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established

Chinese translation: \"愈合过程进入稳定阶段\" or \"愈合过程进入稳定期\"

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:established
Chinese translation:\"愈合过程进入稳定阶段\" or \"愈合过程进入稳定期\"
Entered by: Julia Zou
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07:49 Jan 9, 2008
English to Chinese translations [PRO]
Medical (general)
English term or phrase: established
After 48 hours the process of healing is established
and we can see a perfect anastomosis.

Thank you in advance!
Julia Zou
China
Local time: 02:44
"愈合过程进入稳定阶段" or "愈合过程进入稳定期"
Explanation:
"Established" generally means something reaches a stable stage (or equilibrium). But here I think it just means "completed".

This following link provides a fair intro to the healing process and ideas about how long each stage of healing roughly takes.
http://www.emedicine.com/plastic/topic411.htm

As it explains, healing generalling involves imflammation, [cell] proliferation, and [tissue] remodeling.

The "primary healing" (occurs at the immediate site of surgery) does happen within hours after operation:

"Primary wound healing or healing by first intention occurs within hours of repairing a full-thickness surgical incision. This surgical insult results in the mortality of a minimal number of cellular constituents."

Inflammation, at the cellular level, is large scale necrosis (sudden cell death) because of physical damage from the surgery. I don't think the device like this is invented with the need for protracted inflammation.

As for cell proliferation, as I mentions, that occurs every 24 hrs (per cell generation) in the presence of proper factors (=biomolecules serving as a signal for cellular actions).

So, even though in absolute terms, it may not sound acceptable to all to say the healing process is "completed" (in lieu of "established"), it is correct to say that primary healing has occurred.

Back to my linguistic interpretation in the initial entry, "established" means "in a stable stage" -- so, you may consider "愈合过程进入稳定阶段" or "愈合过程进入稳定期"。 (this would suggest that healing process is at least past the inflammation stage... whether or not complete, I am not sure!!)
Selected response from:

Naikei Wong
Local time: 02:44
Grading comment
Thank you very much!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5确立
Bill Lao
5建立起来了
lhcm
3 +1"愈合过程进入稳定阶段" or "愈合过程进入稳定期"
Naikei Wong


Discussion entries: 29





  

Answers


18 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
确立


Explanation:
24小时后愈合过程确立,此时我们可以看到一个完整的吻合口。


Bill Lao
Local time: 02:44
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese
PRO pts in category: 17
Notes to answerer
Asker: Thank you very much!


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  chica nueva: Happy New Year Bill!确立 = 稳固的建立或树立:确立制度;确立共产主义世界观(现代汉语词典) Can this word be used for processes, in a medical context?
7 hrs
  -> Thanks。见我楼顶给asker的说明。

neutral  lhcm: “确立”的“确”字,太强硬了,有点过度。您认为,过了48小时以后,伤口就一定不会受到“感染”,那个“修复/愈合过程”就一定不会受到其他因素的阻碍?即使是过了“增生期”若干个星期后,伤口才是“初步愈合”,用“确立”过度了一些。
11 hrs
  -> Thanks。形成如何?

neutral  Yang Min: ××过程确立?搭配上好像有些生硬...
14 hrs
  -> Thanks。用形成如何?
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1 day5 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
"愈合过程进入稳定阶段" or "愈合过程进入稳定期"


Explanation:
"Established" generally means something reaches a stable stage (or equilibrium). But here I think it just means "completed".

This following link provides a fair intro to the healing process and ideas about how long each stage of healing roughly takes.
http://www.emedicine.com/plastic/topic411.htm

As it explains, healing generalling involves imflammation, [cell] proliferation, and [tissue] remodeling.

The "primary healing" (occurs at the immediate site of surgery) does happen within hours after operation:

"Primary wound healing or healing by first intention occurs within hours of repairing a full-thickness surgical incision. This surgical insult results in the mortality of a minimal number of cellular constituents."

Inflammation, at the cellular level, is large scale necrosis (sudden cell death) because of physical damage from the surgery. I don't think the device like this is invented with the need for protracted inflammation.

As for cell proliferation, as I mentions, that occurs every 24 hrs (per cell generation) in the presence of proper factors (=biomolecules serving as a signal for cellular actions).

