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exapted

Italian translation: esattamento

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
English term or phrase:exaptation
Italian translation:esattamento
Entered by: luskie
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16:48 Jun 2, 2002
English to Italian translations [PRO]
Linguistics / Linguistics
English term or phrase: exapted
What makes the new varieties restructured is not only the particular combinations of features but also the way in which the features themselves have been modified, "exapted".
chiara37
Local time: 19:56
esattamento
Explanation:

SYLLABICATION: ex·ap·ta·tion
NOUN: Biology The utilization of a structure or feature for a function other than that for which it was developed through natural selection.

ETYMOLOGY: ex– + (ad)aptation.

OTHER FORMS: ex·apted —ADJECTIVE
ex·aptive —ADJECTIVE

Nel link proposto viene usato "esattamento"


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Note added at 2002-06-02 17:27:16 (GMT)
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anche:

http://cubo.newton.rcs.it:8666/archivio/articolo.php3?IdArti...

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Note added at 2002-06-02 17:29:59 (GMT)
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Naturalmente \"esattamento\" sarebbe la traduzione di \"exaptation\", ma poiché non ho alcun riscontro di un aggettivo come \"esattato\", propongo di usare eventualmente una circonlocuzione, si potrebbe dire ad esempio che \"ha subito un processo di esattamento\"

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Note added at 2002-06-02 17:32:06 (GMT)
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esattamento è anche usato in:

http://www.artvillage.it/anin/Neu 1-2002 PDF/Neu 1-2002 da p...
Selected response from:

Joe_uk
United Kingdom
Local time: 18:56
Grading comment
Grazie!! Tanto gentile.. sai sto facendo una traduzione per la tesi!! Ti ringrazio ancora!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +2esattamento
Joe_uk
4riutilizzati/ reimpiegati/ riciclati
Daniela McKeeby
4Vd sottogmel117608
4derivato/ricavato/tramutato
Gian
3 +1vedi sottoFrancesco Verde
4vedi sotto
Federica Jean
4exapted, ....jamax28
2mutuatoGiacomo Camaiora


Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


24 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
exapted, ....


Explanation:
......non penso che ci sia una traduzione esatta dall'inglese all'italiano, ti posso dire che in pratica expeted or exaptation, e' l;evoluzione attraverso i secoli, negli esseri animali ed umani, adattamento.

jamax28
Local time: 18:56
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in ItalianItalian
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27 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
vedi sotto


Explanation:
l'unica cosa che ho trovato a riguardo è questa spigazione:
"In 1982, biologists Elizabeth Vrba and Stephen Jay Gould submitted a paper to the journal Paleobiology entitled: "Exaptation – a missing term in the science of form". This paper fundamentally changed the way many scientists viewed the process of evolution and adaptation. Vrba and Gould suggested that scientists were limited in their understanding of evolution because they didn’t have the words to describe what they saw. In order to remedy this, they coined a new term: Exaptation. Exaptation refers to a structure that evolved for one reason (or randomly for no reason at all), and was then co-opted to a new use. Simply put, an exaptation is when you take something that does one thing, and you realize that you can use it for something different."
purtroppo non so dirti altro.
ciao



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Note added at 2002-06-02 17:24:32 (GMT)
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credo che l\'unico ed eventuale traducente sia *adattato* come puoi notare qui di seguito:
exaptation v. (formerly preadaptation) adoption of a character that had one use in an ancestral form into a new, different use in a descendant form. For example, three bones in the jaws of the ancestors of mammals were exapted into the hammer, stirrup and anvil, the bones of the middle ear.




    Reference: http://www.exapted.com
Francesco Verde
Local time: 19:56
Native speaker of: Native in ItalianItalian

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  didiv
3 hrs
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31 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
vedi sotto


Explanation:
Anch'io dubito che ci sia una traduzione. Il significato è "adattare" un organo a una nuova funzione. In campo linguistico, trovo quanto segue:

"In his work on redundancy, Roger Lass (1990) uses the concept of exaptation, a term he has imported into linguistics from the natural sci-ences. Lass quotes the work of the evolutionary biologists Stephen Jay Gouldand Elisabeth Urba, who coined the term to explain certain developmentalfeatures of the archaeopteryx. This dinosaur was feathered but at first flight-less, the feathers serving to keep it warm. When it no longer needed feathersto serve that function but had evolved a skeletal structure that would supportflight, the feathers exaptedfrom their earlier thermoregulatory function toa new, aerodynamic one.
Gould and Urba (1982) report that large amounts of redundant DNAare stored in the cells of many organisms in the form of duplicate genes. Asmuch as a quarter of the amount of total genetic material of fruit flies andhuman beings is a duplication of other genes. The surplus DNA is of enor-mous evolutionary importance since it provides the locus for change. Thereis, of course, no perfect parallel between the structure of DNA and that oflinguistic material, but, as Roman Jakobson has pointed out, redundancy serves an essential function in language too. Discussing the sound shape of speech, Jakobson observes that redundant features "serve to support andenhance the distinctive features" (Jakobson and Waugh 1987, 39). Becausethe same piece of information is encoded two (or more) times in an utter-ance, the hearer has more chances to recognize the salient distinctions."

