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08:45 Jun 23, 2004
English to Malay translations [Non-PRO] Sports / Fitness / Recreation
English term or phrase:How Wine is Made
The process of fermentation involves the metamorphosis of grape juice to wine. Yeast creates the wine by metabolizing the grape sugars. It digests and breaks down the sugars which then form into carbon dioxide and alcohol. Pure cultured yeasts are selected for their influences on each individual grape variety. Some yeasts do not metabolize colour and are best suited for red wines. Other yeasts can tolerate the cold and are great for cold cellars or white wines.
Once fermentation is complete, racking begins. Racking is the process in which the yeast that has settled to the bottom of the barrel is removed. The wine is pumped out of the barrel or tank, leaving the yeast behind in the bottom of the container. This process may take place several times before the wine becomes clear. Racking can take place a week or years after fermentation, depending on the style of wine that is being made.
Fining is the process in which unwanted natural substances, like excess protein or tannins, are removed. These substances are removed because they may cause the wine to be cloudy or may give it an unbalanced taste.
10. Cold Stabilization
This process makes the wines “tartrate stable”. In wine, there are two main types of acid; malic and tartric. These acids are in abundance in the grape juice, but become less soluble in the presence of alcohol. The higher the alcohol, the less soluble the acid. Potassium and calcium combine with the malic and tartric acids, producing a white crystal. If left uncontrolled, these crystals can form and precipitate in the wine bottle instead of the tank. Often referred to as "wine diamonds", these crystals are often processed into cream of tartar and used for cooking.
Filtering takes place in many different ways. Some wines are ready to bottle right from racking and aging. Others require diatomaceous earth (DE) filtering, pad filtering or micron filtering. DE filters are very gentle and work on a sieve principle. Filter pads work on absorption and micron filters, which filter out extremely small particles, also work on the sieve principle. Micron filters are also known as police filters because they screen bacteria and yeast cells.
From the time the last grape arrives in the fall to the time when the wine is ready for bottling, many years of work have past. Filling the bottles, corking, capsuling, labelling and palletizing are the last steps to finishing the wine. Red wines often mature for years before being sold. White wines tend to come to market earlier. Wine is made up of over a thousand different minerals, vitamins and other components and once in the bottle, the wine continues to mature and improve.