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opleidingen in het secundair onderwijs

English translation: Secondary education programs

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Dutch term or phrase:opleidingen in het secundair onderwijs
English translation:Secondary education programs
Entered by: Evert DELOOF-SYS
Options:
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11:29 Mar 10, 2002
Dutch to English translations [PRO]
Dutch term or phrase: opleidingen in het secundair onderwijs
Wat is dat in het Engels?
Rietje
Secondary education programs
Explanation:
School education:
Secondary education covers schooling from the age of eleven to the minimum school leaving age of sixteen. Pupils follow a common curriculum leading to the GCSE which has replaced the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level. At some schools, pupils may stay on at a school sixth form for a further two years when they sit for the General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A Levels) or the General Certificate of Education Advanced Supplementary examinations (GCE AS examinations), or vocational courses leading usually to General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs)). Further education colleges also offer these courses.

Ik kon om de een of andere reden de url van de Unesco-site niet kopiëren en dus volgt hier de volledige pagina ivm opleidingen,... in de UK:


United Kingdom - Education system
Regions: Commonwealth Countries; Europe; European Union; Western Europe
INSTITUTION TYPES & CREDENTIALS
Types of higher education institutions:
University
Open University
College and Institution of Higher Education
Open College
College of Technology
Teacher Training College
Institute

School leaving and higher education credentials:
General Certificate of Secondary Education
General Certificate of Education Advanced Level
General Certificate of Education Advanced Supplementary Level
First Diploma
Higher National Certificate
National Diploma
Higher National Diploma
Certificate
Diploma
Diploma of Higher Education
Bachelor's Degree
Bachelor's Honours Degree
Master's Degree (taught)
Postgraduate Certificate of Education
Postgraduate Diploma
Master's Degree
Master of Philosophy
Doctorate
Higher Doctorate


STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM
Pre-higher education:
Duration of compulsory education:
Age of entry: 5
Age of exit: 16
Structure of school system:
Primary
Type of school providing this education: Combined Junior and Infant School
Length of program in years: 6
Age level from: 5 to: 11
Basic First Stage
Type of school providing this education: Infant School
Length of program in years: 2
Age level from: 5 to: 7
Basic Second Stage
Type of school providing this education: Junior School
Length of program in years: 4
Age level from: 7 to: 11
Comprehensive
Type of school providing this education: Comprehensive School
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 11 to: 16
Certificate/diploma awarded: General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)
Secondary
Type of school providing this education: Secondary Modern
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 11 to: 16
Certificate/diploma awarded: General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)
Academic Secondary
Type of school providing this education: Grammar School
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 11 to: 16
Certificate/diploma awarded: General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)
Technical
Type of school providing this education: CTC (City Technology College)
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 11 to: 16
Certificate/diploma awarded: General Certificate of Secondary Education (CGSE)
Sixth Form
Type of school providing this education: Sixth Form
Length of program in years: 2
Age level from: 16 to: 18
Certificate/diploma awarded: General Certificate of Education Advanced Level/General Certificate of Education Advanced Supplementary
School education:
Secondary education covers schooling from the age of eleven to the minimum school leaving age of sixteen. Pupils follow a common curriculum leading to the GCSE which has replaced the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level. At some schools, pupils may stay on at a school sixth form for a further two years when they sit for the General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A Levels) or the General Certificate of Education Advanced Supplementary examinations (GCE AS examinations), or vocational courses leading usually to General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs)). Further education colleges also offer these courses.
Higher education:
Higher education is provided by three main types of institutions: universities, colleges and institutions of higher education and art and music colleges. All universities are autonomous institutions, particularly in matters relating to courses. They are empowered by a Royal Charter or an Act of Parliament. As a result of the Further and Higher Education Act of 1992, the binary line separating universities and polytechnics was abolished and polytechnics were given university status (i.e., the right to award their own degrees) and took university titles. The Council for National Academic Awards was abolished, leaving most institutions to confer their own degrees. Higher Education Funding Councils were created for England, Scotland and Wales, replacing the Universities Funding Council and the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council. Most universities are divided into faculties which may be subdivided into departments. The Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals examines matters of concern to all universities. Many colleges and institutions of higher education are the result of mergers of teacher training colleges and other colleges. The Department for Education and Employment is responsible for all universities. Students have to pay a fee of £1,050 a year (2000-2001). Non-university higher education institutions also provide degree courses, various non-degree courses and postgraduate qualifications. Some may offer Higher Degrees and other qualifications offered by most non-university higher education institutions are validated by external bodies such as a local university or the Open University. An institution can also apply for the authority to award its own degrees but it must be able to demonstrate a good record of running degree courses validated by other universities. Institutions can apply for university status but must satisfy a number of criteria, including the power to award its own first and higher degrees. Some higher education is also provided in further education institutions. This provision is funded by the Higher Education Funding Councils and the Department of Education Northern Ireland. The Further and Higher Education Act 1992 allows for the transfer of further education institutions to the higher education sector, if 'the full-time enrolment number of the institution concerned…for courses of higher education exceeds 55% of its total full-time equivalent enrolment number'. A new national body, the Institute of Learning and Teaching, is being established in 1999 to set up an accreditation schme for higher education teachers and to encourage innovation in teaching and learning.
Main laws/decrees governing higher education:
Decree: Education Reform Act Year: 1988
Decree: Further and Higher Education Act Year: 1992
Academic year:
Classes from: Oct to: Jul
Long vacation from: 1 Jul to: 30 Sep
Languages of instruction: English
Stages of studies:
Post-secondary studies (technical/vocational type):
Non-university level:
Non-university level post-secondary technical education is provided by technical colleges, colleges of further and higher education and accredited independent colleges which offer a large number of vocational courses leading to a professional qualification. The Business and Technology Education Council offers many vocational courses leading to the BTEC First Diploma (one year, full-time) or to the BTEC National Diploma (two to three years, full-time). A Higher National Diploma is conferred after three years' study by the Business and Technology Education Council. As regards professional education, the professions have laid down their own professional qualifications (some thirty major professional bodies exist).

