Login or register (free and only takes a few minutes) to participate in this question.
You will also have access to many other tools and opportunities designed for those who have language-related jobs
(or are passionate about them). Participation is free and the site has a strict confidentiality policy.
|Arabic to English translations [PRO]|
Social Science, Sociology, Ethics, etc.
|Arabic term or phrase: التيارات التكفيرية|
|برنامج وثائقي يتناول ظهور وصعود التيارات التكفيرية في الحركة الإسلامية|
Above is the most generic and common transltion for the term. You may apply a fight on the web.
Selected response from:
Local time: 09:02
|Thank you everyone for your valuable help!!|
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer
59 mins confidence: peer agreement (net): +2
|التيارات التكفيرية |
tafkir (declaring other muslims disbelievers) trends
or: "trends of declaring muslims disbelievers".
There's no single word that means تكفيري in English, so you'll have to explain it somehow.
3 hrs confidence:
|التيارات التكفيرية |
The rise and fall of excommunication (takfir) movements
Use one option and put the other between brackets. If you have to leave one option out, stay with takfir.
Note added at 3 hrs (2006-02-19 01:20:42 GMT)
Zohurul Bari, Re-Emergence of the Muslim Brothers in Egypt, p69. ... Amongst those who agreed with Qutb's excommunication (takfir) of Egyptian society, ...
www.pwhce.org/shukri.html - 20k - Cached - Similar pages
:: Embassy of Indonesia Washington, DCOn the Iraqi constitution, Schwartz pointed to the significance of the ban on takfir, which means excommunication of one's opponents. ...
www.embassyofindonesia.org/beritaUTama/ 05/Agustus/31%20-%20media%20fails.htm - 14k - Cached - Similar pages
Al-Takfir W’al HijraThe name “Al-Takfir W’al Hijra” is translated to mean “excommunication and ... Jama’at al-Muslimun (Muslim Society) became formally known as Al-Takfir W’al ...
www.ict.org.il/inter_ter/orgdet.cfm?orgid=95 - 17k - Cached - Similar pages
Al Takfir Wal HijraAl Takfir Wal Hijra means "anathema and exile" or possibly "excommunication and ... Its major tenet holds that all the world's non-Muslim leaders should be ...
www.rotten.com/library/history/ terrorist-organizations/al-takfir-wal-hijra/ - 9k - Cached - Similar pages
BBC NEWS | UK | How Islam got political: Founding fathersIn turn, he sought to suppress the Muslim Brotherhood, one of the most important movements in ... of their faith were subject to 'takfir' - excommunication. ...
news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4424208.stm - 44k - Cached - Similar pages
Al Qaeda Historykafir, An infidel (non-Muslim). takfir, Excommunication; declaring a person or group of people non-Muslim. In mainstream Sunni Islam, it is considered wrong ...
www.americanenergyindependence.com/takfiri.html - 23k - Cached - Similar pages
RADICAL ISLAM IN EGYPT: A COMPARISON OF TWO GROUPSTakfir is the legal ascription of unbelief (excommunication) to an ... Takfir was led by Shukri Mustafa, a member of the Muslim Brotherhood in Asyut who was ...
meria.idc.ac.il/journal/1999/issue3/jv3n3a1.html - 44k - Cached - Similar pages
|Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)|8 hrs confidence:
|التيارات التكفيرية |
"A documentary dealing with the rise of shunning ideologies in Islamic Movement."
'Anathema' might be used as well, as it is not related to a particular religion/faith.
I may suggest the following combinations:
-- "Anathema-oriented ideologies"
-- "Anathema ideologies"
On the other hand, 'excommunication' is more of a Christian terminology.
For 'تيارات', the word is used in this context as 'ideological trends'. However, 'ideologies' alone might just be sufficient.
In short, 'shunning ideologies' or 'shunning trends' is the most 'neutral' adequate combination possible achieved semiologically.
Local time: 09:02
Native speaker of: Arabic
PRO pts in category: 4
|Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)|10 hrs confidence:
|التيارات التكفيرية |
There is nothing wrong with using the word TAKFEER in an English context if:
- The target reader is fully familiar with the term; or
- You wish to advocate the view that such "currents of thought" are exclusive to the Muslim community.
On the other hand, if the translation is intended for readers who are not familiar with the Arabic term, and you do not wish to give the readers the impression that تكفير is exclusively or primarily an Islamic (or Islamist) phenomenon, a proper translation may be a good idea.
