|margins of error |
Noun 1. margin of error - the margin required in order to insure safety; "in engineering the margin of safety is the strength of the material minus the anticipated stress"
margin of safety, safety margin
margin - an amount beyond the minimum necessary; "the margin of victory"
index - a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number
The term "margin/ margins of error" has different meanings in different contexts. Since, here we are concerned with technical/engineering field, we must find out its meaning prevalent in that field. In technical/engineering parlance, the 'margins of error' means the prescribed tolerance limit or the permissible limit upto which an error or deviation may be acceptable or tolerable. The margin may be either positive or negative or both.
The given sentence is: "whether margins of error have been met." This would best be translated as "क्या त्रुटिहीनता सीमाओं का पालन किया गया है" which means that if there are any errors, those are within the permissible limits.
वास्तव में, यहाँ error से अभिप्राय शुद्धता, त्रुटिहीनता, चूकहीनता, अविकार या ठीकपन है।
Any product has to adhere to certain norms of safety or accuracy and it would be termed as safe or accurate (or flawless) if it meets the prescribed margins of error. These are described as ± which indicates that the variations, if any, are so much on the plus or minus side.
Factor of safety
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Factor of safety (FoS) can mean either the fraction of structural capability over that required, or a multiplier applied to the maximum expected load (force, torque, bending moment or a combination) to which a component or assembly will be subjected. The two senses of the term are completely different in that the first is a measure of the reliability of a particular design, while the second is a requirement imposed by law, standard, contract or custom. Careful engineers refer to the first sense as a factor of safety, or, to be explicit, a realized factor of safety, and the second sense as a design factor, but usage is inconsistent and confusing, so engineers need to be aware of both. The Factor of Safety is given to the engineer as a requirement. The Design Factor is calculated by the engineer.
Appropriate factors of safety are based on several considerations. Prime considerations are the accuracy of load, strength, and wear estimates, the consequences of failure, and the cost of overengineering the component to achieve that factor of safety. For example, components whose failure could result in substantial financial loss, serious injury or death usually can use a safety factor of four or higher (often ten). Non-critical components generally have a design factor of two.
Buildings use a factor of safety of 2.0 for each structural member. The value for buildings is low because the loads are well understood and the structures are redundant. Pressure vessels use 3.5 to 4.0, automobiles use 3.0, and aircraft and spacecraft use 1.4 to 3.0 depending on the materials. Ductile, metallic materials use the lower value while brittle materials use the higher values. The field of aerospace engineering uses generally lower design factors because the costs associated with structural weight are high. This low design factor is why aerospace parts and materials are subject to more stringent quality control.
A design factor of 1.0 implies that the design meets but does not exceed the design requirements. A high design factor implies "overengineering" which results in excessive weight and/or cost.
Many government agencies and aerospace companies require the use of a Margin of Safety (M.S.) to describe the ratio of the strength of the structure to the requirements.
Design Factor = Failure Load / Design Load
Margin of Safety = [Failure Load /(Design Load*FoS)] - 1
For a successful design, the Design Factor must always equal or exceed the required Factor of Safety and the Margin of Safety is greater than zero. The Margin of Safety is sometimes, but infrequently, used as a percentage, i.e., a 0.50 M.S vs. a 50% M.S. When a structure meets all requirements it is said to have a "positive margin".
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