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in past

English translation: explanation - not used in either British or US English

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:in past
English translation:explanation - not used in either British or US English
Entered by: R. A. Stegemann
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14:21 May 12, 2002
English to English translations [PRO]
/ English language use
English term or phrase: in past
Recently there has been some discussion about differences in use of the word 'future' after the preposition 'in' .

As I was surprized to discover that my past criticism of the Financial Times for poor editing has been misplaced, I would very much like to extend the discussion about differences in British and US language habits.

My Question: Do the British also say 'in past' as a substitute for the US expression 'in the past'? Or, is 'in future' a British oddity that does not correspond to a general pattern?

In answering my question please feel free to ignore the problem of adjective-use of the word 'past' in expressions such as 'in past events'.
R. A. Stegemann
Saudi Arabia
Local time: 12:05
No
Explanation:
We only say "in the past".
Selected response from:

Jan Liebelt
France
Local time: 05:05
Grading comment
Since all I wanted was a check by native British English speakers about the possible use of the expression 'in past', I found this response to be the most helpful. That others please accept my apology for not having made myself more clear.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +3NoJan Liebelt
5in past + noun (past used as an adjective) ; in the past (past used as a noun)
Nikki Scott-Despaigne
2 +1only adjectival use
MJ Barber


  

Answers


10 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5 peer agreement (net): +1
only adjectival use


Explanation:
sorry, I know you said to ignore this, but it is the only use I know of "in past". Maybe it is an Americanism, although I have never heard it (I am Irish)

MJ Barber
Spain
Local time: 05:05
Native speaker of: English
PRO pts in pair: 75

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Lesley Clayton
5 hrs
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10 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +3
No


Explanation:
We only say "in the past".

Jan Liebelt
France
Local time: 05:05
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 12
Grading comment
Since all I wanted was a check by native British English speakers about the possible use of the expression 'in past', I found this response to be the most helpful. That others please accept my apology for not having made myself more clear.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  jerrie
1 hr
  -> Thanks!

agree  Lesley Clayton
5 hrs
  -> Thanks!

agree  Betty Revelioti
6 hrs
  -> Thanks!
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14 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
in past + noun (past used as an adjective) ; in the past (past used as a noun)


Explanation:
1 - Do the British also say 'in past' as a substitute for the US expression 'in the past'?

Without the definite article, and when before a noun, the word “past” is an adjective. When the article is there, the word “past” is being used as a noun.

Here’s an extract from Merriam-Webster’s Collegiate Dictionary (US). British English does not differ on this point.

http://www.m-w.com/cgi-bin/dictionary

Main Entry: 1past
Pronunciation: 'past
Function: ADJECTIVE
Etymology: Middle English, from past participle of passen to pass
Date: 14th century
1 a : AGO <12 years past> b : just gone or elapsed <for the past few months>
2 : having existed or taken place in a period before the present : BYGONE
3 : of, relating to, or constituting a verb tense that is expressive of elapsed time and that in English is usually formed by internal vowel change (as in sang) or by the addition of a suffix (as in laughed)
4 : having served as a specified officer in an organization <past president>


Main Entry: 3past
Function: NOUN
Date: 1590
1 a : time gone by b : something that happened or was done in the past <regret the past>
2 a : the past tense of a language b : a verb form in the past tense
3 : a past life, history, or course of action; especially : one that is kept secret


2 - Or, is 'in future' a British oddity that does not correspond to a general pattern?

The basic adjective/noun rule is the same as with the word “past”.
However, in the sense of "from now on" as in Alison R's question here : http://www.proz.com/kudoz/199356, then of course, the expression "in future" (meaning from now on) need not take the article, particularly when used as a sort of warning. Used this way it is an adverb.

http://www.bartleby.com/110/121.html

ADVERB: PROSPECTIVELY, hereafter, in future; on the knees of the gods; kal [Hind.], to-morrow, the day after tomorrow; in course of time, in process of time, in the fullness of time; eventually, ultimately, sooner or later; proximo; paulo post futurum [L.]; in after time; one of these days; after a time, after a while. FROM THIS TIME; henceforth, henceforwards; thence; thenceforth, thenceforward; whereupon, upon which. SOON (early) [See Earliness]; on the eve of, on the point of, on the brink of; about to; close upon.


http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/adverbs/xadvb1.htm


“…some words denoting time intervals (daily, weekly, monthly), can also be adverbs or adjectives, depending on how they are used.”

http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/adverbs/xadvb1.htm

Your answers were:</TR< TD>

3a. This exercise is harder than I thought = Adjective
3b. I hope you'll try harder in future = Adverb
4a. The Times is published daily = Adverb
4b. The Times is a daily newspaper = Adjective

Review
In this exercise, most of the adjectives are in attributive position, that is, they occur before the noun which they modify. The attributive adjectives are: 1b late2a fast4b daily5a best -- superlative formIn 3a, harder is a comparative adjective, and it is in predicative position, following the verb is - this exercise is harder than I thought. Adverbs convey information about verbs, adjectives, or other adverbs. Here, all the adverbs convey information about a verb. 2b fast -- notice that this adverb is itself modified by the degree adverb too3b harder -- comparative form4a daily5b best -- superlative form



    Reference: http://www.ucl.ac.uk/internet-grammar/home.htm
    Reference: http://www.m-w.com
Nikki Scott-Despaigne
Local time: 05:05
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 26
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