University level studies:
University level first stage: Undergraduate stage:
This stage lasts for three or four years and leads to the award of a Bachelor's Degree in Arts, Science or other fields (Technology, Law, Engineering, etc.). In some Scottish universities the first degree is a Master's Degree. The Bachelor's Degree is conferred as a Pass Degree or an Honours Degree where studies are more specialized. The Bachelor's Honours Degree is classified as a First Class Honours, a Second Class Honours or a Third Class Honours. In some universities and colleges of higher education, a two-year course leads to a Diploma in Higher Education (DipHE). This is a recognized qualification in its own right. Some universities have adopted the credit-unit or modular system of assessment. In some universities students must follow a foundation course before embarking on the course leading to the Bachelor's Degree. Students of foreign languages are usually required to study or work for an additional year in the country of the target language. Sandwich courses generally involve an additional year's work experience. Some institutions have introduced accelerated two-year degrees which require students to study during the normal vacation period. It is now rare for the class of degree to depend entirely on student performance in final examinations. Most institutions base a component of the degree class on examinaions taken during the period of study, especially those taken at the end of the second year, and many also use some form of continuous assessment.
University level second stage: Master's Degree:
A Master's Degree is conferred after one or two years' study following upon the Bachelor's Degree. Study is in a specialized field. In some cases, the degree is awarded solely after a written examination but candidates must usually submit a memoir. At Oxford and Cambridge, the Master of Arts is conferred automatically after a certain period of time on all holders of Bachelor's Degrees. In other fields, it is awarded under the same conditions as in other universities.
University level third stage: Master of Philosophy, Doctor of Philosophy:
The third stage is that of pure research. At a university, it leads, after two years of additional study and the successful presentation of a thesis, to the Master of Philosophy (MPhil) Degree. After usually three years' further study beyond the Master's Degree, the candidate may present a thesis for the Doctorate of Philosophy (D.Phil. or Ph.D.).
University level fourth stage: Higher Doctorate:
A further stage leads to Higher Doctorates which may be awarded by a university in Law, Humanities, Science, Medical Sciences, Music and Theology after a candidate, usually a senior university teacher, has submitted a number of learned, usually published, works.

Teacher education:
Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers
Primary school teachers must hold a first degree and a Postgraduate Certificate of Education awarded by a university or college of higher education. Alternatively, they must hold a BEd Degree and a qualified teacher status which can be obtained after successful completion of an approved course of initial teacher training (ITT). The main types of ITT courses are the one-year Postgraduate Certificate in Education course or the Bachelor of Education (BEd) course.
Training of secondary school teachers
Secondary school teachers must hold a first degree and a Postgraduate Certificate of Education awarded by a university or college of higher education. Alternatively they must hold a BEd Degree and a qualified teacher status which can be obtained after successful completion of an approved course of initial teacher training (ITT). The main types of ITT courses are the one-year Postgraduate Certificate in Education course or the Bachelor of Education (BEd) course which normally lasts for four years.
Training of higher education teachers
Higher education teachers normally hold a higher degree.

