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I am searching a list with unique languages on Earth
Thread poster: xxxrowtc2
xxxrowtc2
English
Jul 13, 2008

Spanish is similar with portuguese (seems to have a lot of words in common ?!).
I dont know how different in Chinese by Japanese or Coreean language.

Do you know a list with all unique languages on Earth ? I need this kind of information.
What is meaning Unique: if Chinese is different 50% by Japanese there are both unique.

[Subject edited by staff or moderator 2008-07-13 16:34]


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Fabio Descalzi  Identity Verified
Uruguay
Local time: 08:42
Member (2004)
German to Spanish
+ ...
A suggestion Jul 13, 2008

http://www.ethnologue.org/web.asp

The website of Ethnologue is very exhaustive, it includes almost all language denominations (both living and dead languages).

Many languages have an indication of lexical similarity with other languages from the same family. See for instance Catalan: http://www.ethnologue.org/show_language.asp?code=cat

Dialects
Catalan-Rousillonese (Northern Catalán), Valencian (Valenciano, Valencià), Balearic (Balear, Insular Catalan, Mallorqui, Menorqui, Eivissenc), Central Catalan, Algherese, Northwestern Catalan (Pallarese, Ribagorçan, Lleidatà, Aiguavivan).
The standard variety is a literary composite which no one speaks, based on several dialects. Pallarese and Ribogorçan dialects are less similar to standard Catalan. Benasquese and Aiguavivan people live in isolated valleys and have a distinct phonology from their neighbors. Tortosin may be closer to Valencian.
Central Catalan has about 90% to 95% inherent intelligibility to speakers of Valencian (R. A. Hall, Jr., 1989). Written Catalan is closest to Barcelona speech. Central Catalan has 87% lexical similarity with Italian, 85% with Portuguese and Spanish, 76% with Rheto-Romance, 75% with Sardinian, 73% with Rumanian.

Hope this helps!
Best,
Fabio


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Narcis Lozano Drago  Identity Verified
Spain
Local time: 13:42
Member (2007)
English to Spanish
+ ...
This may be a good place to start Jul 13, 2008

I think this is what you are looking for:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_isolate

Best regards,

Narcis


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FarkasAndras
Local time: 13:42
English to Hungarian
+ ...
pls try to make more sense Jul 13, 2008

Are you looking for a full list of all the many thousands of distinct languages in existence, or a list of the most unique, isolated languages?

For isolated, basque comes to mind, and to some extent Hungarian, my mother tongue. IIRC, Chuckhee (sp?) is the language that all linguists looking for linguistic universals hate with a vengeance... because it has a multitude of really strange phenomena that do not occur in any other known language. I imagine that makes it unique enough.


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Fabio Descalzi  Identity Verified
Uruguay
Local time: 08:42
Member (2004)
German to Spanish
+ ...
What is unique? Jul 13, 2008

Narcis Lozano Drago wrote:
I think this is what you are looking for:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_isolate

Thanks Narcis, your link is welcome. It shows a phenomenon: languages unrelated to others. But in any case, it is important to note that not all languages classified as "isolate" are really isolate.
Let's take the case of Korean - a well-known language isolate, spoken in an important region of the world. It has nevertheless lots of connections with neighbouring languages: Native Korean words account for about 35% of the Korean vocabulary, while about 60% of the Korean vocabulary consists of Sino-Korean words. The remaining 5% comes from loan words from other languages, 90% of which are from English. (source: Wikipedia)


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Jande  Identity Verified
Australia
Local time: 21:42
Danish to English
+ ...
Thats going to be a long list. Jul 13, 2008

If I just think about all the different languages in the countries I have been in plus all the other countries of the world, then I think it will be a very long list.

For example in Australia, native people have a multitude of isolated, largely unique languages. In the countries of Indonesia, Singapore and Malaysia there are official languages and plenty of unoffical local languages that do not resemble the offical language of the country.

Island nations typically speak local languages and also speak another language that can be understood by outsiders, e.g. English.


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Narcis Lozano Drago  Identity Verified
Spain
Local time: 13:42
Member (2007)
English to Spanish
+ ...
About Korean Jul 14, 2008

Fabio Descalzi wrote:

Narcis Lozano Drago wrote:
I think this is what you are looking for:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_isolate

Thanks Narcis, your link is welcome. It shows a phenomenon: languages unrelated to others. But in any case, it is important to note that not all languages classified as "isolate" are really isolate.
Let's take the case of Korean - a well-known language isolate, spoken in an important region of the world. It has nevertheless lots of connections with neighbouring languages: Native Korean words account for about 35% of the Korean vocabulary, while about 60% of the Korean vocabulary consists of Sino-Korean words. The remaining 5% comes from loan words from other languages, 90% of which are from English. (source: Wikipedia)


Thanks Tazio for your remark. Classification of languages is tricky. As a matter of fact, my working languages include two of these (according to the list) isolated languages, Korean and Japanese. When I was studying them, I was taught that Korean belonged to the ural-altaic family, along with the Mongolian and the Turkic languages. Some included Japanese in this group as well. After studying Japanese and Korean, I can tell you that the grammar is very, very similar, and then there is of course all the shared vocabulary of Chinese origin. Still, many linguists insist these are isolated languages, as there are lots of differences as well (and there may be also other factors that affect these opinions, for example politics and nationalism).

