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retire

English translation: active: to retire - passive: to be retired

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:retire
English translation:active: to retire - passive: to be retired
Entered by: Dan McCrosky
Options:
- Contribute to this entry
- Include in personal glossary

16:22 Jun 11, 2002
English to English translations [Non-PRO]
English term or phrase: retire
"...when he retires."

Can this espression also cover a situation when a man IS RETIRED for some reason, i.e. he doesn't retire voluntarily or because of his age?
Michał Szewczyk
Local time: 16:45
Yes definitely!
Explanation:
It is certainly possible, but it depends on what sort of person you\'re talking about. Apparently, the person must usually have been appointed the position.

Your expression \"to retire a judge\" draws over 100 Google hits:

http://www.google.de/search?q="retire a judge"&ie=UTF8&oe=UT...

\"to retire a minister\" : zero hits
\"to retire a lawyer : zero hits\"
\"to retire a doctor\" : four hits including:

www.doh.gov.uk/pub/docs/doh/consultation.pdf

\"to retire a public servant\" three plausible hits:

http://www.google.de/search?hl=de&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&q="retire ...

\"to retire a public official\" : zero hits
\"to retire an officer\" : 70 mostly military pertinent hits:

http://www.google.de/search?hl=de&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&q="retire ...

\"to retire a corporate officer\" : zero hits

\"to retire a military officer\" : zero hits

\"to retire a cabinet minister\" : zero hits

\"to retire a cabinet secretary\" : zero hits

\"to retire a sheriff\" : zero hits

\"to retire a police officer\" : 12 hits:

http://www.google.de/search?hl=de&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&q="retire ...

\"to retire a congressman\" was used at least once by Robert Henry:

http://elfwood.lysator.liu.se/libr/r/o/robhenry/robot.htm.ht...

but that may not be a particularly trustworthy source.

NODE – The New Oxford Dictionary of English shows \"retire\" with a person as the object: \"the Home Office retired him.\"

Merriam-Webster\'s Collegiate® Dictionary shows \"to cause to retire from one\'s position or occupation\".

HTH

Dan


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-11 20:01:47 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

First point: Sorry, I didn\'t pay enough attention to your short original context sentence \"...when he retires.\" I should have tried to clear that up. If a person has been retired or is to be retired, this means his superiors have decided they don\'t want her/him in that position any longer. Usually the person is nearing retirement age anyway. A 30-year-old person has probably never been retired. In my opinion, at that moment when a person is retired (passive) by his superiors, s/he also retires (active).

Second point: I should have not agreed so quickly and completely with Victoria because a person (subject) CAN theoretically retire another person (object). It is a combination of active voice AND a person as subject that means the retiring is voluntary (or at least when the person has reached retirement age) or s/he is voluntarily throwing somebody else out.

1. \"John is retiring tomorrow.\" means John wants to retire or has reached retirement age.

2. \"John is retiring Bill tomorrow\" means John is voluntarily throwing Bill out tomorrow.

The person, John, is the subject of both active sentences.

If the sentences are passive:

3. \"John is being retired tomorrow.\" means John does not want to retire and has probably not yet reached retirement age. He will have to retire tomorrow though.

4. \"Bill is being retired by John tomorrow\" still means John is voluntarily throwing Bill out tomorrow, just like sentence 2.

John is the subject of sentence 3 and Bill is the subject of sentence 4.

Whew!

Thrid point: There was a typo in the sentence:

\"Apparently, the person must usually have been appointed the position.\"

it should have read:

Apparently, the person must usually have been appointed to the position.

Dan
Selected response from:

Dan McCrosky
Local time: 16:45
Grading comment
Thank you very much. I'm still not quite sure if one can simply say "...when he retires" instead of "...when he retires or is retired" but you've been really helpful.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +7Don't think so
Andy Watkinson
5 +5Yes.
Gabriel Aramburo Siegert
4 +2subject OR object
Victoria Barkoff
5 +1Yes definitely!Dan McCrosky
4 +2No...
Arthur Borges
5 -1nope
Catherine Bolton
4Not common when talking about a person
Mads Grøftehauge


Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


4 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +7
Don't think so


Explanation:

I don't think you can say that XXX WAS RETIRED from his job.