Non-traditional studies:
Distance higher education
The Open University offers instruction for part-time study for degrees and other courses by correspondence, supplemented by radio and television broadcasts, residential summer schools and an extensive counselling and tutorial service which operates through local study centres. Three main types of courses are available: undergraduate level courses, postgraduate courses and study packs. They are offered as part of Certificate, Diploma or Degree programmes. Undergraduate students take a series of courses which are worth one half or one full credit. A one-credit course is estimated to require 350-400 hours of study. An Ordinary Degree BA or BSc is awarded to students who have obtained six credits; an Honours degree (BA or BSc Honours) to students who have obtained two of these credits at the higher levels of study. Students may choose from a selection of 134 courses at four levels of difficulty. Up to three credits may be allowed for previous qualifications such as an initial teacher training qualification or a Higher National Diploma. The Open College offers vocational and professional training often leading to recognized qualifications. The Open College of Arts, set up in 1987, is affiliated to the Open University. It aids students of the arts who wish to study at home. It receives no government funding but as a registered charity it receives donations from other organizations.
Lifelong higher education
Extra-mural education is provided by universities or other institutions of higher education to adults living in the region served by the institutions and who do not belong to the regular student body. Higher education institutions may also choose to offer courses that are specifically intended to meet the needs of the local community. Thus they may offer part-time courses providing professional updating which people attend on day-release from work or attend in the evening, or leisure courses on local History or Geography, or Language and Literature classes.
Higher education training in industry
There are sandwich courses in which an undergraduate course is incorporated with periods of industrial training. The duration of study for an Honours Degree is four years. Admission conditions vary enormously and courses are offered only in universities which were formerly colleges of advanced technology.
Other forms of non-formal higher education
Other forms of non-formal education are available through the external system of the University of London where external students may study for certain degrees. The courses are available on a part-time basis. Birkbeck College of the University of London offers specialized training to students who are in employment and only able to attend evening courses. Centres for Continuing Education offer "open lecture" programmes and PICKUP programmes which develop short courses for continuing professional development.


NATIONAL BODIES
Administration & co-ordination:
Responsible authorities:
Department for Education and Employment
Secretary of State: David Blunkett
Sanctuary Building
Great Smith Street
London
England SW1P 3BT
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7925-6257
Fax: +44(20) 7925-6000
EMail: sec-of-state@dfee.gov.uk
WWW: http://www.dfee.gov.uk

Role of governing body: Administrative and coordinative role

Universities UK
Chairman: Martin Harris
Chief Executive: Diana Warwick
International Relations Manager: Pilar Teran
Woburn House
20 Tavistock Square
London
England WC1H 9HQ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7419-4111
Fax: +44(20) 7388-8649
EMail: info@universitiesUK.ac.uk
WWW: http://www.universitiesUK.ac.uk

Role of governing body: Represents the interests of the universities in relation to the government, Parliament, local and national institutions

Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP)
Chair: Dorma Urwin
Executive Secretary: Patricia Ambrose
20 Woburn House
Tavistock Square
London
England WC1H 9HB
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7387-7711
Fax: +44(20) 7387-7712
EMail: info@scop.ac.uk
WWW: http://www.scop.ac.uk

Role of governing body: educational policy design and scientific advice

Universities Scotland
Director: David Caldwell
53 Hanover Street
Edinburgh
Scotland EH2 2PJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(131) 226-1111
Fax: +44(131) 226-1100
EMail: info@universities-scotland.ac.uk
WWW: http://www.universities-scotland.ac.uk

Role of governing body: Represents higher education institutions in Scotland

Higher Education Wales (HEW)
Chairman: Adrian Webb
University of Wales Registry, King Edward VII Avenue, Cathays Park
Cardiff
Wales CF1 3NS
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(29) 20786-210

Role of governing body: Represents higher education institutions in Wales

Universities England and Northern Ireland
Chair: Roderick Floud


Role of governing body: Advises on the planning and funding of HE in England and Northern Ireland

Association of University Teachers
President: Alan Carr
General Secretary: David Triesman
Egmont House
25-31 Tavistock Place
London
England WC1H9UT
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 767-09700
Fax: +44(20) 767-09799
EMail: hq@aut.org.uk
WWW: http://www.aut.org.uk


Society for Research into Higher Education
President: William Taylor
3 Devonshire Road
London
England W1N 2BA
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7637-2766
Fax: +44(20) 7637-2781
EMail: srheoffice@srhe.ac.uk
WWW: http://www.srhe.ac.uk



ADMISSIONS TO HIGHER EDUCATION
Admission to non university higher education studies
Name of secondary school credential required: General Certificate of Education Advanced Level
Name of secondary school credential required: General Certificate of Secondary Education
Admission to university-level studies
Name of secondary school credential required: General Certificate of Education Advanced Level
Minimum score/requirement: 2/3 passes at A-level
Name of secondary school credential required: General Certificate of Education Advanced Supplementary Level
Other admission requirements: School report and interview. Universities may also impose their conditions, such as a certain combination of passes or a particular standard achieved in subjects taken at A level.
Foreign students admission
Definition of foreign student: A foreign student is a person who is enrolled at an institution of higher education in Great Britain but is not a permanent resident.
Admission requirements: Foreign students must hold qualifications equivalent to the United Kingdom General Certificate of Education with five or six passes including two at Advanced level.
Entry regulations: Passport, a visa and evidence confirming their registration in full-time courses and evidence of funds.
Health requirements: Students who come from countries outside the European Union need a medical certificate
Language requirements: Students must have a good knowledge of English. English courses and English-as-a-Foreign-Language courses are available in the private/state sector.
Application procedures:
Apply to individual institution for entry to: For access to postgraduates studies.
Apply to national body for entry to: For undergraduate studies.
Apply to:
Universities and College Admission Service (UCAS)
Fulton House, Jessop Avenue
Cheltenham
GL50 3SH
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(1242) 22-24-44
Fax: +44(1242) 22-16-22
WWW: http://www.ucas.ac.uk

Recognition of studies & qualifications:
Studies pursued in foreign countries (bodies dealing with recognition of foreign credentials):
National Academic Recognition Information Centre (NARIC), ECCTIS Ltd
Chief Executive: David Boynton
Head of the NARIC: Cloud Bay Yun
Oriel House
Oriel Road
Cheltenham
England GL50 1XP
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(1242) 252-627
Fax: +44(1242) 258-617
EMail: cloudnaric@ecctis.co.uk
WWW: http://www.naric.org.uk

Deals with credential recognition for entry to: University and Profession
Services provided & students dealt with: Recognition and equivalence information.

