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|English to Bulgarian translations [PRO]|
|English term or phrase: Vsi4koto tova dolo|
|Main Minerals and Metals Produced in Canada|
Pure aluminum is a relatively soft, silvery white metal with a dull lustre that is caused by a thin coating of aluminum oxide. It is this coating, which forms almost instantly when the metal is exposed to air, that accounts for its resistance to corrosion. Aluminum's great versatility stems from its excellent properties. It is exceptionally light, has great strength when alloyed, is impervious to rust and highly resistant to corrosion, possesses a high degree of workability and conductivity, and has a pleasing appearance.
Today, aluminum outstrips all other metals in terms of volume used, except for iron and steel.
The largest markets for aluminum in terms of total consumption are transportation (27%), building and construction (20%), containers and packaging (20%), electrical (9%), consumer durables (7%), and machinery and equipment (7%).
Bauxite, the most important aluminum-bearing ore, contains aluminum oxide, the raw material from which aluminum metal is made. On average, it takes about 4 t of bauxite to obtain 2 t of aluminum oxide, which in turn yield 1 t of metal. Most commercial bauxite deposits are located in tropical or sub-tropical regions of the world.
The Canadian aluminum industry differs from the country's other resource-based industries in that the raw material it uses is entirely imported. What attracted the industry to this country was a resource of another sort – falling water, one of nature's great renewable source of energy. Canada is a major producer – and the world's leading exporter – of this metal.
The primary aluminum production capacity in Canada was 2.3 Mt in 1995. It is expected that capacity in Canada will increase to over 2.5 Mt by the year 2000.
Asbestos is a fibrous mineral with more than 2000 different uses. Qualities such as fire resistance, spinnability and tensile strength make asbestos an excellent material for uses ranging from brake linings in cars and aircraft to pipes for water and sewer systems.
Asbestos is the commercial name for fibrous varieties of several minerals. The types produced commercially are chrysotile, crocidolite (blue asbestos), amosite and anthophyllite.
Because of its many practical qualities, chrysotile makes up about 90% of world asbestos production and trade. In Canada, chrysotile is the only type of asbestos mined.
In recent years, asbestos has come under close scrutiny as a potential health hazard. The risks associated with chrysotile asbestos can be reduced to acceptable levels by employing the best available dust control technology. Regulations have also been developed and enforced rigorously to control exposure to asbestos dust.
In Canada, asbestos occurs as veins within deposits of igneous rocks rich in iron and magnesium. The veins of asbestos may vary from hairline size to 10 cm in width, although most are less than one centimetre wide.
The mineral is mined from deposits concentrated in a 100-km-long belt of rock in the Eastern Townships of Quebec extending from the town of Asbestos in the west to East Broughton in the east. Asbestos is the site of the Western World's largest known deposit.
Most of the asbestos mines in Canada are surface (open pit) mines although there are a few underground operations.
More than 90% of Canada's asbestos production is exported to over 70 countries. In 1994, Canada's major markets were the United States, the European Community and Asia. Demand in the developing countries has become relatively more important for water, sewage and housing product materials.
Canada, accounting for about 20% of world production, is the second largest producer of asbestos after the C.I.S.
Coal has become, and continues to be, a vital component of Canadian life. Ironically, however, most Canadians will never actually see coal. Each time someone plugs in their kettle or uses their car, they will be experiencing one of the many benefits associated with the Canadian coal industry.
Coal is second only to oil in meeting the world's energy needs and is a critical input in the manufacture of steel. In Canada, coal meets about one seventh of our primary energy needs, mainly as a fuel for electricity generation. Canadian industry has also benefited from coal. For example, the Canadian steel industry depends on coal in the production of almost every tonne of steel. Coal is also one of Canada's leading mineral export commodities and is Canada's largest export to the important Asian markets of Japan and South Korea. In recent years, the value of our coal exports has been about $2 billion.
Canada's abundant resources of coal are most extensive in the three western provinces, and northward towards the Arctic Circle. In the west, coal is found in the plains areas, the Rocky Mountain foothills, and in the Rocky Mountain range. In the east, undersea deposits off Cape Breton contain a valuable supply of resources.
Undersea deposits have been accessed through underground mines from Nova Scotia's Cape Breton Island for more than 100 years. However, surface mining has long since become the main coal extraction method in Canada. Underground methods are used only where coal seams are too deep for surface operations or, as in Cape Breton, extend undersea. About 95% of Canadian coal production comes from surface mines.
Approximately half of Canada's coal is transported by rail. Coal from mines in eastern British Columbia and western Alberta travels about 1100 km to west coast ocean ports, or 2300 km to Thunder Bay for shipment by lake to Ontario or the United States.
In Canada, we produce more coal than we can use. The result is that about half our production is exported making Canada the world's fourth largest exporter of coal.
More than 20 countries import coal from Canada, our largest markets being Japan and Korea.
Although coal use is increasing worldwide, growing attention is being given to the effect of coal mining and its use on the environment.
