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التيارات التكفيرية

English translation: Takfiri movements

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Arabic term or phrase:التيارات التكفيرية
English translation:Takfiri movements
Entered by: Iman Khaireddine
Options:
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22:19 Feb 18, 2006
Arabic to English translations [PRO]
Social Science, Sociology, Ethics, etc.
Arabic term or phrase: التيارات التكفيرية
برنامج وثائقي يتناول ظهور وصعود التيارات التكفيرية في الحركة الإسلامية
Iman Khaireddine
United Kingdom
Local time: 08:02
Takfiri movements
Explanation:
Above is the most generic and common transltion for the term. You may apply a fight on the web.
Selected response from:

Nashwa Abdullah
Local time: 09:02
Grading comment
Thank you everyone for your valuable help!!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +2Takfiri movementsNashwa Abdullah
4 +1Takfiri movemens/Takfiri groups
Mazyoun
3 +2tafkir (declaring other muslims disbelievers) trendsRosalbendea
5Excommunication (Takfiri) groupsAhmed Al-Rouby
5shunning ideologies
Ala Rabie
4infidelizationFuad Yahya
3The rise and fall of excommunication (takfir) movementsYasser El Helw
3the movements of libelers of infidelity to IslamHassan Al-Haifi (wordforword)
3excommunicate / apostates
soamo19


  

Answers


59 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +2
التيارات التكفيرية
tafkir (declaring other muslims disbelievers) trends


Explanation:
or: "trends of declaring muslims disbelievers".

There's no single word that means تكفيري in English, so you'll have to explain it somehow.

Good luck!

Rosalbendea
Local time: 09:02
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Nesrin: First answer, best and most simple answer
1 day10 hrs
  -> Thank you, Nesrin!

agree  Zeinab Asfour
1 day15 hrs
  -> Thank you, Zeinab!
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3 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
التيارات التكفيرية
The rise and fall of excommunication (takfir) movements


Explanation:
Use one option and put the other between brackets. If you have to leave one option out, stay with takfir.
Good Luck

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Note added at 3 hrs (2006-02-19 01:20:42 GMT)
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Zohurul Bari, Re-Emergence of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt, p69. ... Amongst those who agreed with Qutb's excommunication (takfir) of Egyptian society, ...
www.pwhce.org/shukri.html - 20k - Cached - Similar pages


:: Embassy of Indonesia Washington, DCOn the Iraqi constitution, Schwartz pointed to the significance of the ban on takfir, which means excommunication of one's opponents. ...
www.embassyofindonesia.org/beritaUTama/ 05/Agustus/31%20-%20media%20fails.htm - 14k - Cached - Similar pages


Al-Takfir W’al HijraThe name “Al-Takfir W’al Hijra” is translated to mean “excommunication and ... Jama’at al-Muslimun (Muslim Society) became formally known as Al-Takfir W’al ...
www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=95 - 17k - Cached - Similar pages


Al Takfir Wal HijraAl Takfir Wal Hijra means "anathema and exile" or possibly "excommunication and ... Its major tenet holds that all the world's non-Muslim leaders should be ...
www.rotten.com/library/history/ terrorist-organizations/al-takfir-wal-hijra/ - 9k - Cached - Similar pages


BBC NEWS | UK | How Islam got political: Founding fathersIn turn, he sought to suppress the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the most important movements in ... of their faith were subject to 'takfir' - excommunication. ...
news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4424208.stm - 44k - Cached - Similar pages


Al Qaeda Historykafir, An infidel (non-Muslim). takfir, Excommunication; declaring a person or group of people non-Muslim. In mainstream Sunni Islam, it is considered wrong ...
www.americanenergyindependence.com/takfiri.html - 23k - Cached - Similar pages


RADICAL ISLAM IN EGYPT: A COMPARISON OF TWO GROUPSTakfir is the legal ascription of unbelief (excommunication) to an ... Takfir was led by Shukri Mustafa, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood in Asyut who was ...
meria.idc.ac.il/journal/1999/issue3/jv3n3a1.html - 44k - Cached - Similar pages




Yasser El Helw
Local time: 09:02
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
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8 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
التيارات التكفيرية
shunning ideologies


Explanation:
"A documentary dealing with the rise of shunning ideologies in Islamic Movement."