Multilateral agreements concerning recognition of foreign studies
Name of agreement: Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education in Europe
Year of signature: 1979
References to further information on foreign student admissions and recognition of studies
Title: British Universities Guide to Graduate Studies
Author: Association of Commonwealth Universities
Title: Commonwealth Universities Yearbook
Author: Association of Commonwealth Universities
Title: Higher Education in the United Kingdom
Author: British Council/Association of Commonwealth Universities
Publisher: Longman Group Ltd
Title: International Comparisons
Author: UK NARIC
Publisher: UK NARIC
Title: Studying and Living in Britain: the British Council's Guide for Overseas Students and Visitors
Author: British Council
Publisher: Northcote House in association with the British Council

STUDENT LIFE
Main student services as national level
Association of Commonwealth Universities
John Foster House, 36 Gordon Square
London
WC1H OPF
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7387-8572
Fax: +44(20) 7387-2655
EMail: info@acu.ac.uk
WWW: http://www.acu.ac.uk

Category of services provided: Academic and career counselling services

Association of Recognized English Language Schools (ARELS)
125 High Holborn
London
WC1V 6QD
United Kingdom

Category of services provided: Social and welfare services

British Council
10 Spring Gardens
London SW1A 2BN
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7930-8466
Fax: +44(20) 7839-6347
WWW: http://www.britcoun.org

Category of services provided: Academic and career counselling services

National Union of Students
461 Holloway Road
London
N7 6LJ
United Kingdom

Category of services provided: Academic and career counselling services; Special services/Centre for foreign students
Services available to foreign Students: Yes

The Council for International Education (UKCOSA)
9-17 St Albans Place
London
N1 0NX
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 2263762
WWW: http://www.ukcosa.org.uk

Category of services provided: Academic and career counselling services

National student associations and unions
National Union of Students
461, Holloway Road
London
N7 6LJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 272-8900
Fax: +44(20) 263-5713
EMail: Nusuk@nus.org.uk

Student expenses and financial aid
Student costs:
Home students tuition fees: Minimum: 1050 (Pound Sterling)
Maximum: 18000 (Pound Sterling)
Foreign students tuition fees: Minimum: 4000 (Pound Sterling)
Maximum: 26000 (Pound Sterling)
Publications on student services and financial aid:
Title: Awards for Postgraduate Study at Commonwealth Universities
Publisher: Association of Commonwealth Universities, London
Title: Financial Aid for First Degree Study at Commonwealth Universities
Publisher: Association of Commonwealth Universities, London
Title: Study Abroad 2000-2001
Publisher: UNESCO/IBE
Year of publication: 1999
Title: The Grants Register
Publisher: Palgrave

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION & EXCHANGES
Principal national bodies responsible for dealing with international cooperation and exchanges in higher education:
Department for Education and Employment
Sanctuary Building, Great Smith Street
London
SW1P 3BT
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7925-6257
Fax: +44(20) 7925-6000
WWW: http://www.dfee.gov.uk

Participation of country in multilateral or bilateral higher education programmes
Name of exchange programme: SOCRATES

GRADING SYSTEM
Usual grading system in secondary school
Full Description: Alphabetical system A to E. A: excellent/outstanding; B: above average; C: average; D: below average; E: failing.
Highest on scale: A
Pass/fail level: C/D
Lowest on scale: E
Main grading system used by higher education institutions
Full Description: Alphabetical system A to E. A: excellent/outstanding; B: above average; C: average; D: below average; E: fail.
Highest on scale: A
Pass/fail level: D/E
Lowest on scale: E
Other main grading systems
Numerical system.

NOTES ON HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM


Data for academic year: 2000-2001
Source: UK Naric, ECCTIS Ltd, 2001
Selected response from:

Evert DELOOF-SYS
Belgium
Local time: 02:10
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Summary of answers provided
4 +5Secondary education programs
Evert DELOOF-SYS
4 -1courses in secondary education
joeky janusch


  

Answers


14 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): -1
courses in secondary education


Explanation:
geen uitleg nodig

joeky janusch
Israel
Local time: 03:10
Native speaker of: Native in DutchDutch
PRO pts in pair: 183

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Evert DELOOF-SYS: hier betreft het de verschillende programma's en niet de afzonderlijke vakken ('courses')
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16 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +5
Secondary education programs


Explanation:
School education:
Secondary education covers schooling from the age of eleven to the minimum school leaving age of sixteen. Pupils follow a common curriculum leading to the GCSE which has replaced the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level. At some schools, pupils may stay on at a school sixth form for a further two years when they sit for the General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A Levels) or the General Certificate of Education Advanced Supplementary examinations (GCE AS examinations), or vocational courses leading usually to General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs)). Further education colleges also offer these courses.

