KudoZ home » English » Science (general)

were or have been derived

English translation: were derived

Advertisement

Login or register (free and only takes a few minutes) to participate in this question.

You will also have access to many other tools and opportunities designed for those who have language-related jobs
(or are passionate about them). Participation is free and the site has a strict confidentiality policy.
09:19 Aug 5, 2006
English to English translations [PRO]
Science - Science (general) / scientific writing
English term or phrase: were or have been derived
In Ref. 3, the expressions for strains were/have been derived up to third order of smallness:
e11=e1+0.5...

Ref. 3 is a book published in 2001.

I'm a bit confused as to which tense is appropriate here. On the one hand, the expressions had been derived before they were published (simple past). On the other hand, in the text I'm working on, these expressions are explicitly written out, as if they have just been derived (present perfect).
Nik-On/Off
Ukraine
Local time: 21:29
English translation:were derived
Explanation:
I see the problem! The fact is, they were derived five years ago, and are not the work of the present author.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 6 mins (2006-08-05 09:26:15 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

If the text goes on to say something like: "and now we can derive them to the fourth order", the argument for "were" would be stronger. If the author regards the 2001 results as still current, the case is weakened, but I still think "were" is better.
Selected response from:

David Knowles
Local time: 19:29
Grading comment
Thank you, David and Robert!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

Advertisement


Summary of answers provided
4 +9were derived
David Knowles
3are derivedRobert Forstag


  

Answers


4 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +9
were derived


Explanation:
I see the problem! The fact is, they were derived five years ago, and are not the work of the present author.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 6 mins (2006-08-05 09:26:15 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

If the text goes on to say something like: "and now we can derive them to the fourth order", the argument for "were" would be stronger. If the author regards the 2001 results as still current, the case is weakened, but I still think "were" is better.

David Knowles
Local time: 19:29
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 8
Grading comment
Thank you, David and Robert!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Susy Ordaz
17 mins

agree  R. A. Stegemann: Though I disagree with your analysis, your answer is surely correct. It makes no difference that the same derivation was performed again in the present or even before the publication of Ref. 3.
18 mins

agree  Tony M: Yes, though it does also depend on whether the perfect or simple past has been used throughout the whole document, as changing in one place here would stand out, and possibly skew the meaning
18 mins

agree  Vicky Papaprodromou
39 mins

agree  Olga B
43 mins

agree  Yavor Dimitrov
1 hr

agree  Sophia Finos
4 hrs

agree  xxxooooo
7 hrs

agree  xxxAlfa Trans
2 days50 mins
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
are derived


Explanation:
In a textbook presentation of data along the lines you describe, the *present tense* would normally be used, at least in US English.

For example:

[opensolaris.org/os/article/2005-10-14_a_comparison_of_solaris__linu... ]

Table 1 shows the priority values of the different OSes.


[www.cis.org/articles/2004/fiscalfindings.html ]

Table 1 reports demographic information for households headed by illegal immigrants and all other households. Not surprisingly, it shows that on average households headed by illegal aliens have much lower average incomes and are somewhat larger in size than the average household in America. The lower income reflects not simply their legal status, but more importantly the fact that such a large share of illegals have little formal education. An estimated two-thirds of illegals who are household heads lack a high school diploma. This is important because it means that even if the illegal aliens were legal residents, their income still would be dramatically lower than the rest of the population. There is no single better predictor of income in the modern American economy than one's education level. As a result, a large share of illegals are likely to remain poor even if given legal status. Table 1 also shows the share of households in which at least one person works. A much larger share of illegal households had at least one person working in 2002 than non-illegal households.

Robert Forstag
United States
Local time: 14:29
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




Return to KudoZ list


KudoZ™ translation help
The KudoZ network provides a framework for translators and others to assist each other with translations or explanations of terms and short phrases.



See also:



Term search
  • All of ProZ.com
  • Term search
  • Jobs
  • Forums
  • Multiple search