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šargija

English translation: shargija

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Bosnian term or phrase:šargija
English translation:shargija
Entered by: xxxBesmir
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03:14 Jul 20, 2005
Bosnian to English translations [PRO]
Art/Literary - Poetry & Literature
Bosnian term or phrase: šargija
Još jedan instrument.
xxxBesmir
Local time: 16:27
Shargija
Explanation:
Šargija je naša riječ, a na engleskom se pise shargija. Sto se tice stručnosti, ja sam profsionalni muzičar i sve Bosanske izvorne instrumente treba ostaviti kako jesu ali ih napisati na engleskom jeziku. Pa i mi za flautu koristimo svoj jezik iako se ne zove izvorno tako.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 day 19 hrs 31 mins (2005-07-21 22:45:57 GMT) Post-grading
--------------------------------------------------

Iako sa kasnjenjem evo nekoliko dokaza da se upravo ovako pise.
http://www.turqumstances.com/turqumstances files/slobo cv tx...
\'\'The Cd “Invocation Of The Rain” (Prizivanje Kise) is his first solo project and it’s featuring him as a composer, arranger, singer and soloist on clarinet, gajde (bagpipe), tenor sax, alt sax, kaval, frula, shargija... \'\'

http://www.southeasteurope.org/subpage.php?sub_site=11&requi...
\'\'The rural tradition is characterized by such musical styles as \"ravne pjesme\" (flat song) of limited scale, ganga, an almost shouted polyphonic style, and other types of songs which may be accompanied on shargija (a simple long-necked lute), wooden flute, or the diple, a droneless bagpipe. \'\'
Selected response from:

Kornelija
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Local time: 16:27
Grading comment
Pomoc kod prevodjenja ove vrste termina nekima moze zvucati strasno naivno, ali pitanje koje sam sebi postavljao od samog pocetka je da li da krenem za mistifikaciju teksta i da ostavim original onakav kakav jeste ili da li da termin u pitanju prilagodim citalackoj publici: anglofonima. S druge strane, medju vama je, opet, pocela rasprava o izgovoru, odnosno tacnom spelovanju rijeci "šargija" na engleskom jeziku. Sve sto mogu da kazem u vezi toga je da ukoliko se ostavi termin u originalu, sa slovom "š" izgovor bi za prosjecnog anglofona tek tada bio otezan i citalac bi mozda preskakao tu neizgovorivu rijec sto mi nije bilo u cilju, pa mi se zbog toga verzija "shargija" ucinila najodgovarajucom. Nisam htio da izaberem opciju "dulcimer" jer sam smatrao da je to mistifikacija jednaka prvoj, ali u jednom drugom pravcu. Kornelija hvala Vam najljepsa na pomoci, zahvaljujem i ostalim uvazenim kolegama koji su podijelili svoju ekspertizu sa mnom!

Ja bih isto tako htio da napomenem na Kudoz rules koji kazu da ukoliko vidite da je neko predlozio varijantu bliskoj vasoj, da onda podrzite prijedlog tog kolege: http://www.kudos.net/rules
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +1Shargija
Kornelija
5šargija
Nedzad Selmanovic
5shargija or sargija
Mike Lovric
3šargija, dulcimer
Ingrid Lovric


  

Answers


3 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
šargija
šargija, dulcimer


Explanation:
Možda bi najbolje bilo ostaviti izvorni naziv, kao što se može vidjeti iz priloženih web site-ova, ili prevesti kao "dulcimer", iako je to i cimbalo.


KONCERTNI PROGRAM
... the lijerica (three stringed bowed instrument), gusle (one string bowed
instrument), the šargija (dulcimer) and cimbal (cimbalom), and whole range of ...
www.lado.hr/concert_frame.htm - 20k - Spremljeno - Slične stranice

general list
It is usually performed by singers with two violinists and a šargija player.
These bands first appeared around World War I and became popular in the 1960s. ...
xoomer.virgilio.it/pfreelance/regioni/Bosnia.htm - 8k - Spremljeno - Slične stranice

Music of Bosnia - encyclopedia article about Music of Bosnia. Free ...
... Click the link for more information. valley and Kalesija. It is usually performed
by singers with two violinists and a šargija player. ...
encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Music%20of%20Bosnia - 26k - Slične Stranice - Spremljeno - Slične stranice

