.

I'm looking for 1 word only and how to spell/say and write it according to the Unicode table on my website at http://www.wildboar.net/multilingual/middleeastern/arabic/la...

I need the numbers for each character (right to left in sequence) WITH ALL VOWELS.
bochkor
Local time: 00:08
السَـلامُ عَلَيكُم
Explanation:
Coming late to this thread, I shall prescind the spelling and orthography of ASSALAMU "ALAYKUM from the original question of how to casually greet someone in modern standard Arabic.

First word: ASSALAMU

ALIF LAM: These two letters represent the definite article. The alif is a false alif, standing as it does for a gliding hamza. no diacritics are inserted here.

SEEN: The required diacritic is a fat-ha, denoting a short A. Some texts place a shadda as well, indicating that the preceding LAM is "solar," not "lunar." As such, the lam takes on the sound of the following consonant, resulting in an intensive S sound, hence the shadda. I personally do not insert a shadda, as the intensive S sound is naturally achieved by the inversion of the L sound.

LAM ALIF: These are two distinct letters, to wit, a consonant and a long vowel, but in traditional Arabic orthography, they are represented by a single character whenever they are juxtaposed in that order. In modern word processing, you do not have to remember this rule, as the built-in algorithm takes care of that. There is no need for any diacritic over the lam, since the alif clearly indicates the vowel quality. Some texts place a fat-ha. I find it superfluous.

MEEM: The required diacritic is a dhamma. This is a syntactical vowel. Given a different syntax, a different vowel may be called for.


Second word "ALAYKUM:

"AYN: The required diacritic is a fat-ha.

LAM: the required diacritic is a fat-ha.

YA: No diacritic is required, although some texts place a sukoon, which denotes the absence of a vowel. A sukoon here only adds clutter in my opinion.

KAF: the required diacritic is a dhamma.

MEEM: No diacritic is required. A sukoon is sometimes used.


Fuad

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-16 22:38:07 (GMT) Post-grading
--------------------------------------------------

What follows is an answer to further queries sent to me by e-mail about writing the word SALAM by itself, rahter than ASSLAMU ALAYKUM:

Words that stand alone, such as \"Salam!\" are not exactly syntax-free, but are syntactically versatile, i.e., one can interpret their syntactical function in several legitimate ways. For instance, one can say that \"Salam!\" by itself could mean \"Peace be with you!\" (nominative case), or \"I give you peace!\" (accusative case), etc. So to some extent, one is free to use whatever inflection one pleases.

In Arabic, Indefinite nouns (except unmorphed nouns, like feminine proper nouns) acquire an N sound after the inflection, so that \"Salam\" becomes SALAMUN, SALAMAN, or SALAMIN, depending on syntax. This practice is called TANWEEN, and is orthographically represented by doubling the diacritical sign of the inflection: two dhammas, two fat-has, or two kasras. The two dhammas are often joined together in a single diacritic that looks like a dhamma with a pony tail.

If the infletion is a fat-ha with a tanween, then an alif is added. The two fat-has are placed right above this extra alif.

In natural speech, the inflection of the last word in the utterance (a sentence or a phrase followed by a pause) is not pronounced. The same applies to words that stand alone, like \"Salam!\" If the inflection is a fat-ha with a tanween, then the extra alif is pronounced as a prolonged fat-ha, but not the tanween. So \"Salaman!\" becomes \"Salama!\"

Since diacritics are aids to pronunciation, I tend to drop the diacritical inflecion of any word where I expect the reader to pause for a full or a half cadence. So if the word is SALAMUN, I place no dhamma or tanween over the meem. If the word is SLAMAN, I place no fat-ha or tanween over the final extra alif. Of course, inflections the are not based on diacritics are not dropped. One does not, for instance, drop the WOW NOON in AL-MUHARWILOON.

Most people would abbreviate ASSALAMU ALAYKUM to SALAM rather than SALAMAN, but SALAMAN is not wrong. In fact, most social phrases seem to take the accusative case: SHUKRAN, AFWAN, KHAYRAN, RAJA-AN, \"UTHRAN, HUBBAN WA KARAMATAN, etc. Many of these can be treated as adverbs.

The stress in SALAM is on the second syllable, which is long. The first A is short, represented by a fat-ha, not an alif. In fact, A is not an exact equivalent of the Arabic fat-ha, which is closer to the e in \"set\" or the u in \"sun\" than it is the letter A, as A is mostly understood as a long vowel in English.

