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pooling arrangements

Chinese translation: 风险共保/管

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10:40 Feb 12, 2009
English to Chinese translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Transport / Transportation / Shipping
English term or phrase: pooling arrangements
原文为一个有关maritime industry的研讨会标题:“Non-liner: the application of EC competition law to pooling arrangements”

请教此处的pooling arrangements是不是风险分摊的意思?

另请问此处的"non-liner"与pooling arrangement是何关联?谢谢!
Kinkin
Chinese translation:风险共保/管
Explanation:
这儿是指海运风险共担的共同保险安排/机制。英文解释见下

pooling arrangement
An agreement to divide any losses that might occur equally among two or more people, typically with each paying the average loss.
www.spectruminsurancegroup.com/glossary_p.php

normal pooling arrangement
一般的共保安排
细心的读者可能会问, "优先互惠协议"与一般的共保安排(normal pooling arrangement)


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Note added at 7 hrs (2009-02-12 18:09:50 GMT)
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"Non-liner"是什麼意思?不過上頭Shirley有提到:liner (passenger) and non-liner (cargo & tramp),意思不大相同。

也许她理解的对。要看具体语境
Selected response from:

Adsion
Canada
Local time: 22:06
Grading comment
Selected automatically based on peer agreement.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +1集合經營 or 聯合經營
Shirley Chen
4 +2风险共保/管
Adsion
3联营安排,联营协约
Yurek
Summary of reference entries provided
Guidelines on the application of Article 81 of the EC Treaty to maritime transport servicesShirley Lao

Discussion entries: 5





  

Answers


1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
集合經營 or 聯合經營


Explanation:

請參考以下資料來源:

「长期以来,美国反托拉斯法以惩治垄断性市场行为、保护经济竞争为己任,而知识产权立法则使厂商可以就多种智力成果获得一定期限的法律上的垄断,这就使得协调竞争立法与知识产权立法的冲突成为美国和其他许多国家必然面临的一项重要任务...集合经营*7则是指两个以上当事人将其某一领域内的知识产权集中在一起,相互予以许可,并许可第三人使用的行为。此类许可行为有时能够发挥一些有益的社会经济功能,如便利互补性和关联性技术的结合、促进新技术的推广和传播、降低交易成本、减少或避免侵权诉讼,等等。...*7英文为Pooling Arrangements, 亦可译为联合经营 ...」《美国反托拉斯法对知识产权许可的控制》

"Non-liner" 一詞可能還要有更多上下文會比較清楚。




    Reference: http://www.joxue.com/paper/fllw/fllw06/6569.html
Shirley Chen
United States
Local time: 21:06
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  chica nueva: POOLING - The sharing of cargo or the profit or loss from freight by member lines of a liner conference. Pooling arrangements do not exist in all conferences. http://www.ports.co.za/maritime-terms.php
13 hrs
  -> Thank you very much for sharing the information, lai an.
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3 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
风险共保/管


Explanation:
这儿是指海运风险共担的共同保险安排/机制。英文解释见下

pooling arrangement
An agreement to divide any losses that might occur equally among two or more people, typically with each paying the average loss.
www.spectruminsurancegroup.com/glossary_p.php

normal pooling arrangement
一般的共保安排
细心的读者可能会问, "优先互惠协议"与一般的共保安排(normal pooling arrangement)


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 7 hrs (2009-02-12 18:09:50 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

"Non-liner"是什麼意思?不過上頭Shirley有提到:liner (passenger) and non-liner (cargo & tramp),意思不大相同。

也许她理解的对。要看具体语境

Adsion
Canada
Local time: 22:06
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese
PRO pts in category: 20
Grading comment
Selected automatically based on peer agreement.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Kathy Huang: "Non-liner"是什麼意思?不過上頭Shirley有提到:liner (passenger) and non-liner (cargo & tramp),意思不大相同。
27 mins
  -> Thank you,Kathy:-) non-liner = non-liner vessels, 指未加入某航线(航运同盟/公会)之船只:520180 非航运同盟. Non Shipping-conference/Non Liner-conference. 凡未加入某一航线或某一航行区域内运费同盟之船舶均属之。

neutral  chica nueva: NON-LINER SERVICE - A shipping service that does not operate to a fixed itinerary or regular schedule. ... http://www.ports.co.za/maritime-terms.php
12 hrs
  -> Thank you, Perhaps Shirly Lao is right, as I have said, but it all depends on the context, and I am sure pooling arrangements means 风险共保/管 here

agree  ILT
14 days
  -> Thank yhou, ILT!
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1 day7 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
联营安排,联营协约