Ik kon om de een of andere reden de url van de Unesco-site niet kopiëren en dus volgt hier de volledige pagina ivm opleidingen,... in de UK:


United Kingdom - Education system
Regions: Commonwealth Countries; Europe; European Union; Western Europe
INSTITUTION TYPES & CREDENTIALS
Types of higher education institutions:
University
Open University
College and Institution of Higher Education
Open College
College of Technology
Teacher Training College
Institute

School leaving and higher education credentials:
General Certificate of Secondary Education
General Certificate of Education Advanced Level
General Certificate of Education Advanced Supplementary Level
First Diploma
Higher National Certificate
National Diploma
Higher National Diploma
Certificate
Diploma
Diploma of Higher Education
Bachelor's Degree
Bachelor's Honours Degree
Master's Degree (taught)
Postgraduate Certificate of Education
Postgraduate Diploma
Master's Degree
Master of Philosophy
Doctorate
Higher Doctorate


STRUCTURE OF EDUCATION SYSTEM
Pre-higher education:
Duration of compulsory education:
Age of entry: 5
Age of exit: 16
Structure of school system:
Primary
Type of school providing this education: Combined Junior and Infant School
Length of program in years: 6
Age level from: 5 to: 11
Basic First Stage
Type of school providing this education: Infant School
Length of program in years: 2
Age level from: 5 to: 7
Basic Second Stage
Type of school providing this education: Junior School
Length of program in years: 4
Age level from: 7 to: 11
Comprehensive
Type of school providing this education: Comprehensive School
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 11 to: 16
Certificate/diploma awarded: General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)
Secondary
Type of school providing this education: Secondary Modern
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 11 to: 16
Certificate/diploma awarded: General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)
Academic Secondary
Type of school providing this education: Grammar School
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 11 to: 16
Certificate/diploma awarded: General Certificate of Secondary Education (GCSE)
Technical
Type of school providing this education: CTC (City Technology College)
Length of program in years: 5
Age level from: 11 to: 16
Certificate/diploma awarded: General Certificate of Secondary Education (CGSE)
Sixth Form
Type of school providing this education: Sixth Form
Length of program in years: 2
Age level from: 16 to: 18
Certificate/diploma awarded: General Certificate of Education Advanced Level/General Certificate of Education Advanced Supplementary
School education:
Secondary education covers schooling from the age of eleven to the minimum school leaving age of sixteen. Pupils follow a common curriculum leading to the GCSE which has replaced the General Certificate of Education Ordinary Level. At some schools, pupils may stay on at a school sixth form for a further two years when they sit for the General Certificate of Education Advanced Level (GCE A Levels) or the General Certificate of Education Advanced Supplementary examinations (GCE AS examinations), or vocational courses leading usually to General National Vocational Qualifications (GNVQs)). Further education colleges also offer these courses.
Higher education:
Higher education is provided by three main types of institutions: universities, colleges and institutions of higher education and art and music colleges. All universities are autonomous institutions, particularly in matters relating to courses. They are empowered by a Royal Charter or an Act of Parliament. As a result of the Further and Higher Education Act of 1992, the binary line separating universities and polytechnics was abolished and polytechnics were given university status (i.e., the right to award their own degrees) and took university titles. The Council for National Academic Awards was abolished, leaving most institutions to confer their own degrees. Higher Education Funding Councils were created for England, Scotland and Wales, replacing the Universities Funding Council and the Polytechnics and Colleges Funding Council. Most universities are divided into faculties which may be subdivided into departments. The Committee of Vice-Chancellors and Principals examines matters of concern to all universities. Many colleges and institutions of higher education are the result of mergers of teacher training colleges and other colleges. The Department for Education and Employment is responsible for all universities. Students have to pay a fee of £1,050 a year (2000-2001). Non-university higher education institutions also provide degree courses, various non-degree courses and postgraduate qualifications. Some may offer Higher Degrees and other qualifications offered by most non-university higher education institutions are validated by external bodies such as a local university or the Open University. An institution can also apply for the authority to award its own degrees but it must be able to demonstrate a good record of running degree courses validated by other universities. Institutions can apply for university status but must satisfy a number of criteria, including the power to award its own first and higher degrees. Some higher education is also provided in further education institutions. This provision is funded by the Higher Education Funding Councils and the Department of Education Northern Ireland. The Further and Higher Education Act 1992 allows for the transfer of further education institutions to the higher education sector, if 'the full-time enrolment number of the institution concerned…for courses of higher education exceeds 55% of its total full-time equivalent enrolment number'. A new national body, the Institute of Learning and Teaching, is being established in 1999 to set up an accreditation schme for higher education teachers and to encourage innovation in teaching and learning.
Main laws/decrees governing higher education:
Decree: Education Reform Act Year: 1988
Decree: Further and Higher Education Act Year: 1992
Academic year:
Classes from: Oct to: Jul
Long vacation from: 1 Jul to: 30 Sep
Languages of instruction: English
Stages of studies:
Post-secondary studies (technical/vocational type):
Non-university level:
Non-university level post-secondary technical education is provided by technical colleges, colleges of further and higher education and accredited independent colleges which offer a large number of vocational courses leading to a professional qualification. The Business and Technology Education Council offers many vocational courses leading to the BTEC First Diploma (one year, full-time) or to the BTEC National Diploma (two to three years, full-time). A Higher National Diploma is conferred after three years' study by the Business and Technology Education Council. As regards professional education, the professions have laid down their own professional qualifications (some thirty major professional bodies exist).