In Canada, we have some of the world's most stringent standards for mine operations, worker safety and environmental protection. These standards ensure that coal mining has minimal effects on air quality and ground or surface water, and that lands are returned to other productive uses within a few years of being mined.
In nature, copper is usually associated with other metals such as zinc, nickel, molybdenum and gold. Copper combines with sulphur and iron to form sulphide minerals which may occur with these metals in either massive sulphide deposits or as disseminated deposits known as porphyries.
The most common copper deposits in Canada are accumulations of massive sulphides from volcanic or magmatic activity, and porphyries which have a magmatic origin. Economic massive sulphide deposits normally contain concentrations of about 2% copper. Porphyry deposits, although containing lower concentrations of copper, are usually much larger in volume.
Orebodies at or near the surface are usually mined by open-pit methods. When an orebody occurs at depth it must be mined by underground methods.
Some of the most common and widespread applications for copper are in electrical transmissions, water tube, castings and heat exchangers. In Canada, most than half of the approximate 200 000 t of refined copper consumed annually is used for electrical applications, mostly wire.
Copper is at the heart of the giant generators at power stations, transformers, electric motors of diesel locomotives, starters and generators of automobiles, and thousands of smaller electric motors, such as those used in household appliances. Copper cables are buried underground to form power and communications network for cities and towns, and laid beneath the sea to provide links between continents.
The second greatest consumer of copper is the brass mill industry, which manufactures copper and copper alloy tube and pipe, plate, sheet and strip, and rods, bars and shapes.
Canada is among the world's leading producers of copper, one of the most useful and important metals known. In recent years, annual production of newly mined copper in this country has averaged well over 600 000 t.
Occurrences of copper minerals in Canada are very widespread. However, concentrations of copper-bearing ore that permit profitable exploitation are confined to relatively few locations. Within Canada, four provinces, British Columbia, Ontario, Quebec and Manitoba, account for the bulk of copper production. British Columbia is the largest copper- producing province. Ontario, the second largest copper-producing province, owes much of its importance to the Sudbury region where the metal is recovered in conjunction with nickel mining operations. Large- scale copper mining began in Quebec with the opening of the Horne mine at Noranda late in 1927. The industry also developed in western Quebec in the Matagami, Joutel and Louvicourt districts, in central Quebec in the Chibougamau area, in the south in the Stratford region, and in the east in the Gaspй region. Manitoba, Canada's fourth largest copper-producing province, has three major producing areas, Flin Flon, Ruttan Lake and Snow Lake. Elsewhere in Canada, copper is recovered in minor amounts in the Atlantic provinces, the Yukon and the Northwest Territories.
Canadian copper mine production in 1994 was 626 000 t.
Gold is a bright, shiny yellow metal, notable for its great density – 19.3 times the weight of an equal volume of water – and valued for its extreme ductility, high resistance to corrosion, lustrous beauty, and for its scarcity.
Because it is the least chemically active of all metals, gold usually occurs in the free or uncombined state. It sometimes is found as nuggets, flakes or 'dust' in gravel or sand along creeks and streams; these deposits are called placers.
For the average person, the most familiar use of gold is the manufacture of jewelry, coins and other ornamentation. In fact, about 89% of total world supply ended up in these forms in 1993. Gold is also used in electronics, dentistry and the aerospace industry. The remainder is purchased by investors.
Canada is the world's largest producer of official gold coins and the Maple Leaf bullion coin series, produced by the Royal Canadian Mint, is sold almost worldwide.
Gold traditionally has been used as a monetary reserve by governments throughout the world.
Gold is mined in much the same way as other metals. Orebodies near the surface are amenable to open pit mining methods. When an orebody is discovered at a greater depth, underground mining is required.
In 1994, Ontario was Canada's leading gold producer with an output of 68.5 t, near one half of the national total. Most of this gold is mined from lode deposits, especially from the three mines in the Hemlo area, but a significant amount comes as a by-product from base metal ores at Timmins, Sudbury and elsewhere. Quebec, the second largest gold- producing province, yielded 41 t in 1994, while British Columbia produced 12.2 t. The two northern Territories together produced 16.3 t of gold while the Prairie and Atlantic provinces together accounted for 7.2 t.
Canada is one of the world's leading producers of this fascinating metal, ranking fifth behind the Republic of South Africa, the C.I.S., the United States and Australia.
Gold production in Canada in 1994 was 145.2 t valued at $2448 million, compared with 50.6 t in 1980 (one tonne of gold is equivalent to 32 151 troy ounces).
Iron is a common metal found in the earth's crust, where it occurs in combination with other elements. These combinations constitute the iron minerals, such as hematite and magnetite. The term "iron ore" is used when the rock is sufficiently rich in the iron minerals to be mined economically.
The Canadian iron ore industry produces iron ore in several different forms, including pellets, concentrates and sinter of different grades and qualities. Iron is the main element in steel – the metal so basic to industrial society. Most iron ore, both in Canada and elsewhere, is extracted from open-pit mines.