This is a tricky term, because it is very point-of-view-dependent. In fact, its very legitimacy is in question. Notice that the term التيارات التكفيرية is used only by opponents of التيارات التكفيرية, who generally use the term as a label of disparagement for what they perceive as an aberrant phenomenon, something akin to some recurrent malaise in the general culture they describe. People who use the term تيارات تكفيرية generally hold that:
1. It is both easy and legitimate to define WHAT is a كافر in general terms.
2. It is difficult and perhaps impossible to define WHAT is a كافر with any reasonable degree of specificity.
3. It is impossible and, more importantly, illegitimate to even try to state WHO is a كافر, with the possible exception of a self-declared كافر
The basic idea behind this point of view is that one cannot judge the interior disposition or final destination of others. Only God can do that. We can judge, condemn, and even punish outward actions, but, even as we do so, should refrain from judging the internal disposition and final destination of the perpetrators.
There is more to this position than just being humbly non-judgmental towards others. By refraining from labeling others as كفار, one, in effect, conceives of the community of believers in maximally inclusive terms. Anyone who declares himself a believer gets to be a member of the community. Words and actions that belie the declaration of faith are not only to be tolerated and allowed, but also not counted as constituting كفر. The community of believers is thus allowed to encompasses a bustling, continually developing diversity of interpretations of the faith, rather than be a frozen monolith.
This is the point of view of the users of the expression التيارات التكفيرية. For them, the term تكفير does not simply mean "declaring someone كافر," but rather: having the nerve to use the label against someone, and arrogating to oneself the authority to define the content of faith in such specific, definitive terms as to limit its boundaries, its diversity, and its potential for development.
There is just one thing that this “tolerant” line of thinking will not tolerate, namely anything that opposes it, which it labels as تكفير
I will not pursue this paradoxical intolerance that is integral to the philosophy of tolerance any further because it will take us beyond this discussion of the term, its meaning, and its translation.
On the other hand, those who do not see anything wrong with labeling someone كافر, if his words and/or actions support the label, cannot see any meaning in the term تيارات تكفيرية, because calling someone كافر is not part of a special "current" or "movement," but is seen as a necessary consequence of the definition of faith (if faith is to have any meaning at all).
By looking at both sides of the coin, so to speak, the translator can become more sensitive to the impact of point-of-view on the very meaning, and hence, the translation, of the term in question. Let us explore these points of view further.
Most users of the expression التيارات التكفيرية are careful to restrict its use to currents of thought that advocate a set of characteristic ideas that may be summarized as follows:
1. The community is a central part of the faith. Faith is not a purely personal, solitary experience. Therefore, knowing who is a member of the community and who is not is necessary for living the faith fully. Defining the membership of the community affects everything – marriage, inheritance, testimony in court, military service, taxation, even the wording of social greetings.
2. The community of the faithful is composed of members who believe, who declare their faith, and who act it out. It is not a racial, ethnic, or “cultural” patrimony.
3. To believe is a transitive verb. To believe is to believe something. Faith, in other words, is not just a benign, neutral state of good will, but a set of life-defining convictions.
4. To believe means to hold certain propositions as true and their opposite as false, to hold certain things as good and their opposites as evil. One cannot just believe in the positive side of the coin.
5. Words have no meaning if they are not defined. To define means to make finite, to delimit, to set boundaries. To define the faith will entail excluding ideas that are contrary to its content. This will necessarily have a limiting impact on the definition of the community.
6. Other things being equal, size is a good thing. It is good for the community to be large. However, it is not good for the community to be artificially enlarged by admitting those who do not adhere to the pure content of the faith. If maintaining the purity of the community leads to a smaller membership, then be it.
Up to this point, التيارات التكفيرية may seem to be no more than conservative, puritanical currents or movements, but users of this expression typically reserve it as a label for currents of thought that go one step further, currents that are not only quick to “excommunicate” people, but also to assume an adversarial stance against them, often violently. The prototypical representative of التيارات التكفيرية has always been Al-Khawarij.
To sum up, users of the expression التيارات التكفيرية describe such currents of thought as:
- intensely serious about faith
- acutely aware of the central role of the community in the life of faith
- keen on maintaining a clear line of separation between members and non-members
- simple-minded in their definition of the faith, resulting in a static, monolithic version
- quick to declare any deviation from their monolithic version as كفر
- fiercely adversarial towards those who earn the label of كافر
The last two characteristics are the reason such currents are labeled as التيارات التكفيرية. It is for this reason that I suggest using the expression "infidelization." It means basically two things:
- being so quick to use the label “infidel” against others who cross a certain line
- investing the term “infidel” with an ultimate value that not only define the other, but also defines oneself
I was hesitant to suggest the term at first, but then I found that I was not the first to use it. I found it used in the following article:
I am not generally inclined to give a lot of credence to terms that just happen to be found in online material. This one, however, happens to agree with me.
Works in field
Native speaker of: Arabic, English
PRO pts in category: 55