University level studies:
University level first stage: Undergraduate stage:
This stage lasts for three or four years and leads to the award of a Bachelor's Degree in Arts, Science or other fields (Technology, Law, Engineering, etc.). In some Scottish universities the first degree is a Master's Degree. The Bachelor's Degree is conferred as a Pass Degree or an Honours Degree where studies are more specialized. The Bachelor's Honours Degree is classified as a First Class Honours, a Second Class Honours or a Third Class Honours. In some universities and colleges of higher education, a two-year course leads to a Diploma in Higher Education (DipHE). This is a recognized qualification in its own right. Some universities have adopted the credit-unit or modular system of assessment. In some universities students must follow a foundation course before embarking on the course leading to the Bachelor's Degree. Students of foreign languages are usually required to study or work for an additional year in the country of the target language. Sandwich courses generally involve an additional year's work experience. Some institutions have introduced accelerated two-year degrees which require students to study during the normal vacation period. It is now rare for the class of degree to depend entirely on student performance in final examinations. Most institutions base a component of the degree class on examinaions taken during the period of study, especially those taken at the end of the second year, and many also use some form of continuous assessment.
University level second stage: Master's Degree:
A Master's Degree is conferred after one or two years' study following upon the Bachelor's Degree. Study is in a specialized field. In some cases, the degree is awarded solely after a written examination but candidates must usually submit a memoir. At Oxford and Cambridge, the Master of Arts is conferred automatically after a certain period of time on all holders of Bachelor's Degrees. In other fields, it is awarded under the same conditions as in other universities.
University level third stage: Master of Philosophy, Doctor of Philosophy:
The third stage is that of pure research. At a university, it leads, after two years of additional study and the successful presentation of a thesis, to the Master of Philosophy (MPhil) Degree. After usually three years' further study beyond the Master's Degree, the candidate may present a thesis for the Doctorate of Philosophy (D.Phil. or Ph.D.).
University level fourth stage: Higher Doctorate:
A further stage leads to Higher Doctorates which may be awarded by a university in Law, Humanities, Science, Medical Sciences, Music and Theology after a candidate, usually a senior university teacher, has submitted a number of learned, usually published, works.

Teacher education:
Training of pre-primary and primary/basic school teachers
Primary school teachers must hold a first degree and a Postgraduate Certificate of Education awarded by a university or college of higher education. Alternatively, they must hold a BEd Degree and a qualified teacher status which can be obtained after successful completion of an approved course of initial teacher training (ITT). The main types of ITT courses are the one-year Postgraduate Certificate in Education course or the Bachelor of Education (BEd) course.
Training of secondary school teachers
Secondary school teachers must hold a first degree and a Postgraduate Certificate of Education awarded by a university or college of higher education. Alternatively they must hold a BEd Degree and a qualified teacher status which can be obtained after successful completion of an approved course of initial teacher training (ITT). The main types of ITT courses are the one-year Postgraduate Certificate in Education course or the Bachelor of Education (BEd) course which normally lasts for four years.
Training of higher education teachers
Higher education teachers normally hold a higher degree.

Non-traditional studies:
Distance higher education
The Open University offers instruction for part-time study for degrees and other courses by correspondence, supplemented by radio and television broadcasts, residential summer schools and an extensive counselling and tutorial service which operates through local study centres. Three main types of courses are available: undergraduate level courses, postgraduate courses and study packs. They are offered as part of Certificate, Diploma or Degree programmes. Undergraduate students take a series of courses which are worth one half or one full credit. A one-credit course is estimated to require 350-400 hours of study. An Ordinary Degree BA or BSc is awarded to students who have obtained six credits; an Honours degree (BA or BSc Honours) to students who have obtained two of these credits at the higher levels of study. Students may choose from a selection of 134 courses at four levels of difficulty. Up to three credits may be allowed for previous qualifications such as an initial teacher training qualification or a Higher National Diploma. The Open College offers vocational and professional training often leading to recognized qualifications. The Open College of Arts, set up in 1987, is affiliated to the Open University. It aids students of the arts who wish to study at home. It receives no government funding but as a registered charity it receives donations from other organizations.
Lifelong higher education
Extra-mural education is provided by universities or other institutions of higher education to adults living in the region served by the institutions and who do not belong to the regular student body. Higher education institutions may also choose to offer courses that are specifically intended to meet the needs of the local community. Thus they may offer part-time courses providing professional updating which people attend on day-release from work or attend in the evening, or leisure courses on local History or Geography, or Language and Literature classes.
Higher education training in industry
There are sandwich courses in which an undergraduate course is incorporated with periods of industrial training. The duration of study for an Honours Degree is four years. Admission conditions vary enormously and courses are offered only in universities which were formerly colleges of advanced technology.
Other forms of non-formal higher education
Other forms of non-formal education are available through the external system of the University of London where external students may study for certain degrees. The courses are available on a part-time basis. Birkbeck College of the University of London offers specialized training to students who are in employment and only able to attend evening courses. Centres for Continuing Education offer "open lecture" programmes and PICKUP programmes which develop short courses for continuing professional development.