So, even though in absolute terms, it may not sound acceptable to all to say the healing process is "completed" (in lieu of "established"), it is correct to say that primary healing has occurred.

Back to my linguistic interpretation in the initial entry, "established" means "in a stable stage" -- so, you may consider "愈合过程进入稳定阶段" or "愈合过程进入稳定期"。 (this would suggest that healing process is at least past the inflammation stage... whether or not complete, I am not sure!!)


Naikei Wong
Local time: 02:44
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in ChineseChinese
PRO pts in category: 50
Grading comment
Thank you very much!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  lhcm: You said--"Established generally means something reaches a stable stage" pls refer to the following link ,http://www.answers.com/establish?cat=biz-fin which item will support your claim? Please read my updated answer re: your view of "completed".. tnx!
1 hr
  -> I'm a linguist, not pedant by the book (people who write dictionaries are not necessarily better than you or me. We live in contexts). By the way, I rather cite sources like Webster or Cambridge.

agree  orientalhorizon: 个人较倾向于类似译法。其实,48小时后无非是确认一下愈合是否仍然在正常进行,因为前面说了,24小时开始愈合,但光开头还不行,所以才要在48小时后再确认一下是否仍然朝着痊愈的方向前进,如果此时还是很好,那根据医学经验,基本可以说“大局已定”。其实,“过程”是连续的,从一开始愈合,这个“过程”就算开始了,严格地说,可能会早于那个24小时。但开始后却不敢确定是否能正常继续下去,只有经过一定时间的考验,才能基本肯定。所以,这里涉及的是医学常识和逻辑,不是医学术语的问题。
16 hrs
  -> Thank you for your comments and ideas, orientalhorizon (...a very creative name!)
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1 day18 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
建立起来了


Explanation:
伤口修复过程,分为“炎症期”,“ 增生期”和“塑形期”
以下是外科教科书上的内容:
(一)炎症期 受伤后伤口或组织裂隙内为血凝块所充填,其周围组织发生急性炎症。如果不并发感染,损伤性炎症一般在伤后48—72小时达高峰,然后逐渐消退。**** -----问题中的句子,提到的48小时后看到的,就是这个阶段的顶峰期。)

(二)增生期 伤后局部组织细胞增生,其机理尚未完全了解,可能与炎症反应的刺激、失去组织细胞问的接触性抑制或抑素(抑制细胞增生的因子)和释放伤口激素(能刺激丝裂活动)等相关。伤后6小时左右,伤口边缘可出现成纤维细胞、肌成纤维细胞;约24—48小时有血管内皮细胞增生,可逐渐形成新生的毛细血管。成纤维细胞、内皮细胞、新生血管等共同构成肉芽组织,可充填组织裂隙。而原有的血凝块、坏死组织等,可被酶分解、白细胞吞噬、吸收或从伤口排出。成纤维细胞能合成前胶原和氨基多糖,肉芽组织内的胶原纤维逐渐增多,其硬度与张力强度随之增加。肉芽组织终于变为纤维组织(瘢痕组织),架接于断裂的组织之间,即瘢痕性修复。同时,还有上皮细胞、成骨细胞或成软骨细胞等增生,故伤口边缘皮肤(或粘膜)可新生上皮、骨折断端间可形成骨痂等等。各种损伤后的增生期时 间长短不一,多数为4—8周。

(三)塑形期 经过增生期,伤口可以初步愈合。然而修复创伤的瘢痕组织、骨痂等,在数量上、硬度与张力强度上并不一定适应生理需要。随着机体状态好转和活动恢复,主要通过各种酶的作用和运动应力作用,调整修复性组织以适应生理功能。瘢痕组织内的胶原纤维可减少和调整排列,使瘢痕软化而并不影响张力强度。至此,创伤修复过程遂告完成。
************
解释:
请注意以上教科书上的以下用词:
“炎症期 受伤后伤口或组织裂隙内血凝块所充填,其周围组织发生急性炎症。如果***不并发感染***,损伤性炎症一般在伤后48-72小时达高峰,然后逐渐消退。”
---- 解释:问题中提到的那个句子,所指的意思是,那个手术后的伤口,得到很好的护理,没有出现“并发感染”,因此,那个伤口按照其自然修复过程,进入“炎症期”的,期望中的高峰。

“塑形期 经过增生期,伤口可以初步愈合。然而。。。。。。至此,创伤修复过程遂告完成。”
----解释:请注意这里的“经过增生期,伤口可以初步愈合。然而。。。。。”, “至此,创伤修复过程遂告完成。 ”
如果把问题中的句子,翻译成“完成”,从医学的角度看,有可能吗?
*****************************************************************
After 48 hours the process of healing is established
and we can see a perfect anastomosis.