Radio Student Ljubljana

Bosnian music - encyclopedia article about Bosnian music. Free ...
... It is usually performed by singers with two violinists and šargija-player. These
bands first appeared around World War 1 and became popular in the 1960s. ...
encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com/Bosnian%20music - 20k - Slične Stranice - Spremljeno - Slične stranice
[ Više rezultata za encyclopedia.thefreedictionary.com ]

contents
A similar stylistic “slip” occurs when a traditional Serbian song is accompanied
by instruments of oriental origin, šargija and tapan, which is a very ...
www.newsound.org.yu/24/INTERPRETATIONS.html - 24k - Spremljeno - Slične stranice

general list
... charango; timple; mandolin; chitarra battente; banjo; dobro; cavaquinho;
bandura; balalaika; bandurria; tar; saz; šargija; Bouzoúki; Baglama; cetera ...
xoomer.virgilio.it/pfreelance/strumenti/strumenti.htm - 11k - Spremljeno - Slične stranice



Ingrid Lovric
Local time: 16:27
Native speaker of: Native in CroatianCroatian, Native in Serbo-CroatSerbo-Croat

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Nedzad Selmanovic: dulcimer nikako ne dolazi u obzir: "A stringed instrument used in American folk music; an elliptical body and a fretted fingerboard and three strings." Sargija ima cetiri zice a ne tri.
6 hrs
  -> Slažem se s vama i zato sam i u objašnjenju navela da bi najbolje bilo ostaviti izvorni naziv, što je vidim i vaš prijedlog.
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4 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
šargija
shargija or sargija


Explanation:
Encyclopedia: Music of Bosnia and Herzegovina
Sargija-(shar-ghee-ya) a plucked, long necked lute used in Bosnian folk music.
... ... It is usually performed by singers with two violinists and a šargija ...
www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/ Music-of-Bosnia-and-Herzegovina - 34k - Cached - Similar pages

Southeast Europe Online
... and other types of songs which may be accompanied on shargija (a simple
long-necked lute), ... a larger and more elaborate version of the shargija. ...
www.southeasteurope.org/subpage.php?sub_site=11& required=c_info/c_info&doc=arts&site=2&subj=7 - 20k - Cached - Similar pages

The founder and spiritus movens of Balkanopolis was born on 29th ...
... first solo project and it’s featuring him as a composer, arranger, singer and soloist
on clarinet, gajde (bagpipe), tenor sax, alt sax, kaval, frula, shargija ...
www.turqumstances.com/ turqumstances%20files/slobo%20cv%20txt.htm - 6k - Supplemental Result - Cached - Similar pages



Mike Lovric
Local time: 16:27
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in CroatianCroatian
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

9 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
šargija
šargija


Explanation:
Ja bih predlozio da se izvorni pojam ostavi takav kakav jeste, a mozete dodati objasnjenje (a plucked, long necked lute used in Bosnian folk music). Evo, ovdje je koristan materijal na kojeg se mozete pozvati u slucaju nedoumica.

Sargija-(shar-ghee-ya) a plucked, long necked lute used in Bosnian folk music. The Sargija usually accompanies the violin, and has a jangling sound, similar to the Turkish saz.
http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Sargija

History
During its period as a part of Yugoslavia, Bosnia and Herzegovina was covered in state-supported amateur musical ensembles called Cultural-Artistic Societies (Kulturno-Um(j)etnička Društva, KUDs) which played folk music and released a few recordings on local labels. The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ...


Folk music
Rural folk traditions in Bosnia include the shouted, polyphonic ganga and ravne pjesme (flat song) styles, as well as instruments like a droneless bagpipe, wooden flute and sargija. Polyphony is a musical texture consisting of several independent melodic voices, as opposed to music with just one voice (monophony) or music with one dominant melodic voice accompanied by chords (homophony). ... Ganga is a type of singing from rural Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... A bagpipe performer in Amsterdam. ... This article pertains to the musical instrument. ... Sargija-(shar-ghee-ya) a plucked, long necked lute used in Bosnian folk music. ...