NATIONAL BODIES
Administration & co-ordination:
Responsible authorities:
Department for Education and Employment
Secretary of State: David Blunkett
Sanctuary Building
Great Smith Street
London
England SW1P 3BT
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7925-6257
Fax: +44(20) 7925-6000
EMail: sec-of-state@dfee.gov.uk
WWW: http://www.dfee.gov.uk

Role of governing body: Administrative and coordinative role

Universities UK
Chairman: Martin Harris
Chief Executive: Diana Warwick
International Relations Manager: Pilar Teran
Woburn House
20 Tavistock Square
London
England WC1H 9HQ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7419-4111
Fax: +44(20) 7388-8649
EMail: info@universitiesUK.ac.uk
WWW: http://www.universitiesUK.ac.uk

Role of governing body: Represents the interests of the universities in relation to the government, Parliament, local and national institutions

Standing Conference of Principals (SCOP)
Chair: Dorma Urwin
Executive Secretary: Patricia Ambrose
20 Woburn House
Tavistock Square
London
England WC1H 9HB
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7387-7711
Fax: +44(20) 7387-7712
EMail: info@scop.ac.uk
WWW: http://www.scop.ac.uk

Role of governing body: educational policy design and scientific advice

Universities Scotland
Director: David Caldwell
53 Hanover Street
Edinburgh
Scotland EH2 2PJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(131) 226-1111
Fax: +44(131) 226-1100
EMail: info@universities-scotland.ac.uk
WWW: http://www.universities-scotland.ac.uk

Role of governing body: Represents higher education institutions in Scotland

Higher Education Wales (HEW)
Chairman: Adrian Webb
University of Wales Registry, King Edward VII Avenue, Cathays Park
Cardiff
Wales CF1 3NS
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(29) 20786-210

Role of governing body: Represents higher education institutions in Wales

Universities England and Northern Ireland
Chair: Roderick Floud


Role of governing body: Advises on the planning and funding of HE in England and Northern Ireland

Association of University Teachers
President: Alan Carr
General Secretary: David Triesman
Egmont House
25-31 Tavistock Place
London
England WC1H9UT
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 767-09700
Fax: +44(20) 767-09799
EMail: hq@aut.org.uk
WWW: http://www.aut.org.uk


Society for Research into Higher Education
President: William Taylor
3 Devonshire Road
London
England W1N 2BA
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7637-2766
Fax: +44(20) 7637-2781
EMail: srheoffice@srhe.ac.uk
WWW: http://www.srhe.ac.uk



ADMISSIONS TO HIGHER EDUCATION
Admission to non university higher education studies
Name of secondary school credential required: General Certificate of Education Advanced Level
Name of secondary school credential required: General Certificate of Secondary Education
Admission to university-level studies
Name of secondary school credential required: General Certificate of Education Advanced Level
Minimum score/requirement: 2/3 passes at A-level
Name of secondary school credential required: General Certificate of Education Advanced Supplementary Level
Other admission requirements: School report and interview. Universities may also impose their conditions, such as a certain combination of passes or a particular standard achieved in subjects taken at A level.
Foreign students admission
Definition of foreign student: A foreign student is a person who is enrolled at an institution of higher education in Great Britain but is not a permanent resident.
Admission requirements: Foreign students must hold qualifications equivalent to the United Kingdom General Certificate of Education with five or six passes including two at Advanced level.
Entry regulations: Passport, a visa and evidence confirming their registration in full-time courses and evidence of funds.
Health requirements: Students who come from countries outside the European Union need a medical certificate
Language requirements: Students must have a good knowledge of English. English courses and English-as-a-Foreign-Language courses are available in the private/state sector.
Application procedures:
Apply to individual institution for entry to: For access to postgraduates studies.
Apply to national body for entry to: For undergraduate studies.
Apply to:
Universities and College Admission Service (UCAS)
Fulton House, Jessop Avenue
Cheltenham
GL50 3SH
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(1242) 22-24-44
Fax: +44(1242) 22-16-22
WWW: http://www.ucas.ac.uk

Recognition of studies & qualifications:
Studies pursued in foreign countries (bodies dealing with recognition of foreign credentials):
National Academic Recognition Information Centre (NARIC), ECCTIS Ltd
Chief Executive: David Boynton
Head of the NARIC: Cloud Bay Yun
Oriel House
Oriel Road
Cheltenham
England GL50 1XP
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(1242) 252-627
Fax: +44(1242) 258-617
EMail: cloudnaric@ecctis.co.uk
WWW: http://www.naric.org.uk

Deals with credential recognition for entry to: University and Profession
Services provided & students dealt with: Recognition and equivalence information.