'Anathema' might be used as well, as it is not related to a particular religion/faith.
I may suggest the following combinations:
-- "Anathema-oriented ideologies"
-- "Anathema ideologies"

On the other hand, 'excommunication' is more of a Christian terminology.


For 'تيارات', the word is used in this context as 'ideological trends'. However, 'ideologies' alone might just be sufficient.


In short, 'shunning ideologies' or 'shunning trends' is the most 'neutral' adequate combination possible achieved semiologically.

Ala Rabie
Egypt
Local time: 09:02
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in category: 4
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10 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
التيارات التكفيرية
infidelization


Explanation:
There is nothing wrong with using the word TAKFEER in an English context if:

- The target reader is fully familiar with the term; or

- You wish to advocate the view that such "currents of thought" are exclusive to the Muslim community.

On the other hand, if the translation is intended for readers who are not familiar with the Arabic term, and you do not wish to give the readers the impression that تكفير is exclusively or primarily an Islamic (or Islamist) phenomenon, a proper translation may be a good idea.

This is a tricky term, because it is very point-of-view-dependent. In fact, its very legitimacy is in question. Notice that the term التيارات التكفيرية is used only by opponents of التيارات التكفيرية, who generally use the term as a label of disparagement for what they perceive as an aberrant phenomenon, something akin to some recurrent malaise in the general culture they describe. People who use the term تيارات تكفيرية generally hold that:

1. It is both easy and legitimate to define WHAT is a كافر in general terms.

2. It is difficult and perhaps impossible to define WHAT is a كافر with any reasonable degree of specificity.

3. It is impossible and, more importantly, illegitimate to even try to state WHO is a كافر, with the possible exception of a self-declared كافر

The basic idea behind this point of view is that one cannot judge the interior disposition or final destination of others. Only God can do that. We can judge, condemn, and even punish outward actions, but, even as we do so, should refrain from judging the internal disposition and final destination of the perpetrators.

There is more to this position than just being humbly non-judgmental towards others. By refraining from labeling others as كفار, one, in effect, conceives of the community of believers in maximally inclusive terms. Anyone who declares himself a believer gets to be a member of the community. Words and actions that belie the declaration of faith are not only to be tolerated and allowed, but also not counted as constituting كفر. The community of believers is thus allowed to encompasses a bustling, continually developing diversity of interpretations of the faith, rather than be a frozen monolith.

This is the point of view of the users of the expression التيارات التكفيرية. For them, the term تكفير does not simply mean "declaring someone كافر," but rather: having the nerve to use the label against someone, and arrogating to oneself the authority to define the content of faith in such specific, definitive terms as to limit its boundaries, its diversity, and its potential for development.

There is just one thing that this “tolerant” line of thinking will not tolerate, namely anything that opposes it, which it labels as تكفير

I will not pursue this paradoxical intolerance that is integral to the philosophy of tolerance any further because it will take us beyond this discussion of the term, its meaning, and its translation.

On the other hand, those who do not see anything wrong with labeling someone كافر, if his words and/or actions support the label, cannot see any meaning in the term تيارات تكفيرية, because calling someone كافر is not part of a special "current" or "movement," but is seen as a necessary consequence of the definition of faith (if faith is to have any meaning at all).

By looking at both sides of the coin, so to speak, the translator can become more sensitive to the impact of point-of-view on the very meaning, and hence, the translation, of the term in question. Let us explore these points of view further.