Urban Bosnian music has a much more pronounced Turkish musical influence, using the saz and melismatic singing. The gusle, an instrument found throughout the Balkans, is also used to accompany ancient epic poems. There are also Bosnian folk songs in Ladino, derived from the area's Jewish population. Turkey is a country on the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea, and is a crossroads of cultures from across Europe, North Africa, the Middle East, the Caucasus and South and Central Asia. ... Saz is a musical instrument family from the Middle East which is very popular in Turkey. ... An attribute of some Islamic and Gregorian chants, it is the style of singing several notes to one syllable of text. ... The Gusle or gusla (Serbian: Гусле, Bulgarian: Гусла) is a single-stringed instrument used in the Balkans, not to be confused with Russian Gusli. ... The Balkans is the historic and geographic name used to describe southeastern Europe (see the Definitions and boundaries section below). ... This article deals with the Judaeo-Spanish language. ...
http://www.nationmaster.com/encyclopedia/Music-of-Bosnia-and...


tamburitza
The tamburitza (tamburica; diminutive of tambura) is the most popular instrument in Croatian and Serbian folk music. It is a string instrument related to the mandolin of Italy, the bandura of the Ukraine and the balalaika of Russia. The name derives from Turkish. It is first documented in the 14th century, and is said to have first entered Bosnia before being introduced to Slavonia and Bačka.

The first major composer for the tamburitza was Pajo Kolarić, who formed the first amateur tamburitza orchestra in Osijek in 1847. Kolarić's student, Mijo Majer, formed the first tamburitzan choir led by a conductor, the "Hrvatska Lira" in 1882. These orchestras soon spread to what is now Bosnia, Austria, Slovenia, the Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Croatian composers for the tamburitza include Siniša Leopold and Julije Njikoš. The instrument has long been a symbol of the Croatian identity, and is associated with nationalism. The first Croat to study his people's folk music was Franjo Saver Kuhač. He was followed by Vinko Žganec, an associate of Bela Bartok's, who collected more than 19,000 Croatian folk songs.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tamburitza

What's a Tamburitza?
Tamburitzas (or "tamburas" in Croatian or Serbian) are a family of fretted, steel-stringed acoustic instruments frequently used in playing the music of several countries in . "Tamburica" is the diminutive of "tambura". "Tambura" originates from the Turkish word "tambur", which is a similarly styled stringed instrument.


What's Tamburitza Music Like?
The music of the tamburitza is equally at home at a country picnic, in a cafe, bar, nightclub, or concert hall, or as part of a church service. The styles of music played by the tamburitza include traditional folk tunes ("village music"), urban music from the early part of the 20th century ("old city music"), modern tunes written in the folk idiom, Western classical music, the music of Hollywood and Broadway, and pop music with the addictive rhythms and beats of Western rock and roll.

A tamburitza typically has four to six steel strings differing in thickness and pitch. It is usually played using a celluloid pick but can also be played with the fingers. Strings can be struck once or with a tremolo technique to sustain tones. A tremolo is a series of very rapid up and down strokes of the pick played smoothly over a string. The tamburitza produces both sweet and mellow as well as loud piercin tones.


Origins and Early History
The name "tambura" may have originated from "tamburu", the Persian word for "string". Another possibility is the Buddhist god Tamburu. Who, according to Buddhist mythology, is the protector of music and musicians. Finally, some suggest that "tambura" may be derived from the Sumerian "pan-tur" meaning "small bow." From "pan-tur" came "pandura" and then "tambura."

Because of its popularity among the Croatian people, the tamburitza is sometimes claimed to be the national instrument of Croatia. However, its origin was in Persia with the Assyrians over 5000 years ago. Ancient carvings from this era depict musicians playing lute-like instruments. Tamburitzas have a distant relationship with the 14th and 15th century Turkish long-neck lute called the "tanbur" and today's "tar", a 6-stringed round back lute with a skin resonator found throughout Central Asia, Azerbaijian, Iran, and Turkey.

The tamburitza's first appearance in the Balkans was in Bosnia about 500 years ago. Following the Ottoman Turkish invasion, musicians introduced tamburitza-like instruments into this region. Historic documents and poetry clearly record the existence of the tamburitza in the 16th century.