Narcis



[Editado a las 2008-07-14 09:07]

[Editado a las 2008-07-14 16:50]


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Tim Drayton  Identity Verified
Cyprus
Local time: 14:42
Turkish to English
+ ...
Japanese and Turkish Jul 14, 2008

Narcis Lozano Drago wrote:

Fabio Descalzi wrote:

Narcis Lozano Drago wrote:
I think this is what you are looking for:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Language_isolate

Thanks Narcis, your link is welcome. It shows a phenomenon: languages unrelated to others. But in any case, it is important to note that not all languages classified as "isolate" are really isolate.
Let's take the case of Korean - a well-known language isolate, spoken in an important region of the world. It has nevertheless lots of connections with neighbouring languages: Native Korean words account for about 35% of the Korean vocabulary, while about 60% of the Korean vocabulary consists of Sino-Korean words. The remaining 5% comes from loan words from other languages, 90% of which are from English. (source: Wikipedia)


Thanks Tazio for your remark. Classification of languages is tricky. As a matter of fact, my working languages include two of these (according to the list) isolated languages, Korean and Japanese. When I was studying them, I was taught that Korean belonged to the ural-altaic family, along with the Mongolian and Turkik. Some included Japanese in this group as well. After studying Japanese and Korean, I can tell you that the grammar is very, very similar, and then there is of course all the shared vocabulary of Chinese origin. Still, many linguists insist these are isolated languages, as there are lots of differences as well (and there may be also other factors that affect these opinions, for example politics and nationalism).

Narcis



[Editado a las 2008-07-14 09:07]


The little that I know about Japanese suggests to me that the syntax of this language is extremely similar to that of Turkish.


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xxxrowtc2
English
TOPIC STARTER
more exactly what i need Jul 14, 2008

FarkasAndras wrote:

pls try to make more sense

Are you looking for a full list of all the many thousands of distinct languages in existence, or a list of the most unique, isolated languages?


I do not need isolated languages with a small number of speakers.
I need a list or a top with most spoken languages in the World, associated with the biggest country , to target better some markets with an Internet book.

1. english -main target USA (could have readers in addition from united kingdom and canada)
2. hindi - main target India (could have readers in addition from Pakistan)
3. chinese - main target China (could have readers in addition from Koreea ?! or Koreean is different by Chinese more than 50% and should be targeted separate at point 4 ?)

and so on.. I need a top 10.




[Edited at 2008-07-14 19:54]

[Edited at 2008-07-14 19:55]


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Fabio Descalzi  Identity Verified
Uruguay
Local time: 08:42
Member (2004)
German to Spanish
+ ...
Top ten Jul 14, 2008

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_languages_by_number_of_native_speakers
Mandarin - 882,000,000 native, 178,000,000 second language = 1,050,000,000 total
Hindi + Urdu - 366,000,000 Standard Hindi 325,000,000, Ancient Hindi 100,000,000
Spanish - 358,000,000 Total of 417 million including second-language speakers (1999)
English - 341,000,000 [11] 341,000,000 Over 1,500,000,000 worldwide.
Arabic - 422,000,000, of which 246 million as a second language
Portuguese - 177,500,000
Bengali - 171,000,000 native (includes 14 million Chittagonian and 10.3 million Sylheti).
Russian - 165,000,000 native, 110 million second language = 275 million total
Japanese - 122,000,000
German - 101,000,000 native (88 million Standard German, 5 million Swiss German, 8 million Austrian German), 60 million second language in EU[15] + 5 - 20 million worldwide.

[Edited at 2008-09-20 10:44]


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SilviuM
Romania
Local time: 14:42
Romanian to English
+ ...
This "sounds" like... Jul 15, 2008

(...) A paper-related request to me.

Well, as far as I KNOW, Portuguese, as a language spoken throughout Brasilia mostly, it's a Rheto-Romanic one, and it's quite similar to Romanian, actually.

As for VERY... unique languages on Earth, I believe that... an African (Saharan, i.e.) sub-family of languages contains ONE idiom of a tribe that lasts for... more than 10.000 years(!) Of course, the Bushmen of the Sahara Desert are even older, namely more than 50.000 years old(!), inhabiting that region for over 20.000 years, but... I'm no expert in Linguistics, Meta-Linguistics etc.

http://www.sciforums.com/showthread.php?t=76980

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sub-Saharan_Africa#Languages_and_ethnic_groups

http://eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED368171&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=no&accno=ED368171

http://au.answers.yahoo.com/question/index?qid=20071218072501AAL8H6b

* This one's a "doozy"! * lol

http://www.geocities.com/olmec982000/proto2.htm

[Editat la 2008-07-15 19:08]


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Neil Coffey  Identity Verified
United Kingdom
Local time: 12:42
French to English
+ ...
'speaker ranking' != 'Internet ranking' Jul 17, 2008

If it's for Internet marketing purposes, you might want to consider actual term search volume in the particular language/country in question (see Google Trends, for example), plus statistics such as the number of IP address allocated to different countries, and the economy of that country.

As an example, German is 10th on the list mentioned above, but in terms of allocated blocks of IP addresses, it's more like the 3rd most connected country and has a relatively strong economy. Similarly with France, which in terms of connectivity is probably around 5th, even though you wouldn't place it near this position in terms of number of speakers.

"Connectivity" can also be market-dependent. India is not overall so highly connected overall, but in the specific domain of IT accounts for a disproportionate level of Internet activity (in English!).


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