Most users of the expression التيارات التكفيرية are careful to restrict its use to currents of thought that advocate a set of characteristic ideas that may be summarized as follows:

1. The community is a central part of the faith. Faith is not a purely personal, solitary experience. Therefore, knowing who is a member of the community and who is not is necessary for living the faith fully. Defining the membership of the community affects everything – marriage, inheritance, testimony in court, military service, taxation, even the wording of social greetings.

2. The community of the faithful is composed of members who believe, who declare their faith, and who act it out. It is not a racial, ethnic, or “cultural” patrimony.

3. To believe is a transitive verb. To believe is to believe something. Faith, in other words, is not just a benign, neutral state of good will, but a set of life-defining convictions.

4. To believe means to hold certain propositions as true and their opposite as false, to hold certain things as good and their opposites as evil. One cannot just believe in the positive side of the coin.

5. Words have no meaning if they are not defined. To define means to make finite, to delimit, to set boundaries. To define the faith will entail excluding ideas that are contrary to its content. This will necessarily have a limiting impact on the definition of the community.

6. Other things being equal, size is a good thing. It is good for the community to be large. However, it is not good for the community to be artificially enlarged by admitting those who do not adhere to the pure content of the faith. If maintaining the purity of the community leads to a smaller membership, then be it.

Up to this point, التيارات التكفيرية may seem to be no more than conservative, puritanical currents or movements, but users of this expression typically reserve it as a label for currents of thought that go one step further, currents that are not only quick to “excommunicate” people, but also to assume an adversarial stance against them, often violently. The prototypical representative of التيارات التكفيرية has always been Al-Khawarij.

To sum up, users of the expression التيارات التكفيرية describe such currents of thought as:

- intensely serious about faith
- acutely aware of the central role of the community in the life of faith
- keen on maintaining a clear line of separation between members and non-members
- simple-minded in their definition of the faith, resulting in a static, monolithic version
- quick to declare any deviation from their monolithic version as كفر
- fiercely adversarial towards those who earn the label of كافر

The last two characteristics are the reason such currents are labeled as التيارات التكفيرية. It is for this reason that I suggest using the expression "infidelization." It means basically two things:

- being so quick to use the label “infidel” against others who cross a certain line

- investing the term “infidel” with an ultimate value that not only define the other, but also defines oneself

I was hesitant to suggest the term at first, but then I found that I was not the first to use it. I found it used in the following article:

http://www.alrai.com/print.php?opinion_id=2639

I am not generally inclined to give a lot of credence to terms that just happen to be found in online material. This one, however, happens to agree with me.


Fuad Yahya
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 55

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Rosalbendea: great explanation!
2 hrs

disagree  Ahmed Al-Rouby: thankx for the lengthy explanation Mr. Fuad. it was really helpful. But
4 hrs

agree  daliasalah
9 hrs

disagree  Hassan Al-Haifi (wordforword): I checked in Merriam-Wbster's and in Webster's Online. They both say that such a term does not exist. http://www.websters-online-dictionary.org/definition/infidel... In the MSN Search Engine. There were only 5 results - all are written by Foreigne
15 hrs
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10 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
التيارات التكفيرية
Excommunication (Takfiri) groups


Explanation:
I'd go more for "Takfiri Groups" for two reasons:

1- Excommunication is a term relative to the Church (حرمان كنسي) ... and I only suggested it 'coz it's being used to refer to "Islamic Takfiri Groups" ... which I believe is wrong, since we are talking two different religious cultures here.

2- The word "Takfiri" has become a common word in the internet and it conveys the exact meaning intended in Islamic terms.

For reference, please check this link:

http://faculty-staff.ou.edu/L/Joshua.M.Landis-1/syriablog/20...