However, a much earlier pre-Ottoman presence in the Balkans is possible. The 922 annals of the Bulgarian embassy report descriptions of tambura players by an Arab diplomat. In addition, the following reference is found in a Greek report written in the 7th century A.D. by a chronicler named Theophylactus of Simocatta, who wrote of the wars the Byzantine Empire fought against the Slavs and Avars:


In the year 591 A.D. the Byzantine King Mauricius was contesting the Roman Empire in Thrace. Here he captured three Slavs. To the astonishment of Mauricius, he found these Slavs unarmed, carrying with them only a cithara. With surprise he asked these Slavs who they were and what was that in their hands? They replied, 'We are Slavs and we live along the Western Seas (Adriatic). We play the cithara because in our country there is no iron and we live in peace. We do not know the meaning of war bugles.
http://www.answers.com/topic/tamburitza

What is a Tamburitza?

Tamburitza is a word from the Croatian/Bosnian/Serbian language with a variety of meanings. Most literally, it is the affectionate diminutive of tambura, any one of a number of long-necked fretted string instruments derived from those brought to the Balkan peninsula by the Turks and their vassals - mainly Roma (Gypsies) - beginning in the 16th century.

During the years of the Ottoman occupation, many subject communities adapted these instruments to their customs and cultures. Tambure are thus distant cousins of other European string instruments introduced from the Islamic world, including instruments as diverse as medieval lutes and modern Greek bouzoukis.

In the Pannonian plains region - along the central Danube and its tributaries; the Sava, Drava and Tisa rivers - tamburasi (tambura musicians) began to form themselves into ensembles in the early 19th century. Although it is believed that Hungarian Roma were the first to play tamburitza instruments in ensembles, modeled on their famous violin ensembles, the first known ensemble is that of Pajo Kolaric, formed in the Slavonian (eastern Croatian) city of Osijek in 1847. KolaricÇ's ensemble of six urban tradesmen played a repertoire much like that known today: Croatian folk songs and kolo-s (circle dances), folk songs and dances from neighboring peoples, light classical songs and instrumental pieces, and popular music of the day.

From Osijek, tamburitza ensembles spread quickly among the Germanized Slavic middle classes of the Croatian and Serbian provinces of Austria-Hungary. This was a time when the Croatian and Serbian bourgeoisie was "discovering their roots" in a large-scale pan-Slavic national awakening, and playing folk songs in amateur ensembles was an important expression of national identity. Tamburitza ensembles spread to neighboring Hungarians, and also in smaller numbers to Czechs, Slovaks, Ruthenians, and even some Germans.

During the same era, orchestras of national folk string instruments began to be formed elsewhere as well, such as the mandolin orchestras of Italy and the balalaika orchestras of Russia. As always, Roma remained the principle professional players, and in the years after World War I, they revolutionized tamburitza music, establishing the style and technique still used by many players today. It was during the interwar years that tamburitza ensembles became firmly established in Croatian and Serbian village culture, although some rural groups - notably the Bunjevci of northern Backa - had had ensembles since the late 19th centuries.

When massive immigration from eastern Europe to North America peaked in the years 1870-1910, tamburitza ensembles first made their appearance in the New World. The first known American ensemble was the Hoffer Family Tamburitza Orchestra, active in the Steelton (PA) area from the early 1890s. However, many Croatian and Serbian immigrants heard tamburitza music for the first time in America, especially if they were from rural areas where tamburitza was not yet known. Many learned the instruments from some of the early tamburitza teachers active in North America; one such was Ilar Spiletak, a native of Dubrovnik who founded various orchestras in San Francisco beginning in 1902.

Thus tamburitza spread among American Slavs much as it had in the Old World; a few musicians actively taught and proselytized, spreading it to those who had never heard it before. By the 1920s, tamburitza was firmly established in American Slavic communities too.

Modern tamburitza orchestras are composed of instruments that are fretted like guitars and arranged in the standard Sremski/Srijemski tuning system: the small lead prima or bisernica, the alto brac or basprim, the tenor celo, the chordal bugarija or kontra, and the large fretted bas or berde. It is not unusual to find other instruments in a tamburitza orchestra; violin and accordion are most common, but some modern groups also include electric instruments and drums!

Tamburitza music has become central to the cultural and spiritual life of Croatian and Serbian Americans. It can be heard at church social halls, ski trips, golf tournaments, weddings, funerals, slava-s (saints day observances), and celebrations of all sorts. It is promoted by well-known national community organizations such as the Duquesne University Tamburitzans, the Tamburitza Association of America, the Croatian Fraternal Union, and of course, our own Slavonic Cultural Center.

