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duplication

Arabic translation: نسخ، استنساخ، استنسال

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:copying, duplication, replication, reproduction, and cloning.
Arabic translation:نسخ، استنساخ، استنسال
Entered by: Amer al-Azem
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06:12 Jan 12, 2003
English to Arabic translations [Non-PRO]
English term or phrase: duplication
هل تعني نسخ أم استنساخ أم كليهما؟ و كيف لنا أن نميزها حينئذ عن الإستنساخ cloning
Amer al-Azem
Local time: 23:19
استنسخ الشيء بمعنى نسخه
Explanation:
This is what AL-MAWRID states.

Cloning is a kind of copying, mind you. If the convention settles on using ISTINSAKHA for biological cloning, then there should be no problem. For "duplication" in the sense of making copies of anything, I would use NASAKHA. There is no need to use a complicated word when a simpler one is available and widely used.

NASAKHA also has an older meaning not related to this topic.

Fuad

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Note added at 2003-01-12 06:33:44 (GMT)
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Amer,

The Arabic/English mix in your question makes the words appear out of sequence, and may even confuse the readers. I assume that the question is primarily about duplication as in the use of copying machines (like Xerox), and that you meant the question about cloning as a subsidiary issue.

To clarify my answer above:

For duplication of hard copies or other media, I would suggest NASKH (even though it has an older, unrelated meaning).

For cloning, the convention seems to be settling on ISTINSAKH. That may be one reason to avoid ISTINSAKH for duplication of media.

ISTINSAKH, according to AL-MAWRID, means NASKH. It is not an exact synonym (there are hardly any in any language), but it is used in that sense (additional meanings can be deduced from its form). It is used for cloning because cloning is a kind of copying.

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Note added at 2003-01-12 06:39:08 (GMT)
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Your follow-up question is not clear. The lack of context will always work against you.

Reproduction is used for copying hard copies on a machine, but is also used in biology for any manner of generation of new individuals of the same kind, whether sexually or asexually. Cloning, therefore, is a reproductive technology, just as in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination are reproductive technologies. They are vastly different technologies, but their aim is reproductive.

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Note added at 2003-01-12 08:46:37 (GMT)
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Do we have 3 terms? How about 4? 5? Let us see:

We have copying, duplicating, replication, reproductin, and cloning. As I pointed out, these are not exact synonyms, and ISTINSAKH may not always be the best term to use for each and every one of them. I prefer NASKH, unless there is an overriding reason, as in the case of cloning. In some situations, TASWEER or TAB` may work better. Other contexts may call for other terms.

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Note added at 2003-01-12 08:51:10 (GMT)
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Please forgive the misspelling. Here they are again: copying, duplication, replication, reproduction, and cloning.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2003-01-12 08:56:54 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Please do not be distressed that there is not a direct, one-to-one correspondence between English words and Arabic words. Not only does it not exist, but it is not even a good ideal to shoot for, because it is contrary to the way human languages work. Unlike other communication systems, like animal communication and computer languages, human languages defy such reduction. If human languages were so flat, translation would be given to computers and we would all be out of business.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2003-01-12 11:12:36 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Regarding Roneography: This term and its derivatives are trademarks of Roneo Alcatel Ltd. If the term NASKH is used, I think it should be modified to indicate the special technique used, for instance نسخ اسطواني or something to that effect. Again, the term TASWEER may in some context be more appropriate. The machine\'s basic function, after all, is to take a picture of something. NASKH emphasizes the utilitarian aspect, while TASWEER emphasizes the funcational or operational aspect.

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Note added at 2003-01-12 14:18:18 (GMT)
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For cloning, the Unified Medical Dictionary suggests both تنسـيل and اسـتنساخ.

However, the term تنسـيل has not been as widely successful as اسـتنساخfor a very good reason, namely that تنسـيل is already being used for any kind of generation (sexual, asexual, spontaneous, technologically aided, and even supernatural, such as the generation of Jesus). Any kind of generation where نسل is involved may be called تنسـيل.
Selected response from:

Fuad Yahya
Grading comment
أشكركم جميعا و فؤاد خاصة على المجهود الهائل.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +4استنساخ
Sami Khamou
5 +2استنسخ الشيء بمعنى نسخهFuad Yahya
5نسخة طبق الاصل
sarsam
5استنساخ / استنسالAli Darwish


Discussion entries: 4





  

Answers


7 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +2
استنسخ الشيء بمعنى نسخه


Explanation:
This is what AL-MAWRID states.

Cloning is a kind of copying, mind you. If the convention settles on using ISTINSAKHA for biological cloning, then there should be no problem. For "duplication" in the sense of making copies of anything, I would use NASAKHA. There is no need to use a complicated word when a simpler one is available and widely used.