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Note added at 15 hrs (2006-02-19 13:55:48 GMT)
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First,

I beg to differ here. I do agree that the word "تكفير" in its abstract meaning, and from a purely objective point-of-view, is best translated as "infidelization", only IF:

1- The translator is asked, or required by any means, to avoid any subjective views while transfering the text from one language to another, for whatever reasons. (For instance, subtitlers who do work for Saudi cable networks are prohibited from transfering the exact meanings of offensive words in movies, or series, for religious reasons. Instead, they find their way out of this predicament by using euphemistic Arabic equivalents).

Or

2- The translator is translating this word as a part of a dictionary, or a wordlist ... which takes the word "out of context", and therefore, the translator is ignorant of the word's implications.

Second,

There are really some words which won a huge public audience all over the world due to their occurrence in a scoop or an important media item for a long duration (Check for instance words which are associated with Islamist poltical movements in Palestine such as Hamas, Arab political parties such as "Ba'ath", or mere abstract ideas in some cutlures such as the idea of "Jihad" (see also Mojahedeen), etc.). All these words gained a world wide acceptance. When they first showed up, they were accompanied by explanatory cross-cultrural equiavalents to make the foreign audience aware of them. Then, later, they just get mentioned without any additional explanations. By passage of time, even some of these words win the honor of being included in English (and other languages as well) dictionaries.

Same case here ... Takfir (or Takfiri) has won an audience due to its popularity in its relevant context ... which is Islamist in the main ... Yes, of course there were many movements all over the word and all through times which adopted such thinking (esp. in Judaism), but none was as popular as that of the islamist one.

Third,

The asker specified the context in which the word occured, and by interfering with the viewpoint of the text, I'd be interfering with the viewpoint of the writer and breaching the element of "fidelity" to the text in hand.

Ahmed Al-Rouby
Local time: 09:02
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in ArabicArabic
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16 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +2
التيارات التكفيرية
Takfiri movements


Explanation:
Above is the most generic and common transltion for the term. You may apply a fight on the web.

Nashwa Abdullah
Local time: 09:02
Works in field
PRO pts in category: 4
Grading comment
Thank you everyone for your valuable help!!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Alaa Zeineldine
21 hrs

agree  Zeinab Asfour
23 hrs
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1 day2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
التيارات التكفيرية
the movements of libelers of infidelity to Islam


Explanation:
This is really an improvised term, and I think it would sound quite catchy, since libelers are مشهرين (with bad intent) of people and the infidelity to Islam would still connote the special associaiton that تكفير has with Islam. Note that تكفيرin Arabic has just recently been widely used in this context. Even Arabic - English dictionaries connote the term to "atonement or expiation"; i.e. تكقير عن الذنوب, which are really anathema to the context used in the term presented by Asker.

It should be noted that Takfir has been widely used (see MSN search engine for "Takfir" in the transliterated version), but would not be readily understood by most readers unfamiliar with current trends in Islam. That is why I proposed this suggestion as an alternative. Libel would have a more legal implication.

Hassan Al-Haifi (wordforword)
Local time: 10:02
Works in field
Native speaker of: Arabic
PRO pts in category: 4
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1 day4 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
التيارات التكفيرية
excommunicate / apostates


Explanation:
Movements that excommunicate others
Movements that make others apostates


soamo19
Singapore
Local time: 15:02
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
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3 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
التيارات التكفيرية
Takfiri movemens/Takfiri groups


Explanation:
You can explain the meaning of Takfir next to it.

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Note added at 3 hrs (2006-02-19 01:45:53 GMT)
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movements*

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Note added at 3 hrs (2006-02-19 01:46:16 GMT)
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http://www.google.co.uk/search?hl=en&q="takfiri movements"&m...

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Note added at 1 day16 hrs (2006-02-20 15:18:27 GMT)
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They both work but in this sentence i would go for "Takfiri groups" instead of "Takfiri movements" because we have "الحركة الإسلامية" in the same sentence which you have to translate as "Islamic Movements".

Mazyoun
Local time: 08:02
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Alaa Zeineldine
1 day10 hrs
  -> Thanks Alaa.
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