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live load vs. dead load

English translation: live load vs. dead load

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English term or phrase:live load vs. dead load
English translation:live load vs. dead load
Entered by: xxxsavaria
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08:50 Sep 25, 2008
English to English translations [PRO]
Tech/Engineering - Construction / Civil Engineering
English term or phrase: live load vs. dead load
could anyone explain to me the difference between dead load and live load? i've found explanations in some dictionaries, but i still don't get it. and where does overload come into that context.
it concerns construction of subbase and concrete slabs for buildings...
Maja Engel
Local time: 17:18
live load vs. dead load
Explanation:
Dead and Live loads are terms used in mechanical and structural engineering, especially where analysis of real world objects is required. A 'load' refers to any type of force exerted on an object, which may be in the form of a 'weight' (gravitational force), a pressure, or anything which affects the object in question.

Dead loads are weights of material, equipment or components that are relatively constant throughout the structure's life. Permanent loads are a wider category which includes dead loads but also includes forces set up by irreversible changes in a structure's constraints - for example, loads due to settlement, the secondary effects of prestress or due to shrinkage and creep in concrete.

Also, Dead Loads are not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed services equipment, including the weight of cranes. All dead loads are considered permanent loads.

Live loads, sometimes referred to as probablistic load include all the forces that are variable within the object's normal operation cycle. Using the staircase example the live load would be considered to be -

Pressure of feet on the stair treads (variable depending on usage and size)
Wind load (if the staircase happens to be outside)
Live loads do not include construction or environmental loads such as:

Wind load
Snow load
Rain load
Earthquake load
Flood load
Dead load[2]
Live loads (Roof) produced (1) during maintenance by workers, equipment and materials; and (2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters and by people.[3]

The reason for splitting loads into these categories is not always apparent, and in terms of the actual load on the object there is no difference between dead or live loading. For the most part, the split occurs for use in safety calculations or ease of analysis on complex models.

When considering the feasibility of a structure, safety always takes precedent and because of this, governing bodies around the world have regulations to which structures have to adhere. Using the example of the staircase, if it was intended for use in the UK it would have to follow British and European Standards

BS 4592 - Industrial type flooring and stair treads
BS 5395 - Code of practice for the design of straight stairs
Other standards specific to the application (e.g. BS 14122-3:2001 - Permanent means of access to machinery. Stairways, stepladders and guard-rails)
Within these standards a safety factor is usually determined where the structure should be able to withstand a certain force above the maximum expected load. Once again using the staircase example, assuming it is an indoor medium-usage industrial staircase the current safety factor would be 1.4 times the maximum stress imposed by the dead load and 1.6 times the maximum stress imposed by the live load. The reason for the disparity between values, and thus the reason the loads are initially categorised as dead or live is because while it is not unreasonable to expect a large number of people ascending the staircase at once (or the wind speed increasing, snowfall or any other live load increase), it is less likely that the structure will experience much change in its permanent load. The same can be said of many structures and so it is convenient to assess loading based on its application.

Calculating combined loads
It is worth noting that on first inspection it seems you should find the maximum stress for each of dead and live, factor them and add them together. This will give you a massively overestimated stress result. The combination needs to be applied with great care and almost exclusively programmatically because you may only combine two stress results at the same point. Since the maximum stress is very rarely at the same place in a structure for dead and live it may well be the case that the overall increase is a fraction of the addition of the two maximum stresses and in a completely different position two either of the two original maximums. To clarify, take the staircase analysis. The maximum stress under dead load appears at the foot of a support beam and it is 80 Nmm-2, at this point the stress from the live load is 5 Nmm-2. The maximum stress under live load is 60 Nmm-2 and appears at the corner of the second stairtread where the dead load stress is 30 Nmm-2. At a third point the stresses from both dead and live are 50 Nmm-2. Given these figures you can see that the combined load cases for each point would be:

1. 80 x 1.4 + 5 x 1.6 = 120
2. 30 x 1.4 + 60 x 1.6 = 138
3. 50 x 1.4 + 50 x 1.6 = 150
As you can see the maximum combined stress appears away from both the original maxima but is still well under the 275 Nmm-2 yield point of the structural steel this staircase is made of so in this case we could say that the structure is safe.



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 10 perc (2008-09-25 09:01:17 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Please have a look at this link as well:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/344567/live-load#t...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 13 perc (2008-09-25 09:04:55 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/live load says that

live load =A moving, variable weight added to the dead load or intrinsic weight of a structure or vehicle.
dead load is rather called as dead weight:
A moving, variable weight added to the dead load or intrinsic weight of a structure or vehicle.


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 18 perc (2008-09-25 09:09:15 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

see also :http://www.thefreedictionary.com/dead weight

If you still have doubts,see www.wordwebonline.com/en/LIVELOAD
www.yourdictionary.com/live-load
www.answers.com/topic/live-load
www.thefreedictionary.com/live load
www.wordwebonline.com/en/LIVELOAD
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/live load

And I could still provide a lot but I do not want to abuse the site.
Selected response from:

xxxsavaria
Hungary
Local time: 17:18
Grading comment
Thank you!!!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +4live load vs. dead loadxxxsavaria


  

Answers


8 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +4
live load vs. dead load


Explanation:
Dead and Live loads are terms used in mechanical and structural engineering, especially where analysis of real world objects is required. A 'load' refers to any type of force exerted on an object, which may be in the form of a 'weight' (gravitational force), a pressure, or anything which affects the object in question.