Explanation:
FYI

Yurek
China
Local time: 10:06
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese
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Reference comments


25 mins
Reference: Guidelines on the application of Article 81 of the EC Treaty to maritime transport services

Reference information:
Your question relates to Articles 81 and 82 of the EC Treaty concerning the concerted practices or collaboration allowed for maritime transport services.

http://www.ukpandi.com/ukpandi/infopool.nsf/html/LPNewsHead2...

"Liner" refers to "ships" or vessels" So "non-liner" refers to something not related to ships or vessels. You may get a better idea of what types of vessels may be exempted from these Articles.



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-02-12 12:30:16 GMT)
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Until 18 October 2006 liner shipping conferences were excluded from the full application of Article 81 and 82 by Regulation 4056/86. In addition, tramp shipping and cabotage were completely excluded from enforcement action by the European Commission.

However, as from 18 October 2006 when Regulation (EC) 1419/2006 came into force, Regulation 4056/86 covering liner shipping conferences was abolished, and the enforcement regime for Articles 81 and 82 was extended to tramp shipping and cabotage. Liner shipping conferences were given a two-year transition period, which means that they have until 18 October 2008 to adjust to the new regime. In contrast, tramp shipping and cabotage were not given any transition period, but the Commission agreed to an informal ‘amnesty’ and has refrained from actively initiating any action against tramp shipping operators pending the publication of Guidelines.

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Note added at 1 hr (2009-02-12 12:39:40 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Accordingly, after 18 October 2008, Articles 81 and 82 of the EC Treaty will be enforced on liner shipping (passenger ships) but not for tramp shipping and cabotage.



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Note added at 17 hrs (2009-02-13 03:59:50 GMT)
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The U.S. merchant deep sea fleet is made up of three categories of service: liner, non-liner (or tramp), and tanker.

Liner service includes regular, scheduled stops at ports along a route. Vessels operating as liners may be owned or chartered by an operator. Operators must accept any legal cargo they are equipped to carry, unless it does not meet the minimum freight requirements of the operator. Liner service usually carries manufactured goods. Often, two or more carriers along a route form "conferences" in order to regulate rates and competition. All conference members must charge the same freight rates, although rates may fluctuate according to supply and demand for cargo space. Liner service vessels are designed to handle the cargo most often shipped along their routes. Trip frequency depends upon the demands for shipping along that route.

Non-liner, or tramp, shipping is scheduled individually by a customer who charters the ship to carry its cargo. Tramps usually carry only one type of bulk cargo, such as coal, ores, grain, lumber, or sugar. On occasion, two shippers of the same commodity may charter the ship jointly. Freight rates vary depending on the negotiations of the ship owner and shipper and the supply of and demand for cargo space. The tramp freight market peaked in 1995 and continued to decline except for a few peak rate periods.

Tanker service carries liquid cargoes, especially crude oil and petroleum products. Tankers may be operated by privately owned companies for charter or by the oil company or other company as part of its entire industrial organization. Oil companies also charter extra ships as needed. However, they are not the only ones to employ ships exclusively for their own trade. Other companies may have specialized ships for transport of their goods. For instance, produce growing and distributing concerns operate fleets of refrigerated vessels for transportation purposes.
http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3434500635.html

Shirley Lao
Taiwan
Native speaker of: Native in ChineseChinese

Peer comments on this reference comment (and responses from the reference poster)
neutral  chica nueva: NON-LINER SERVICE - A shipping service that does not operate to a fixed itinerary or regular schedule. ... http://www.ports.co.za/maritime-terms.php
14 hrs
  -> Non-liner or tramp shipping is scheduled individually.
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Changes made by editors
Feb 12, 2009 - Changes made by Adsion:
Field (specific)Law (general) » Transport / Transportation / Shipping


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