It is hence altogether correct to speak of a "tamburitza culture"; indeed, the Tamburitza Association of America bestows awards on its most respected members for efforts to promote and elevate "our tamburitza culture." "Tamburitza" thus refers to any or all of the following: 1) an instrumental ensemble composed of or including tambura instruments, 2) a style of music played by tambura instruments 3) the songs, dances, and instrumental pieces played on tambura instruments, and 4) the part played by tambura instruments in maintaining the musical and cultural traditions of Croatians and Serbians, their neighbors and their friends.
http://www.slavonicweb.org/events/tamfest_hist.html

sretno


Nedzad Selmanovic
Local time: 16:27
Native speaker of: Native in BosnianBosnian, Native in Serbo-CroatSerbo-Croat
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

18 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
šargija
Shargija


Explanation:
Šargija je naša riječ, a na engleskom se pise shargija. Sto se tice stručnosti, ja sam profsionalni muzičar i sve Bosanske izvorne instrumente treba ostaviti kako jesu ali ih napisati na engleskom jeziku. Pa i mi za flautu koristimo svoj jezik iako se ne zove izvorno tako.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 day 19 hrs 31 mins (2005-07-21 22:45:57 GMT) Post-grading
--------------------------------------------------

Iako sa kasnjenjem evo nekoliko dokaza da se upravo ovako pise.
http://www.turqumstances.com/turqumstances files/slobo cv tx...
\'\'The Cd “Invocation Of The Rain” (Prizivanje Kise) is his first solo project and it’s featuring him as a composer, arranger, singer and soloist on clarinet, gajde (bagpipe), tenor sax, alt sax, kaval, frula, shargija... \'\'

http://www.southeasteurope.org/subpage.php?sub_site=11&requi...
\'\'The rural tradition is characterized by such musical styles as \"ravne pjesme\" (flat song) of limited scale, ganga, an almost shouted polyphonic style, and other types of songs which may be accompanied on shargija (a simple long-necked lute), wooden flute, or the diple, a droneless bagpipe. \'\'

Kornelija
Bosnia and Herzegovina
Local time: 16:27
Native speaker of: Native in BosnianBosnian, Native in CroatianCroatian
PRO pts in category: 4
Grading comment
Pomoc kod prevodjenja ove vrste termina nekima moze zvucati strasno naivno, ali pitanje koje sam sebi postavljao od samog pocetka je da li da krenem za mistifikaciju teksta i da ostavim original onakav kakav jeste ili da li da termin u pitanju prilagodim citalackoj publici: anglofonima. S druge strane, medju vama je, opet, pocela rasprava o izgovoru, odnosno tacnom spelovanju rijeci "šargija" na engleskom jeziku. Sve sto mogu da kazem u vezi toga je da ukoliko se ostavi termin u originalu, sa slovom "š" izgovor bi za prosjecnog anglofona tek tada bio otezan i citalac bi mozda preskakao tu neizgovorivu rijec sto mi nije bilo u cilju, pa mi se zbog toga verzija "shargija" ucinila najodgovarajucom. Nisam htio da izaberem opciju "dulcimer" jer sam smatrao da je to mistifikacija jednaka prvoj, ali u jednom drugom pravcu. Kornelija hvala Vam najljepsa na pomoci, zahvaljujem i ostalim uvazenim kolegama koji su podijelili svoju ekspertizu sa mnom!

Ja bih isto tako htio da napomenem na Kudoz rules koji kazu da ukoliko vidite da je neko predlozio varijantu bliskoj vasoj, da onda podrzite prijedlog tog kolege: http://www.kudos.net/rules

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Nedzad Selmanovic: Ups, samo Amerikanci govore engleski (ali je istina da svi Amerikanci ne govore engleski)? "Sh" je u redu ali sta se desilo sa ostalim slovima.
18 hrs
  ->  Svaki Amerikanac cim vidi ovu rijec jasno mu je da se radi o '' imenu'' nekog instrumenta koji nije njegov narodni, i tako ce i citati, sa pretpostavkom da mora izgovarati drugacije, ali slovo 'š' ne poznaje kroz svoje pismo, zato se stavlja 'sh'.

agree  Maida Kojic-McAndrew
21 days
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