Of the four major steel-producing regions in the world – Canada and the United States, the Russian Federation, Japan and Western Europe – only the United States, Canada and the Russian Federation have enough iron ore for their needs.
In Canada, Newfoundland (Labrador) is the largest iron ore producer, followed by Quebec and Ontario. Canada ranks seventh in production and fifth in exports among world iron ore producers.
In 1994, iron ore was being mined by four companies at four locations in Canada. Over 95% of the production came from three mines within 50 km of each other near the border between Labrador and Quebec.
Currently, Canadian mines produce about 36 Mt of iron ore annually, and export about 80% of that quantity. In the world market, the EEC countries, the United States and Japan are Canada's biggest customers. One of the larger markets for Canadian iron ore is, of course, the Canadian steel industry.
Canada is a major world producer and supplier of lead, ranking third in mine production after the United States and Australia. In Canada, lead is produced mainly as a co-product of zinc and silver. About 70% of the lead produced from Canadian mines is exported to other countries in concentrated or refined form. Recycling of lead, mainly from scrapped car batteries, is also an important source of refined lead in Canada and elsewhere.
Lead is a heavy, malleable, bluish grey metal. It is one of the metals most resistant to common corrosion problems.
The largest single use of lead today is in the manufacture of the lead-acid storage battery, a vital part of every automobile. The average car battery contains about 10 kg of lead. In the communications industry, lead is still used extensively as protective sheathing for underground and underwater cables, including transoceanic cable systems. Certain lead compounds are used as paint pigments. Red lead (lead oxide) is the basic paint primer for iron and steel.
Almost all lead is obtained from sulphide ores, in which the most common lead mineral is galena. It is usually found in combination with other sulphide ores – most frequently those of zinc, and also those of copper.
Orebodies at or near the surface are mined by open-pit methods. When an orebody occurs at some depth below the surface it must be mined by underground methods.
Germany is Canada's biggest customer for lead in ores and concentrates. Nearly 90% of Canadian exports of refined lead go to the United States.
In 1994, Canadian mine production of lead totalled 172 000 t. Production of refined metal, including secondary lead production, totalled 243 000 t. Exports of refined metal totalled more than 133 000 t.
In Canada, nickel occurs with varying amounts of sulphur, iron and copper, plus smaller amounts of other minerals. The ore is crystalline in structure and is called a sulphide. Sulphide ores are usually found in deeply extending veins, and are most often recovered by means of underground mining.
Nickel is mined in Thompson, Manitoba, and in the Sudbury Basin, Ontario. Nickel will also be mined in Quebec and Labrador in a near future.
Today, nickel in its pure form is widely used for plating various products including household appliances. Coinage is another early use of nickel that has continued to grow over the years. Currently, the Canadian dime and quarter are made of pure nickel and the five-cent piece is made of cupro-nickel.
The greatest demand for nickel in the alloyed state is in the production of a wide range of stainless steels used in chemical and food-processing equipment, transportation equipment, construction as building facings and other architectural applications, and a vast array of consumer items. The second most important requirement for nickel is in the production of high-nickel alloys, used in high-temperature and very corrosive environments, particularly in the chemical, nuclear and aerospace industries.
Nickel is also used in many other ways including batteries and fuel cells, and as a catalyst in the hydrogenation of fats and oils.
The United States is Canada's largest customer for nickel and accounts for more than 50% of total exports for refined nickel. About one third of the nickel mined in Canada is refined in Norway and the United Kingdom.
In 1994, Canada was the second largest nickel producer in the world after Russia. Preliminary data indicate that Canadian production was 150 000 t in 1994, compared with 179 000 t in Russia. The next largest producers were New Caledonia, Australia and Indonesia.
Geologically, zinc usually occurs in association with copper or lead or both. Mining and milling operations, therefore, recover these metals as co-products. In addition, important minor by-products such as silver, gold and cadmium are often recovered.
Orebodies near the surface are often amenable to open pit mining methods. When an orebody is discovered at a greater depth, underground mining is required.
Zinc mines are located in every province and territory except Alberta and Prince Edward Island.
The greatest use for zinc is as a coating for iron and steel products to make them resistant to rust and corrosion. The application of a zinc coating, known as galvanizing, accounts for about 48% of worldwide zinc consumption.
The most commonly galvanized products are sheet and strip steel, tube and pipe, and wire and wire rope. The automobile industry is the largest consumer of galvanized steel.
Canada exports approximately 57% of its zinc, about 60% of which is exported as zinc in concentrate and the remainder as refined zinc metal.
The United States is by far the biggest customer for Canadian refined zinc, taking about 80% of total exports. Other major customers are Japan, the United Kingdom and Taiwan.
About 50% of zinc concentrate exports go to Belgium and Germany. Other major customers for Canadian zinc concentrate are Spain, Italy and France.
Canada is the largest producer and exporter of zinc, one of the modern world's most useful metals. Currently about 15% of all zinc used in the world comes from Canadian mines.
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