建议译文:48小时后,修复过程建立起来了,我们就可以看到一个完整的吻合口。
*****************************************************
为什么不能译成“愈合过程完成”,第一,愈合这个词,通常给人一种伤口已经完全恢复到正常状态的感觉;其实,48小时后,伤口是不可能达到“完全愈合的”。第二,“完成”这个词,是前面那种模糊认识的延续,这里的establish不是“完成”,而是指这种process建立起来了。还要经过后面的两个阶段(“ 增生期”和“塑形期”),伤口才会完全愈合。

为什么perfect要译成“完整”而不是“完美”。因为,上下文是在将一个伤口的修复。前面说过的用造影放射线检查吻合口的完整性,就已经可以作为这里的提示了。一个伤口的修复,完整而没有漏洞,这是医学所关心的。至于这个伤口会不会带来“美感”,那是观测者自己的事情。因此,无需要“完整+美感”(完美)来做不必要的修润。

即使抛开“伤口愈合”这个语境,如果文章是在谈一个具有若干个阶段的process过程,那么,establish这个词就不可能被译为“完成”,只能是“建立起来了”。 please do take my remarks personally, I am only discussing the subject from a linguistic point of view. Thanks!

*******************************************
或者,更简洁一点:译成“ 建立后/建立了”,省略掉“可以”。

48小时后,修复过程建立了,我们就看到一个完整的吻合口。
((感官动词see前的can不需翻译成“能”或“可以”)
********************************************

“建立”这个词,用在医学语境中的例子:

循环的建立
http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:wEVojooLSh0J:heal.cpst.n...



http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:LmYWOpQI4OMJ:www.eliu.in...

http://72.14.253.104/search?q=cache:r35N86qidU8J:hi.baidu.co...


神经元建立突触
http://www.google.com.au/search?q=神经元建立突触&hl=en

渗透梯度的建立
http://www.google.com.au/search?hl=en&q=建立 渗透梯度&meta=


********************
Juliazou: 12:20pm Jan 10, 2008 : 非常感谢大家提供的答案!看了大家的讨论,我不知道到底翻译成“建立”好,还是“确立”好? 或者翻译成“确认”如何呢?
********************
To Juliazou: 就您这个问题,我想:
首先,作为一个翻译者有您这种负责的态度,是可贵的。然后,您现在提出的这个问题,已经不是原则性的问题,原则性问题是“建立”还是“完成”。也就是说,您现在要把establish译成“建立”,“确立”还是“确认”,从医学的角度看,您都不会“误导读者”了。至于那个词更为贴切,这是语言方面的探讨了。我的愚见如下:
1. 您说的“确认”(confirmed),是从人的方面,对那个伤口来一个判断。但是,那个伤口的愈合过程,不是依观察者的判断来进行的,即使您不确认它,它的修复过程仍是按照其生理机能而进行。原文的那句话,是那个医生或作者,有这样的医学知识基础,在阐述一个应该出现的现象。也就是说,如果“没有并发感染”的话,那个手术吻合口的自然转归,将会在48小时之后,达到“炎症期”的顶峰(还在炎症期中,炎症期还没有结束)。也就是说,那个手术吻合口,达到炎症高峰后,就会消退,然后进入“增生期”。
综上所述,不建议用“确认”。
2. “确立”,这个词,跟“建立”的不同,第一:是前面那个“确”字所引入的附带意思,第二:是这个词所用在的语境和词语搭配上,跟“建立”的差别。按照我脑子中的语感,我觉得“确立”多用于一些抽象概念上,如理论的确立,认识的确立,概念的确立,道德的确立,制度的确立等等。另外,在描述一个医学方面的生理过程,用“确立”,至少我的脑海中,没有这种配搭。不过,如上面说过的,现在,不管您用建立/确立,还是确认,都不会有医学上的原则性问题了。