\"Solar\" and \"Lunar\" are my jocular refernces to the phonetic behavior of the L in the definite article. The L in the definite article is converted to the sound of the consonat sound that follows if the consonant sound is T (both kinds), TH (both kinds), D, R, Z, S (both kinds), SH, DH, ZH, or N. In all other cases, the L retains its natural sound. The former is calld LAM SHAMSIYYA, the other LAM QAMARIYYA, as the word SHAMS (sun) and the word QAMAR (moon) fall nicely into the two consonantal categories, hence my joke anout the solar and lunar L.


Fuad
Selected response from:

Fuad Yahya
Grading comment
Thank you all very much!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +2سَلام ، أهُلاzaheya gad
4 +1مرحباAmer al-Azem
4السَـلامُ عَلَيكُمFuad Yahya
4My friend Lلslَ, Ahlan wa sahlan
Yasser El Helw
5 -1Al salam alaykoum is the correct translation of the Hi, Hello .
Tharaa Hafez


Discussion entries: 3





  

Answers


1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
مرحبا


Explanation:
مرحبا=marhaba
I dont know what is wrong with this word?!! It is commonly understood anywhere you go in Middle East countries.
No need to look for a third word, "marhaba" can do the job whomever you meet!

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-14 23:37:13 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

1- Hi/Hello = marhaba= مرحبا
2- How are you = kayfa haluka(masc.) kayfa haluki (fem.)=كيف حالكَ/كيف حالكِ
3- What\'s up= mahiya aakher alakhbar?/ma (a)ljadeed?/hal min jadeed?= ما هي آخر الأخبار/ ما الجديد؟ /مل من جديد؟
4- Good morning= sabaah elkhayr= صباح الخير
Marhaba is an informal greeting whereas Al salam alaykoum (Be peace upon you) is a formal one.

Amer al-Azem
Local time: 08:08
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Tharaa Hafez: the correct meaning of the Word " Marhaba " is welcome and to be used as a reply to Hello or Hi,
4 hrs

agree  Saleh Ayyub
6 hrs
  -> Thanks Saleh

agree  Yasser El Helw
19 hrs
  -> Thanks Yasser
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

6 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): -1
Al salam alaykoum is the correct translation of the Hi, Hello .


Explanation:
Al Salam Alaykoum means Hi, Hello . It is an informal and formal way to say hello . The reply shall be "Marhaba" which means welcome in all arab countries and sometimes they reply " Wa alaykoum al salam ".But in Egypt they reply
" Ahlan wasahlan " or " Wa alaykoum Al Salam ".
How to write the three words according to the Unicode :
Ahlan Wasahlan (65155+65259+65270)+(65261)+ (65204+65260+65270).
Marhaba (65252+65198+65188+65170+65166)
Al Salam Alaykoum (65165+65248+65204+65276+65249)+(65227+65248+65268+65244+65250).
Hope I was of assistance.

Tharaa Hafez
Egypt
Local time: 07:08
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Amer al-Azem: No Sir! "Al salam alaykoum" means "Be peace upon you"
2 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

18 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +2
سَلام ، أهُلا


Explanation:
Salaam , Ahlan are used in greetings and are the equivalent of hi, hello.
This is what I hear and use these days on my visits to Egypt.
Salaam only and not Salaamu aleikum which is more formal.
Ahlan is equally informal. It is derived from the root " a h l ". The word Ahl which is derived from the same root means family or relatives. We could argue therefore that it means literally you are among friends.


zaheya gad
Local time: 00:08
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Yasser El Helw
2 hrs
  -> thank you

agree  Amer al-Azem
4 hrs
  -> thank you
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

21 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
My friend Lلslَ, Ahlan wa sahlan


Explanation:
I am sure somebody must have said it before, its just that in this moment I can´t visualize Arabic letters. Here are the codes:
65155
65259
65276

65261 (one letter word = and)

65202
65260
65276
The order of these characters have to be written from right to left.
You are doing a great job there Lلzlَ.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-15 11:36:13 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Lلzlَ, the vowels are included. You know that, in Arabic the vowels are not written unless they are what we call \"long vowels\" : then you have the alef = 65165 or 65166, the ye = 65263 to 65268 and the waw = 65261 or 65262.

The 65276 includes a \"lam\" and and the vowel \"alef\".

Bye

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-15 11:37:24 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Lلzlَ, the vowels are included. You know that, in Arabic the vowels are not written unless they are what we call \"long vowels\" : then you have the alef = 65165 or 65166, the ye = 65263 to 65268 and the waw = 65261 or 65262.

The 65276 includes a \"lam\" and and the vowel \"alef\".

Bye

Yasser El Helw
Local time: 07:08
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 day9 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
السَـلامُ عَلَيكُم


Explanation:
Coming late to this thread, I shall prescind the spelling and orthography of ASSALAMU "ALAYKUM from the original question of how to casually greet someone in modern standard Arabic.