NASAKHA also has an older meaning not related to this topic.

Fuad

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2003-01-12 06:33:44 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Amer,

The Arabic/English mix in your question makes the words appear out of sequence, and may even confuse the readers. I assume that the question is primarily about duplication as in the use of copying machines (like Xerox), and that you meant the question about cloning as a subsidiary issue.

To clarify my answer above:

For duplication of hard copies or other media, I would suggest NASKH (even though it has an older, unrelated meaning).

For cloning, the convention seems to be settling on ISTINSAKH. That may be one reason to avoid ISTINSAKH for duplication of media.

ISTINSAKH, according to AL-MAWRID, means NASKH. It is not an exact synonym (there are hardly any in any language), but it is used in that sense (additional meanings can be deduced from its form). It is used for cloning because cloning is a kind of copying.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2003-01-12 06:39:08 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Your follow-up question is not clear. The lack of context will always work against you.

Reproduction is used for copying hard copies on a machine, but is also used in biology for any manner of generation of new individuals of the same kind, whether sexually or asexually. Cloning, therefore, is a reproductive technology, just as in vitro fertilization and artificial insemination are reproductive technologies. They are vastly different technologies, but their aim is reproductive.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2003-01-12 08:46:37 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Do we have 3 terms? How about 4? 5? Let us see:

We have copying, duplicating, replication, reproductin, and cloning. As I pointed out, these are not exact synonyms, and ISTINSAKH may not always be the best term to use for each and every one of them. I prefer NASKH, unless there is an overriding reason, as in the case of cloning. In some situations, TASWEER or TAB` may work better. Other contexts may call for other terms.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2003-01-12 08:51:10 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Please forgive the misspelling. Here they are again: copying, duplication, replication, reproduction, and cloning.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2003-01-12 08:56:54 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Please do not be distressed that there is not a direct, one-to-one correspondence between English words and Arabic words. Not only does it not exist, but it is not even a good ideal to shoot for, because it is contrary to the way human languages work. Unlike other communication systems, like animal communication and computer languages, human languages defy such reduction. If human languages were so flat, translation would be given to computers and we would all be out of business.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2003-01-12 11:12:36 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Regarding Roneography: This term and its derivatives are trademarks of Roneo Alcatel Ltd. If the term NASKH is used, I think it should be modified to indicate the special technique used, for instance نسخ اسطواني or something to that effect. Again, the term TASWEER may in some context be more appropriate. The machine\'s basic function, after all, is to take a picture of something. NASKH emphasizes the utilitarian aspect, while TASWEER emphasizes the funcational or operational aspect.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2003-01-12 14:18:18 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

For cloning, the Unified Medical Dictionary suggests both تنسـيل and اسـتنساخ.

However, the term تنسـيل has not been as widely successful as اسـتنساخfor a very good reason, namely that تنسـيل is already being used for any kind of generation (sexual, asexual, spontaneous, technologically aided, and even supernatural, such as the generation of Jesus). Any kind of generation where نسل is involved may be called تنسـيل.

Fuad Yahya
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 7167
Grading comment
أشكركم جميعا و فؤاد خاصة على المجهود الهائل.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  HALAHouse: نسخة طبق الأصل
31 mins

agree  AhmedAMS
351 days
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

9 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +4
استنساخ


Explanation:
Amer, you are right.
It is duplication like photocopying. This is the original term.

Cloning is

استنساخ البشر أو الحيوانات

if it is about human or animal cloning.

This is a good way of differentiating between the two terms.

Sami Khamou
Local time: 16:19
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in pair: 818

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  HALAHouse
30 mins
  -> Thank you HALAHouse

agree  Aisha Maniar
3 hrs
  -> Thank you Maniara

agree  Bilal
15 hrs
  -> Thank you Bilal

agree  AhmedAMS
351 days
  -> Thank you Ahmed
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

6 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
استنساخ / استنسال


Explanation:
Amer --

For duplication, I would use استنساخ. For cloning, I would use إنسال or استنسال. A clone is نسيلة of نسل. Incidentally, نسيل is what the UMH Unified Medical Dictionary uses for cloning.

نَسَل ينسُل نَسْلاً و أَنسَل و تَناسَلوا أَنسَل بعضُهم بعضاً


Cheers
Ali








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Note added at 2003-01-13 16:11:25 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

The third edition (1983) of UMH Unified Medical Dictionary I have cites تنسيل only for cloning and تضاعف for duplication. Perhaps the 2003 edition has been revised.


Ali Darwish
Australia
Local time: 06:19
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in pair: 60
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

19 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
نسخة طبق الاصل


Explanation:
نسخة مماثلة

sarsam
Native speaker of: Native in ArabicArabic
PRO pts in pair: 313
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




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