******************
To Naikei Wong:
Re: " "愈合过程进入稳定阶段" or "愈合过程进入稳定期"。 (this would suggest that healing process is at least past the inflammation stage... whether or not complete, I am not sure!!)

answer: Firstly, this inflammation stage, is part of the process, it is not negative in any sense. Inflammation is the local reaction of the immune system to the wound, it is a protective reaction. The thing should be avoided in this stage, is "感染”(infection). Infection is a bad thing, but inflammation here which is not as a result of infection, it is a good thing in terms of the process of healing. after 48 hrs, the wound still might be infected, if the wound is not being taken care of enough. the word "establish" in the text, is stating the process of healing from a from a physiological point of view.

Secondly, after 48hrs, this inflammation stage is not finished yet. please refer to my previous explanation. So the fact is "it does NOT Pass the inflammation stage yet" . Thanks!
***************************

这个问题,单单“理”化,看来还是没有完全解决问题;还得把它“文”化一下,通俗易懂一点。请参考以下内容:
“开始,建立,发展,稳固,完成。”
开始: 机体局部开始对伤口产生反应。(例如:一割伤的时候,立刻感到疼痛)这是“炎症期”的初期。
建立:各种局部抵抗炎症的因素到位,达到生理抵抗的水平。(例如:24小时内,疼痛最激烈,当24小时后,各种抵抗因素开始到位,直到48小时—72小时之间,达到顶峰,疼痛的程度跟刚开始的时候要减低)。---- 这是问题中的那句话所指的“期”(炎症期)中之“期”(顶峰期)。
发展:各种抵抗因素不断发展,稳住阵脚,开始“反攻”。这是“炎症期的后期”和“增生期”。
稳固:这是“塑形期”。
完成:“塑形期”的句号。
***************************

To Naikei Wong: Regarding your remarks as followed:
Naikei Wong: 3:18pm Jan 10, 2008 :----- " ( 一个伤口愈合,永远不会在48小时内完成) this is only true in an intuitive sense. For biologists and clinicians, healing is a macroscopic outcome of microscopic processes (cell growth leading to regeneration of tissues). Even a college bio student will not be mistaken “

Answer: please read the following paragraph in that article on the link you provided, it will clear up the mess.
" 一个伤口愈合,永远不会在48小时内完成。" this is NOT only true in an intuitive sense,BUT ALSO true from a scientific point of view, at the macroscopic level, and the microscopic level as well.

please read the following paragraph from your qouted article:
宏观上:
The inflammatory phase occurs immediately following the injury and lasts approximately 6 days. The fibroblastic phase occurs at the termination of the inflammatory phase and can last up to 4 weeks. Scar maturation begins at the fourth week and can last for years (Tanenbaum, 1995).
炎症期在受伤后立即出现,延续大概6天。成纤维细胞期在炎症期结束后出现,长达4周。瘢痕成熟期在第四周开始,可长达数年。(Tanenbaum, 1995)

微观上:
The macrophages continue the cleansing process and manufacture various growth factors during days 3-4.
在第三至第四天时,巨噬细胞继续着清洗过程,并生成多种生长因子。

结论:
" 一个伤口愈合,永远不会在48小时内完成。" This is NOT only true in an intuitive sense, BUT ALSO true from a scientific point of view, at the macroscopic level, and the microscopic level as well. Thanks !
****************

各个时期大约的时间 (根据中文的外科教科书,和http://www.emedicine.com/plastic/topic411.htm 网站上的资料)
1. 炎症期 6 天左右
2. 增生期 各种损伤后的增生期时间长短不一,多数为4 至8周
3. 塑形期 各种损伤的塑形期长短不一,最早可以从第4周开始,可长达数年。
(注意,这各个时期不是孤立的,是相互联系的,前后的期间有重叠的。)


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2 days2 hrs (2008-01-11 10:23:46 GMT)
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**********
"愈合过程进入稳定期"
what does this expression imply?