He was dismissed (if involuntarily)
He was made redundant (involuntarily)
He stood/stepped down (voluntarily, depending on the post)


Andy Watkinson
Spain
Local time: 16:45
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 33

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  RHELLER: also laid off, given a "pink slip", downsized
4 mins
  -> Good examples

agree  Betty Revelioti
5 mins
  -> Thanks

agree  Sarah Ponting
11 mins
  -> Thanks Sarah

agree  Gloria Towle: eso es.
21 mins

agree  Sam D: People only use it (orally/incorrectly) in an ironic way.
55 mins

agree  Antonio Camangi: RETIRE only has a intransitive value.
1 hr

agree  jerrie: you can take early retirement/voluntary retirement, but you are not retired by someone..
1 hr

agree  Enza Longo
1 hr

disagree  John Kinory: 'To retire someone' is fine in BE.
23 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

7 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
No...


Explanation:
I'd maybe use it with things, as in: the tanks were retired from service, i.e. as a synonym for decommissioned. But I'd never do that to a biped.

Arthur Borges
China
Local time: 22:45
PRO pts in pair: 23

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Betty Revelioti
2 mins

agree  Gabriel Aramburo Siegert
22 mins

agree  Sam D
52 mins

disagree  John Kinory: 'To retire someone' is fine in BE.
23 hrs
  -> Oops, the yank in me didn't know that. Tks.
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16 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Not common when talking about a person


Explanation:
It can mean retracted or pulled out of service when talking about a plan, an animal, or an object. If you used it about a person you would be objectifying that person (or saying that s/he was objectified by whoever retired him or her.)


Google references:

space. Having exceeded both its technology objectives and its science
objectives, the spacecraft was retired in December 2001. The ...
nmp.jpl.nasa.gov/ds1/gen/mission.html

... He would occasionally throw off his rider, and was retired to pasture in 1969. ... Trotter
became a mascot in 1957, and was retired to pasture in 1972. ...
www.usma.edu/dcfa/activity/Veterinary/listings.htm

... Ahoy! The Homepage Finder was retired from service in 2000 and the code is not
available. ... Shopbot. The Shopbot Research Prototype was retired in 1998. ...
www.cs.washington.edu/research/projects/ WebWare1/www/softbots/projects.html

... If the rope was retired because it was cut or otherwise damaged in an event, or if
it was retired because it was used beyond your team's normal maximum working ...
www.xmission.com/~tmoyer/testing/used_rope.html

Mads Grøftehauge
Local time: 16:45
Native speaker of: Native in DanishDanish
PRO pts in pair: 16

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Sam D: Except ironically
44 mins

disagree  John Kinory: 'To retire someone' is fine in BE.
23 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

32 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +5
Yes.


Explanation:
Take this example from CAMBRIDGE:

retire (STOP WORKING)
verb [I/T]
to leave your job or stop working because of having reached a particular age or because of ill health, or to cause (someone or something) to stop being employed or used
He worked in television after retiring from baseball.
I'll be retiring soon.
The aircraft was retired in 1990.


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-12 16:27:49 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

John, I can hardly handle this software as of now. \"Absent minded\". There are two things, though: I hope I will be a little bit more proficient in the future and, second, during my whole life I\'ve been extremily good at making mistakes! By the way, I visited your profile and it clearly shows your level! Congratulations.

Gabriel Aramburo Siegert
Local time: 09:45
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Magda Dziadosz: absolutely. :)
8 mins
  -> Nice talking to a nice girl from Poland... You are mi first from that country since I am here. Good day (afternoon, night?) to you... Anyway...

agree  xxxOso: Un saludo cordial compa ¶:^)
54 mins
  -> Lo mismo, mano.

agree  Paul Mably: Collins Dict: retire (mainly intr.) 1.(also tr.) to give up or to cause (a person) to give up his work, esp. on reaching pensionable age.
1 hr

agree  Pawel Smal: Agree with you, disability is also a form of retirement
7 hrs

agree  John Kinory: So why did you agree with Arthur? :-)
23 hrs
  -> Mistake, mistake... Sorry.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
Yes definitely!