Dead loads are weights of material, equipment or components that are relatively constant throughout the structure's life. Permanent loads are a wider category which includes dead loads but also includes forces set up by irreversible changes in a structure's constraints - for example, loads due to settlement, the secondary effects of prestress or due to shrinkage and creep in concrete.

Also, Dead Loads are not limited to walls, floors, roofs, ceilings, stairways, built-in partitions, finishes, cladding and other similarly incorporated architectural and structural items, and fixed services equipment, including the weight of cranes. All dead loads are considered permanent loads.

Live loads, sometimes referred to as probablistic load include all the forces that are variable within the object's normal operation cycle. Using the staircase example the live load would be considered to be -

Pressure of feet on the stair treads (variable depending on usage and size)
Wind load (if the staircase happens to be outside)
Live loads do not include construction or environmental loads such as:

Wind load
Snow load
Rain load
Earthquake load
Flood load
Dead load[2]
Live loads (Roof) produced (1) during maintenance by workers, equipment and materials; and (2) during the life of the structure by movable objects such as planters and by people.[3]

The reason for splitting loads into these categories is not always apparent, and in terms of the actual load on the object there is no difference between dead or live loading. For the most part, the split occurs for use in safety calculations or ease of analysis on complex models.

When considering the feasibility of a structure, safety always takes precedent and because of this, governing bodies around the world have regulations to which structures have to adhere. Using the example of the staircase, if it was intended for use in the UK it would have to follow British and European Standards

BS 4592 - Industrial type flooring and stair treads
BS 5395 - Code of practice for the design of straight stairs
Other standards specific to the application (e.g. BS 14122-3:2001 - Permanent means of access to machinery. Stairways, stepladders and guard-rails)
Within these standards a safety factor is usually determined where the structure should be able to withstand a certain force above the maximum expected load. Once again using the staircase example, assuming it is an indoor medium-usage industrial staircase the current safety factor would be 1.4 times the maximum stress imposed by the dead load and 1.6 times the maximum stress imposed by the live load. The reason for the disparity between values, and thus the reason the loads are initially categorised as dead or live is because while it is not unreasonable to expect a large number of people ascending the staircase at once (or the wind speed increasing, snowfall or any other live load increase), it is less likely that the structure will experience much change in its permanent load. The same can be said of many structures and so it is convenient to assess loading based on its application.

Calculating combined loads
It is worth noting that on first inspection it seems you should find the maximum stress for each of dead and live, factor them and add them together. This will give you a massively overestimated stress result. The combination needs to be applied with great care and almost exclusively programmatically because you may only combine two stress results at the same point. Since the maximum stress is very rarely at the same place in a structure for dead and live it may well be the case that the overall increase is a fraction of the addition of the two maximum stresses and in a completely different position two either of the two original maximums. To clarify, take the staircase analysis. The maximum stress under dead load appears at the foot of a support beam and it is 80 Nmm-2, at this point the stress from the live load is 5 Nmm-2. The maximum stress under live load is 60 Nmm-2 and appears at the corner of the second stairtread where the dead load stress is 30 Nmm-2. At a third point the stresses from both dead and live are 50 Nmm-2. Given these figures you can see that the combined load cases for each point would be:

1. 80 x 1.4 + 5 x 1.6 = 120
2. 30 x 1.4 + 60 x 1.6 = 138
3. 50 x 1.4 + 50 x 1.6 = 150
As you can see the maximum combined stress appears away from both the original maxima but is still well under the 275 Nmm-2 yield point of the structural steel this staircase is made of so in this case we could say that the structure is safe.



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 10 perc (2008-09-25 09:01:17 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Please have a look at this link as well:
http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/344567/live-load#t...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 13 perc (2008-09-25 09:04:55 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

http://www.thefreedictionary.com/live load says that

live load =A moving, variable weight added to the dead load or intrinsic weight of a structure or vehicle.
dead load is rather called as dead weight:
A moving, variable weight added to the dead load or intrinsic weight of a structure or vehicle.


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 18 perc (2008-09-25 09:09:15 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

see also :http://www.thefreedictionary.com/dead weight

If you still have doubts,see www.wordwebonline.com/en/LIVELOAD
www.yourdictionary.com/live-load
www.answers.com/topic/live-load
www.thefreedictionary.com/live load
www.wordwebonline.com/en/LIVELOAD
http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/live load

And I could still provide a lot but I do not want to abuse the site.


    Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dead_and_live_loads
xxxsavaria
Hungary
Local time: 17:18
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in HungarianHungarian
PRO pts in category: 4
Grading comment
Thank you!!!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Gary D: also dead weight, and live weight, Well answered Savaria (Szia)
14 mins
  -> thank you...köszönöm...

agree  Phong Le
30 mins
  -> thank you Phong...

agree  Demi Ebrite
2 hrs
  -> thank you debrite

agree  Liam Hamilton
10 hrs
  -> thank you Liam
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Sep 26, 2008 - Changes made by xxxsavaria:
Created KOG entryKudoZ term » KOG term


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