It implies that from the start up to 48th hour, it is an unstable period, after 48 hours up to the end of the process is a stable period.

why I don't think this expression is properiate?
Because:
1. the text is not talking about the stability of the process, but descriping the natural process of the wound healing what we can expect it to happen. It is not talking about the process in general. not an individual case.
2. introducing such concept of "stability" here, it is based on the answer's definition of the word "establish---- generally means something reaches a stable stage (or equilibrium). ". You are translating the text based on your definition of the word, not the content of the text in its clinical /medical sense.
3. The understanding of "inflammation"(炎症/发炎),I have explained this previously. But it is no harm to explain it again and again until those who might mis-understand the concept of it.
A. inflammation is a local reaction of the body to the injury, it is a protective reaction. Don't mix up inflammaiton with "infection(感染)", while infection means that the body is infected by pathogenic microorganisms. Infection is one type of postoperative complication which we should keep an eye on it and avoid it. So after the operation, the wound care is important.
about the wound infection, I would like to quote the following from the textbook:
切口感染是指清洁切口和可能污染切口并发感染而言。。。。。。手术后3-4天,切口疼痛未减轻,甚至更重,或减轻后又重新加重,并伴有体温升高,脉搏频速,白细胞增多者,应首先想到切口感染的可能,须及时进行检查。

5. The process of healing,it is not divided into "unstable" stage or "stable stage".

Conclusion: such foreign concept of "stable stage" introduced by the translater into the text is not acceptable either in terms of the principle of translation or from the medical point of view.



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Note added at 2 days2 hrs (2008-01-11 10:28:28 GMT)
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why I don't think this expression is properiate?---- typo
why I don't think this expression is appropriate?

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Note added at 2 days2 hrs (2008-01-11 10:30:00 GMT)
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It is not talking about the process in general. not an individual case.---- typo
It is talking about the process in general. not an individual case.


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Note added at 2 days18 hrs (2008-01-12 02:23:07 GMT) Post-grading
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Juliazou问题:但是“建立”这个词的确和前面的“24小时后愈合过程开始”的确有些矛盾
回答:您有没有仔细看过上面我对为什么不能译成“稳定期”的那个分析呢? 至于“开始”和“建立”的关系,这之间有什么矛盾呢?既然从上面从医学角度的长篇大论下,您还是认为这两个“词”之间有矛盾,那么,让我们再次把它“文科”化一下。把这个身体对伤口的保护性反应(炎症反应),比喻成一场战争。
当身体机能发现身体局部受到了伤害,(国土受到“刀割”)
机体立刻发出“警告”(如战争中的城市上空听到“警钟”),伤口疼痛---“警钟”。这只是“开始”(注意,此时,各防御机制还没有完全到达抵抗入侵的水平)----这是原文中的start
于是“机体防御(战争的指挥部)”立刻开始调动身体各防御机制,奔赴个战场。例如,“止血机制”的启动;中性粒细胞的吞噬作用(在头6-8小时之内,随着中性粒细胞吞噬伤口,愈合过程的下一个阶段就开始了。从伤口周围血管逸出的中性粒细胞,在转化生长因子β 的促进下向伤口迁移。这些细胞“清洗”伤口,清除组织细胞残骸。24至48小时之后,中性粒细胞数目达到高峰,然后在第72个小时前,他们开始死亡。);接下来是“巨噬细胞”的吞噬作用。再接下来是“肉芽组织”的生成等等,这些一环接一环,相互联系的过程,组成这个“修复”(修复失地)。直到受伤后的第3到第4天,巨噬细胞还在“清理战场上尸体”。(The macrophages continue the cleansing process and manufacture various growth factors during days 3-4.
在第三至第四天时,巨噬细胞继续着清洗过程,并生成多种生长因子。)
所谓“建立”,就是在炎症期(战争初期)各种抵抗因素从被启动activated/or started,到这些因素到达它们的战略防区,并建立起防御工事。这就是“建立”的意思。战争才开始,还没有结束。
单单是“炎症期”就大概有6天,文章中提到的48小时后,是炎症期的高峰,就是说,这个时候,各种抵抗因素,到达最高的抵抗水平,但是,还是没有打退敌人(伤口),随着炎症期的消退,6天后,战争从抵抗阶段,进入修复阶段,开始修复被破坏的桥梁,公路等等。这就是后来的“增生期”和“塑形期”。
“炎症反应”不是“感染”,它是一个机体的有效积极的保护性反应。不要以为是它的开始到结束,是一个什么“不稳定”到“稳定”的转归。整个修复过程,不管在哪个时期,都有可能出现“并发症”,而不只是局限于“炎症期”。切口感染,通常在手术后3-4天发现;切口裂开,就腹部手术,通常发生在手术后1周左右。
因此,把“稳定”的概念引入到译文中,不符合原文的行文意思,至于establish在其他文章中,有“稳定”的意思,不能成为把它引入到这个具体翻译中的理由。