Multilateral agreements concerning recognition of foreign studies
Name of agreement: Convention on the Recognition of Studies, Diplomas and Degrees in Higher Education in Europe
Year of signature: 1979
References to further information on foreign student admissions and recognition of studies
Title: British Universities Guide to Graduate Studies
Author: Association of Commonwealth Universities
Title: Commonwealth Universities Yearbook
Author: Association of Commonwealth Universities
Title: Higher Education in the United Kingdom
Author: British Council/Association of Commonwealth Universities
Publisher: Longman Group Ltd
Title: International Comparisons
Author: UK NARIC
Publisher: UK NARIC
Title: Studying and Living in Britain: the British Council's Guide for Overseas Students and Visitors
Author: British Council
Publisher: Northcote House in association with the British Council

STUDENT LIFE
Main student services as national level
Association of Commonwealth Universities
John Foster House, 36 Gordon Square
London
WC1H OPF
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7387-8572
Fax: +44(20) 7387-2655
EMail: info@acu.ac.uk
WWW: http://www.acu.ac.uk

Category of services provided: Academic and career counselling services

Association of Recognized English Language Schools (ARELS)
125 High Holborn
London
WC1V 6QD
United Kingdom

Category of services provided: Social and welfare services

British Council
10 Spring Gardens
London SW1A 2BN
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7930-8466
Fax: +44(20) 7839-6347
WWW: http://www.britcoun.org

Category of services provided: Academic and career counselling services

National Union of Students
461 Holloway Road
London
N7 6LJ
United Kingdom

Category of services provided: Academic and career counselling services; Special services/Centre for foreign students
Services available to foreign Students: Yes

The Council for International Education (UKCOSA)
9-17 St Albans Place
London
N1 0NX
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 2263762
WWW: http://www.ukcosa.org.uk

Category of services provided: Academic and career counselling services

National student associations and unions
National Union of Students
461, Holloway Road
London
N7 6LJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 272-8900
Fax: +44(20) 263-5713
EMail: Nusuk@nus.org.uk

Student expenses and financial aid
Student costs:
Home students tuition fees: Minimum: 1050 (Pound Sterling)
Maximum: 18000 (Pound Sterling)
Foreign students tuition fees: Minimum: 4000 (Pound Sterling)
Maximum: 26000 (Pound Sterling)
Publications on student services and financial aid:
Title: Awards for Postgraduate Study at Commonwealth Universities
Publisher: Association of Commonwealth Universities, London
Title: Financial Aid for First Degree Study at Commonwealth Universities
Publisher: Association of Commonwealth Universities, London
Title: Study Abroad 2000-2001
Publisher: UNESCO/IBE
Year of publication: 1999
Title: The Grants Register
Publisher: Palgrave

INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION & EXCHANGES
Principal national bodies responsible for dealing with international cooperation and exchanges in higher education:
Department for Education and Employment
Sanctuary Building, Great Smith Street
London
SW1P 3BT
United Kingdom
Tel: +44(20) 7925-6257
Fax: +44(20) 7925-6000
WWW: http://www.dfee.gov.uk

Participation of country in multilateral or bilateral higher education programmes
Name of exchange programme: SOCRATES

GRADING SYSTEM
Usual grading system in secondary school
Full Description: Alphabetical system A to E. A: excellent/outstanding; B: above average; C: average; D: below average; E: failing.
Highest on scale: A
Pass/fail level: C/D
Lowest on scale: E
Main grading system used by higher education institutions
Full Description: Alphabetical system A to E. A: excellent/outstanding; B: above average; C: average; D: below average; E: fail.
Highest on scale: A
Pass/fail level: D/E
Lowest on scale: E
Other main grading systems
Numerical system.

NOTES ON HIGHER EDUCATION SYSTEM


Data for academic year: 2000-2001
Source: UK Naric, ECCTIS Ltd, 2001


Evert DELOOF-SYS
Belgium
Local time: 02:10
Native speaker of: Native in DutchDutch, Native in FlemishFlemish
PRO pts in pair: 1278

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Dave Greatrix: Thats what you call a comprehensive answer.
3 mins
  -> yes, it took me a while to write all this ;-)

agree  xxxjarry: Imagine getting a question this long!
12 mins

agree  Cynthia Brals-Rud: Refs. needed? :-)
27 mins

agree  Tina Vonhof: But why the excessive reference material?
3 hrs

agree  Lucy Simpson
4 hrs
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