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Dutch term or phrase: ... standaardafwijkingen ...  I am looking for assistance in translating the Dutch sentence in inverted commas into English. The rest of the text serves merely as background information.
Het relateren, van de graadmeter voor wel en wee aan de prijzen van iets anders, is essentieel voor het begrip van de Kondratieffgolf. Wat dat betreft zijn we het helemaal eens met Rostow. De grafiek moet dus gecorrigeerd worden voor inflatie. Dan krijgt men grafiek III.4. Nu is er plotseling de structurele stijging van aandelenkoersen in de VS te zien.
stap 4. onderscheiden van goede tijden en slechte tijden met steunlijnen
Pas in 1987 hebben we de grafiek van de reële beurskoersen gebruikt voor het beleggingsbeleid. Eerst zijn er steunlijnen aangebracht. Dit zijn de twee buitenste lijnen in grafiek III.5. "Deze liggen twee standaardafwijkingen van de reële opbrengsten per jaar af van de structurele trend." Later gaan we dit iets preciseren (zie hoofdstuk XII).
My question concerns the meaning of the sentence in inverted commas. How would you translate this in English.
Any help is much appreciated. 
 xxxjarryKudoZ activityQuestions: 40 (none open) ( 3 closed without grading) Answers: 2855 South Africa
 Local time: 22:02

 English translation:...standard deviations...  Explanation: Hi Jarry,
Here's how I would do it:
These are two standard deviations of real annual profit away from the structural trend.
'Standaardafwijkingen van de reële opbrengsten per jaar' is the object of the sentence, as I see it (you could replace it by, for example, 'meter', dus: 'twee meter af van de structurele trend')
Hope this helps.

 Selected response from: Kathleen Ferny Belgium Local time: 22:02
 Grading comment Thank you very much Kathleen. Your answer and explanation came closest to what I thought the translation should be.
All the other contributions were extremely useful in shedding light on this obscure sentence. Thank you all very much. 4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer 
 
Discussion entries: 0 

Automatic update in 00:

15 mins confidence: standard deviation
Explanation: "These differ from the structural trend by the amount of two standard deviations of the actual yield per year."
That is hgow I would translate it.
A standard deviation is a statistical value that is calculated on the basis of a range of values.
HTH
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15 mins confidence: ...standard deviations...
Explanation: Hi Jarry,
Here's how I would do it:
These are two standard deviations of real annual profit away from the structural trend.
'Standaardafwijkingen van de reële opbrengsten per jaar' is the object of the sentence, as I see it (you could replace it by, for example, 'meter', dus: 'twee meter af van de structurele trend')
Hope this helps.
 Kathleen Ferny Belgium Local time: 22:02 Native speaker of: English PRO pts in pair: 27

  Grading comment Thank you very much Kathleen. Your answer and explanation came closest to what I thought the translation should be.
All the other contributions were extremely useful in shedding light on this obscure sentence. Thank you all very much. 

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26 mins confidence:
35 mins confidence: standard deviations
Explanation: Hello Jarry,
"The real annual proceeds have been removed from the structual trend by two standard deviations."
It appears to me that this it what it should be, even though I am not a mathematician. :) In my opinion, standard deviations are used to correct trends, i.e. other influences.
In the Pacific Science Center in Seattle is a unit with falling bullets (I don't know what else to call it) with a nummer of boxes (let's say about 20 or so) lined up. The balls drop in the middle of the boxes at box 9,10,11 and the possibility of balls being accidentally dropped in the outer boxes are remote, yet it does happen, and with a certain mindboggling regularity. This is what I have in mind with standard deviations.
There is an graph in the following reference:
http://glass.ed.asu.edu/stats/lesson3/
Certain things follow from the facts about areas in the graph for the normal curve:
50% of the area (and hence, half the cases in a set of data that is normally distributed) lies below the middle or mean.
34% of the area lies between the mean and a point one standard deviation above. Likewise, there is 34% between the mean and a standard deviation below the mean.
It follows, then, that 16% of the data in a normal distribution lies below a point one standard deviation below the mean.
Good luck, it sounds like it is an interesting translation. One that'll keep you on your toes alright!
Marijke
Reference: http://www.itl.nist.gov/div898/handbook/eda/section3/eda359....
 Marijke Mayer Netherlands Local time: 22:02 Native speaker of: Dutch PRO pts in pair: 525

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2 hrs confidence: standard deviations
Explanation: The standard deviation (SD) is a statistical measure of variation. A high value for the SD indicates that there are considerable deviations from the mean. When picking one item from a normally distributed population, there is a chance of only 5% to have one smaller than the mean minus 2 SD or larger than the mean plus 2 SD. The 2 SD lines indicate that range of possible values that covers 95% of the distribution. A trend is an average value, a mean, over time. In this case we have to to with yearly averages. The chance that the revenue in a given year falls below or above these lines (parallel to the trend line) is only 5%.
"Deze liggen twee standaardafwijkingen van de reële opbrengsten per jaar af van de structurele trend," is: "These are two standard deviations away from the structural trend." The rest of the sentence is only confusing.
I am a lecturer of statistics.
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