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Note added at 2 days18 hrs (2008-01-12 02:37:30 GMT) Post-grading
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注意,受伤如同是“突袭”,不是一场预先准备的战争。如果是一场有预先准备的战争,那么,当然要把防区全部布置好,establish好,才开始start投入战斗啦。 不要单单从语言的角度去考虑问题,要从行文着手。而不是以对用词的先入为主的认识,然后把那个认识强加到行文中。

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Note added at 2 days20 hrs (2008-01-12 04:02:56 GMT) Post-grading
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退一步说,如果一定从“稳定不稳定”上说,那么,译成“进入稳定阶段”(隐藏的意思是说,第48小时前,是“不稳定”阶段),这跟原文的意思刚刚好相反了。如果没有48小时内的稳定,就不会如期到达“炎症期”高峰;文中的意思,手术切口没有感染,一切如常进行,在48小时后,如所期望的那样,达到了“炎症期”高峰。这样一个一直处于稳定发展的过程,从一开始,就是稳定发展的过程,突然来了个“进入稳定”。
这样的误解,来自什么原因呢? 原因就是上面反复说过的,把“炎症”跟“感染”的概念混淆了。它们之间的关系是:有炎症(局部反应),不是非要跟感染(机体受到病菌的入侵而出现病症),如这里的在严格消毒下进行的无菌环境下进行的手术,那个切口是无菌切口,只要手术后得到适当处理,是不会有“伤口感染”,正是在这种没有受到感染的稳定情况下,从一开始就是稳定的,机体自身的“炎症”反应才如期进行。


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Note added at 2 days20 hrs (2008-01-12 04:13:21 GMT) Post-grading
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那么,是不是在48小时之后,就不会有“伤口感染”出现的可能呢?不是,伤口感染不局限于48小时内。因此,把“稳定还是不稳定”这个外来的概念引入到行文中,是不太妥当的处理。这样会给译文带来“感染”。 :-(

如果原文是在说的“战争”,是一场“抗感染”的战争。那个伤口,是一个感染了的伤口,感染在用药后得到了控制,那么,用“进入稳定期”的说法就有可能被引入。如果原文是在谈及一场“急救”,病人的感染得到控制,病人状态或受感染的伤口得到了控制,不再朝恶化的方面下去,那么,就可以引入“进入稳定期”这样的用词。当然,这样情形下的“进入稳定期”倒译成英文,就不是“establish”了,而是stable.
由于原文不是处于上述这种“感染”的语境中,因此,引入“稳定期”是不太妥当。

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Note added at 2 days20 hrs (2008-01-12 04:46:52 GMT) Post-grading
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"Naikei Wong: 12:29pm Jan 10, 2008 : To please the crowd, you may consider "愈合过程进入稳定阶段" or "愈合过程进入稳定期"。 (this would suggest that healing process is at least past the inflammation stage.."------
这句话,反映出译者把“炎症(inflammation)”理解成了“感染(infection)”,炎症是positive的,感染是negative的。pass还是not pass“inflammation stage”跟“稳定不稳定”没有任何逻辑关系。inflamamation stage是“修复过程/愈合过程”中的一个必然阶段,这个阶段整个阶段都是一个积极的保护性反应。

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Note added at 2 days21 hrs (2008-01-12 04:49:56 GMT) Post-grading
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何况,在48小时后,inflamamation stage还没有结束,只是处于高峰。整个炎症期大约是6天。详细的论据,请重新看看上面内容。

lhcm
Local time: 02:44
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