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preempt

Chinese translation: 优先取代

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:preempt
Chinese translation:优先取代
Entered by: Li Rui
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08:06 Feb 23, 2009
English to Chinese translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law: Patents, Trademarks, Copyright
English term or phrase: preempt
原文为: In Cipollone v. Liggett Group, Inc., the issue was whether the plaintiff's state law personal injury claims against cigarette manufacturers were preempted by the Federal Cigarette Labelling and Advertising Act.

试译为:该案的争议点在于《联邦香烟标示和广告法》是否可制止原告根据州法对香烟制造商提出的人身伤害索赔。

请教此处的preempt是否可译为"制止",谢谢!
PSPing
优先取代
Explanation:
我觉得理解成是否《联邦香烟标示和广告法》具有优先权而取代了州法可能更贴切些。
该案的争议点在于是否因《联邦香烟标示和广告法》优先于州法而令原告不能依据州法对香烟制造商提出人身伤害索赔。
Selected response from:

Li Rui
China
Local time: 07:42
Grading comment
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +2法律效力優於 (or 可取代、可優位取代)
Shirley Chen
3优先取代
Li Rui


  

Answers


1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
法律效力優於 (or 可取代、可優位取代)


Explanation:

Preempt 依上下文不同可能有不同譯法,包括: 取代、優於、優位取代、箝制等等。不過基本觀念是法律效力上佔有優先地位之意。在您的此段譯文中,可能可以譯為"《联邦香烟标示和广告法》法律效力是否優於 原告根据州法对香烟制造商提出的人身伤害索赔。"

請參考以下幾種不同譯法:

“Valid federal regulations have the force of law and preempt state laws and rules.” (有效的聯邦規章有法律效力並且優於州法律、法規。)
http://dict.veduchina.com/en/w/preempt


“這些地方性法規並不應被持不同意見之較高位階州法所優位取代(pre-empted) …“因此類相關法律之位階相當夠高,而且因為迄今尚未有相關聯邦立法之制度,故沒有前述之優位取代 問題。(文章引用: Preemption of State and Local Laws on Domestic Partnership and Sexual Orientation Discrimination in Employment (8 UCLA Women’s L. J. 267 (1998).” 《國政基金會社會(研) 097-025 號》http://www.npf.org.tw/post/2/5218#_ftn154

“總之,若依照聯邦優先權、法律先占理論予以推論,儘管可得「聯邦法優於邦法 」、「中央法優於地方法 」的定論,但這卻不代表邦或地方即毫無因地制宜的嚴格立法之形成空間;更何況,另就法律適用的順位而言,若邦法或地方法未牴觸聯邦法或中央法的話,仍應優先適用邦法或地方法。”
http://blog.sina.com.tw/423/article.php?pbgid=423&entryid=60...

如果这个领域需要的是规则的统一,而不是多样化,那么,州法很可能被取代 。(“If the area requires uniformity of regulation rather than diversity, ,preemption is more likely .”)
http://www.juree.net/ShowArticle.asp?ArticleID=384

“William K. Sessions III, Chief U.S. District Court Judge for the District of Vermont, rejected all of the manufacturers' and dealers' challenges to the state greenhouse gas emissions standards, ruling that auto manufacturers can meet the new standards adopted by California and 14 other states. Judge Sessions affirmed that Vermont's 2005 law to control greenhouse gas emissions is not preempted by the federal law. ” Source: BURLINGTON, Vermont, September 12, 2007 (ENS)
“佛蒙特州美國地方法院首席法官駁回製造商和經銷商所有對佛蒙特州溫室氣體排放標準的控訴,規定汽車製造商要符合由加州及其他14州所提出的新標準。法官證實佛蒙特州2005年對溫室氣體排放的立法,不受聯邦法所箝制 。”《台灣環境資訊中心》譯 http://e-info.org.tw/node/26501



Shirley Chen
United States
Local time: 18:42
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese
PRO pts in category: 16

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Kathy Huang
3 hrs
  -> Thank you, Kathy.

agree  karcsy
6 hrs
  -> Thank you, karcsy.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
优先取代


Explanation:
我觉得理解成是否《联邦香烟标示和广告法》具有优先权而取代了州法可能更贴切些。
该案的争议点在于是否因《联邦香烟标示和广告法》优先于州法而令原告不能依据州法对香烟制造商提出人身伤害索赔。

Li Rui
China
Local time: 07:42
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese
PRO pts in category: 8
Notes to answerer
Asker: 两位的解释都很有帮助,非常感谢!

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Changes made by editors
Mar 4, 2009 - Changes made by Li Rui:
Created KOG entryKudoZ term » KOG term


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