HTH

Federica


    Reference: http://www.oup-usa.org/sc/019513852X/019513852X_01.pdf
Federica Jean
Local time: 19:56
Native speaker of: Italian
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34 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
derivato/ricavato/tramutato


Explanation:
from all categories generate
retrosequences that may be exapted as novel genes or regulatory elements. ..

In fact, Gould's (1991) thesis is geared toward exapted functions performed
by the brain to serve psychological rather than biological functions. ...

Either a) the structure is a neomorph, such as the rostrals of ceratopsians, or
(vastly more common) b) the structure is exapted from a previously existing ...


Gian
Italy
Local time: 19:56
Native speaker of: Native in ItalianItalian
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37 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
esattamento


Explanation:

SYLLABICATION: ex·ap·ta·tion
NOUN: Biology The utilization of a structure or feature for a function other than that for which it was developed through natural selection.

ETYMOLOGY: ex– + (ad)aptation.

OTHER FORMS: ex·apted —ADJECTIVE
ex·aptive —ADJECTIVE

Nel link proposto viene usato "esattamento"


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-02 17:27:16 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

anche:

http://cubo.newton.rcs.it:8666/archivio/articolo.php3?IdArti...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-02 17:29:59 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Naturalmente \"esattamento\" sarebbe la traduzione di \"exaptation\", ma poiché non ho alcun riscontro di un aggettivo come \"esattato\", propongo di usare eventualmente una circonlocuzione, si potrebbe dire ad esempio che \"ha subito un processo di esattamento\"

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-02 17:32:06 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

esattamento è anche usato in:

http://www.artvillage.it/anin/Neu 1-2002 PDF/Neu 1-2002 da p...


    Reference: http://gral.ip.rm.cnr.it/rcalabretta/tedarwin/meccanismi.htm
Joe_uk
United Kingdom
Local time: 18:56
PRO pts in category: 4
Grading comment
Grazie!! Tanto gentile.. sai sto facendo una traduzione per la tesi!! Ti ringrazio ancora!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  gmel117608
2 hrs

agree  luskie: non sapevo che esaptation fosse stato tradotto in italiano: che bella notizia! Ha subito un processo di esattamento!
3 hrs
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57 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
riutilizzati/ reimpiegati/ riciclati


Explanation:
to keep it simple :-)

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Note added at 2002-06-02 17:54:29 (GMT)
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\"or “exapted”ones, to use a favorite term of Stephen Jay Gould’s to indi-cate something pre-existing that has been recruited for a new function\" @ http://216.239.39.100/search?q=cache:q4eeQ5Hvim0C:c246.lbl.g...


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Note added at 2002-06-02 17:55:21 (GMT)
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riadattati

Daniela McKeeby
United States
Local time: 13:56
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in RomanianRomanian
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5
mutuato


Explanation:
Entità mutuata da un'altra.


In generale, sbirciando attraverso internet si vede che:
"exapted" = "si riferisce a qualcosa che si è evoluto originariamente per svolgere un certa funzione/ruolo e invece alla fine del processo ne svolge un'altra"



1) http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0961/2001_Annual/73232723/...

"Research has also addressed how evolved characteristics also may be exapted for use in other contexts. (In contrast to an adaptation, defined in terms of a history of use for a particular function, an exaptation evolved for one use and is used, or exapted, for another; feathers were adaptations for thermal control and then exapted for flight.) "







    Reference: http://www.findarticles.com/cf_0/m0961/2001_Annual/73232723/...
Giacomo Camaiora
Italy
Local time: 19:56
Native speaker of: Native in ItalianItalian
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Vd sotto


Explanation:
adattamento evolutivo.

Esattazione mi va anche bene come neologismo, ma mi sembra che non aggiunga nulla di nuovo al classico "adattamente evolutivo", inteso in senso darwiniano.

Inoltre esattazione sarebbe compreso da pochi. (Ma potra' piacere moltissimo agli snob, perché nuovo).

Al limite potresti usarli entrambi.

Buon lavoro,
Giuseppe (Melecci)



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Note added at 2002-06-02 18:19:05 (GMT)
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oppure

modifiche evolutive

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Note added at 2002-06-02 19:27:27 (GMT)
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Cara Chiara,

Scusa ma ho cambiato idea. Joe_uk ha ragione. Exaptation si trova anche sul Dizionario Linguistico di Oxford. Lo poi verificare andando su google. A questo punto potresti persino tentare di introdurre \"esattato/a\" (exapted), magari mettendo tra parentesi un traducente equivalente e più tradizionale (evoluto/adattato)

Buon lavoro
Giuseppe

gmel117608
Local time: 18:56
Native speaker of: Native in ItalianItalian
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