First word: ASSALAMU

ALIF LAM: These two letters represent the definite article. The alif is a false alif, standing as it does for a gliding hamza. no diacritics are inserted here.

SEEN: The required diacritic is a fat-ha, denoting a short A. Some texts place a shadda as well, indicating that the preceding LAM is "solar," not "lunar." As such, the lam takes on the sound of the following consonant, resulting in an intensive S sound, hence the shadda. I personally do not insert a shadda, as the intensive S sound is naturally achieved by the inversion of the L sound.

LAM ALIF: These are two distinct letters, to wit, a consonant and a long vowel, but in traditional Arabic orthography, they are represented by a single character whenever they are juxtaposed in that order. In modern word processing, you do not have to remember this rule, as the built-in algorithm takes care of that. There is no need for any diacritic over the lam, since the alif clearly indicates the vowel quality. Some texts place a fat-ha. I find it superfluous.

MEEM: The required diacritic is a dhamma. This is a syntactical vowel. Given a different syntax, a different vowel may be called for.


Second word "ALAYKUM:

"AYN: The required diacritic is a fat-ha.

LAM: the required diacritic is a fat-ha.

YA: No diacritic is required, although some texts place a sukoon, which denotes the absence of a vowel. A sukoon here only adds clutter in my opinion.

KAF: the required diacritic is a dhamma.

MEEM: No diacritic is required. A sukoon is sometimes used.


Fuad

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-16 22:38:07 (GMT) Post-grading
--------------------------------------------------

What follows is an answer to further queries sent to me by e-mail about writing the word SALAM by itself, rahter than ASSLAMU ALAYKUM:

Words that stand alone, such as \"Salam!\" are not exactly syntax-free, but are syntactically versatile, i.e., one can interpret their syntactical function in several legitimate ways. For instance, one can say that \"Salam!\" by itself could mean \"Peace be with you!\" (nominative case), or \"I give you peace!\" (accusative case), etc. So to some extent, one is free to use whatever inflection one pleases.

In Arabic, Indefinite nouns (except unmorphed nouns, like feminine proper nouns) acquire an N sound after the inflection, so that \"Salam\" becomes SALAMUN, SALAMAN, or SALAMIN, depending on syntax. This practice is called TANWEEN, and is orthographically represented by doubling the diacritical sign of the inflection: two dhammas, two fat-has, or two kasras. The two dhammas are often joined together in a single diacritic that looks like a dhamma with a pony tail.

If the infletion is a fat-ha with a tanween, then an alif is added. The two fat-has are placed right above this extra alif.

In natural speech, the inflection of the last word in the utterance (a sentence or a phrase followed by a pause) is not pronounced. The same applies to words that stand alone, like \"Salam!\" If the inflection is a fat-ha with a tanween, then the extra alif is pronounced as a prolonged fat-ha, but not the tanween. So \"Salaman!\" becomes \"Salama!\"

Since diacritics are aids to pronunciation, I tend to drop the diacritical inflecion of any word where I expect the reader to pause for a full or a half cadence. So if the word is SALAMUN, I place no dhamma or tanween over the meem. If the word is SLAMAN, I place no fat-ha or tanween over the final extra alif. Of course, inflections the are not based on diacritics are not dropped. One does not, for instance, drop the WOW NOON in AL-MUHARWILOON.

Most people would abbreviate ASSALAMU ALAYKUM to SALAM rather than SALAMAN, but SALAMAN is not wrong. In fact, most social phrases seem to take the accusative case: SHUKRAN, AFWAN, KHAYRAN, RAJA-AN, \"UTHRAN, HUBBAN WA KARAMATAN, etc. Many of these can be treated as adverbs.

The stress in SALAM is on the second syllable, which is long. The first A is short, represented by a fat-ha, not an alif. In fact, A is not an exact equivalent of the Arabic fat-ha, which is closer to the e in \"set\" or the u in \"sun\" than it is the letter A, as A is mostly understood as a long vowel in English.

\"Solar\" and \"Lunar\" are my jocular refernces to the phonetic behavior of the L in the definite article. The L in the definite article is converted to the sound of the consonat sound that follows if the consonant sound is T (both kinds), TH (both kinds), D, R, Z, S (both kinds), SH, DH, ZH, or N. In all other cases, the L retains its natural sound. The former is calld LAM SHAMSIYYA, the other LAM QAMARIYYA, as the word SHAMS (sun) and the word QAMAR (moon) fall nicely into the two consonantal categories, hence my joke anout the solar and lunar L.


Fuad

Fuad Yahya
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 36
Grading comment
Thank you all very much!
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




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