Explanation:
It is certainly possible, but it depends on what sort of person you\'re talking about. Apparently, the person must usually have been appointed the position.

Your expression \"to retire a judge\" draws over 100 Google hits:

http://www.google.de/search?q="retire a judge"&ie=UTF8&oe=UT...

\"to retire a minister\" : zero hits
\"to retire a lawyer : zero hits\"
\"to retire a doctor\" : four hits including:

www.doh.gov.uk/pub/docs/doh/consultation.pdf

\"to retire a public servant\" three plausible hits:

http://www.google.de/search?hl=de&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&q="retire ...

\"to retire a public official\" : zero hits
\"to retire an officer\" : 70 mostly military pertinent hits:

http://www.google.de/search?hl=de&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&q="retire ...

\"to retire a corporate officer\" : zero hits

\"to retire a military officer\" : zero hits

\"to retire a cabinet minister\" : zero hits

\"to retire a cabinet secretary\" : zero hits

\"to retire a sheriff\" : zero hits

\"to retire a police officer\" : 12 hits:

http://www.google.de/search?hl=de&ie=UTF8&oe=UTF8&q="retire ...

\"to retire a congressman\" was used at least once by Robert Henry:

http://elfwood.lysator.liu.se/libr/r/o/robhenry/robot.htm.ht...

but that may not be a particularly trustworthy source.

NODE – The New Oxford Dictionary of English shows \"retire\" with a person as the object: \"the Home Office retired him.\"

Merriam-Webster\'s Collegiate® Dictionary shows \"to cause to retire from one\'s position or occupation\".

HTH

Dan


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-11 20:01:47 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

First point: Sorry, I didn\'t pay enough attention to your short original context sentence \"...when he retires.\" I should have tried to clear that up. If a person has been retired or is to be retired, this means his superiors have decided they don\'t want her/him in that position any longer. Usually the person is nearing retirement age anyway. A 30-year-old person has probably never been retired. In my opinion, at that moment when a person is retired (passive) by his superiors, s/he also retires (active).

Second point: I should have not agreed so quickly and completely with Victoria because a person (subject) CAN theoretically retire another person (object). It is a combination of active voice AND a person as subject that means the retiring is voluntary (or at least when the person has reached retirement age) or s/he is voluntarily throwing somebody else out.

1. \"John is retiring tomorrow.\" means John wants to retire or has reached retirement age.

2. \"John is retiring Bill tomorrow\" means John is voluntarily throwing Bill out tomorrow.

The person, John, is the subject of both active sentences.

If the sentences are passive:

3. \"John is being retired tomorrow.\" means John does not want to retire and has probably not yet reached retirement age. He will have to retire tomorrow though.

4. \"Bill is being retired by John tomorrow\" still means John is voluntarily throwing Bill out tomorrow, just like sentence 2.

John is the subject of sentence 3 and Bill is the subject of sentence 4.

Whew!

Thrid point: There was a typo in the sentence:

\"Apparently, the person must usually have been appointed the position.\"

it should have read:

Apparently, the person must usually have been appointed to the position.

Dan


Dan McCrosky
Local time: 16:45
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 18
Grading comment
Thank you very much. I'm still not quite sure if one can simply say "...when he retires" instead of "...when he retires or is retired" but you've been really helpful.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  John Kinory: Excellent!
22 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): -1
nope


Explanation:
"When he retires" points to a decision on the part of the subject (he) to retire. The passive form you cite in your additional comment means that "he" is on the receiving end and didn't decide this himself.
If the subject is on the receiving end and has been asked to retire, e.g. for the reasons cited in the case of the judge (disability -- the guy can't perform the job), then you'd use the passive form.
"When he retires" simply points to the time in this guy's life when he DECIDES (but is not forced) to retire.


Catherine Bolton
Local time: 16:45
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 98

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  John Kinory: 'To retire someone' is fine in BE.
21 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
subject OR object


Explanation:

When a person is the subject of the verb "retire", the action is always voluntary.

When the person is the object of the verb (i.e. acted upon rather than acting) , the retirement is not voluntary.


Victoria Barkoff
Local time: 10:45
Native speaker of: English
PRO pts in pair: 8

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Dan McCrosky
14 mins

agree  John Kinory
20 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




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