Diferencias más obvias:
1 – lo que se te entrega en fideicomiso es para que lo administres en beneficio de un tercero, no del tuyo propio; en cambio, lo te dejan en herencia es para tu propio provecho;
2 – sólo una persona natural puede hacer un testamento, en cambio el fideicomiso puede ser creado por una persona natural o una persona jurídica (fideicomiso institucional);
Puedes ver otras diferencias estudiando las definiciones que te copio a continuación.
FIDEICOMISO. Disposición de última voluntad en virtud de la cual el testador deja sus bienes, o parte de ellos, encomendados a la buena fe de una persona para que, al morir ésta a su vez, o la cumplirse determinadas condiciones o plazos, transmitida la herencia a otro heredero o invierta el patrimonio del modo que se le señale
TESTAMENTO. Declaración de última voluntad, relativa a los bienes y otras cuestiones, reconocimientos finales, nombramientos de tutores, revelaciones o confesiones, disposiciones funerarias. Acto en que tal manifestación se formula. Documento donde consta legalmente la voluntad del testador. (…) ABIERTO. De conformidad con el artículo 680 del Cód. Civ. esp., es abierto el testamento siempre que el testador manifieste su última voluntad en presencia de las personas que deban autorizar el acto, las cuales quedan así enteradas de lo dispuesto en el mismo. AD CAUTELAM. Forma de testar suprimida en forma expresa o tácita en los Códigos, por la cual se establecía por el propio testador que se tuviera por no válida la revocación de su testamento si la mismo no se hiciese usando ciertas palabras, signos o títulos. CERRADO. El escrito por el testador, o por otra persona en su nombre, y que, bajo cubierta cerrada y sellada, que no puede abrirse sin romperse, es autorizado en el sobrescrito por el notario y los testigos, en forma legal. COMUN. Lo mismo que testamento ordinario. DEL CIEGO.Por la situación especial en que se encuentran quienes carecen del precioso sentido de la vista, que los expone a fáciles errores y a pérfidos engaños en materia de intereses, se han establecido ciertas prohibiciones testamentarias en relación con los ciegos, y otras garantías en las formas permitidas a ellos, superiores a las ordinariasESPECIAL.Llamado también privilegiado por algunos juristas, es aquel que requiere para su otorgamientos circunstancias especiales de estado o de lugar.INOFICIOSO.El ineficaz, el que no surte los efectos deseados por el testador.MANCOMUNADO.Es denominado también testamento de hermandad, de mancomún o de mancomún. El hecho conjuntamente por dos personas, cónyuges generalmente,para disponer en un mismo documento de sus bienes, sea a favor recíproco, que se llama mutuo, o en beneficio de un tercero, a que se da el nombre de testamento común (v.)MUTUO.El testamento mancomunado (v.), en que los testadores se instituyen recíprocamente herederos, lo cual favorece al que sobreviva.OLOGRAFO.La declaración de última voluntad, escrita y firmada toda ella por el testador, sin intervención de fedatario ni testigos.SOLEMNE.El hecho con las formalidades y requisitos que las leyes prescriben.
TRUST, contracts, devises. An equitable right, title or interest in property, real or personal, distinct from its legal ownership; or it is a personal obligation for paying, delivering or performing anything, where the person trusting has no real. right or security, for by, that act he confides altogether to the faithfulness of those intrusted. This is its most general meaning, and includes deposits, bailments, and the like. In its more technical sense, it may be defined to be an obligation upon a person, arising out of a confidence reposed in him, to apply property faithfully, and according to such confidence. Willis on Trustees, 1; 4 Kent, Com. 295; 2 Fonb. Eq. 1; 1 Saund. Uses and Tr. 6; Coop. Eq. Pl. Introd. 27; 3 Bl. Com. 431.
2. Trusts were probably derived from the civil law. The fidei commissum, (q. v.) is not dissimilar to a trust.
3. Trusts are either express or implied. 1st. Express trusts are those which are created in express terms in the deed, writing or will. The terms to create an express trust will be sufficient, if it can be fairly collected upon the face of the instrument that a trust was intended. Express trusts are usually found in preliminary sealed agreements, such as marriage articles, or articles for the purchase of land; in formal conveyances, such as marriage settlements, terms for years, mortgages, assignments for the payment of debts, raising portions or other purposes; and in wills and testaments, when the bequests involve fiduciary interests for private benefit or public charity,, they may be created even by parol. 6 Watts & Serg. 97.
4. - 2d. Implied trusts are those which without being expressed, are deducible from the nature of the transaction, as matters of intent; or which are superinduced upon the transaction by operation of law, as matters of equity, independently of the particular intention of the parties.
5. The most common form of an implied trust is where property or money is delivered by one person to another, to be by the latter delivered to a third person. These implied trusts greatly extend over the business and pursuits of men: a few examples will be given.
6. When land is purchased by one man in the name of another, and the former pays the consideration money, the land will in general be held by the grantee in Trust for the person who so paid the consideration money. Com. Dig. Chancery, 3 W 3; 2 Fonbl. Eq. book 2, c. 5, 1, note a. Story, Eq. Jur. 1201.
7. When real property is purchased out of partnership funds, and the title is taken in the name of one of the partners, he will hold it in trust for all the partners. 7 Ves. jr. 453; Montague on Partn. 97, n.; Colly. Partn. 68.
8. When a contract is made for the sale of land, in equity the vendor is immediately deemed a trustee for the vendee of the estate; and the vendee, a trustee for the vendor of the purchase money; and by this means there is an equitable conversion of the property. 1 Fonbl. Eq. book 1, ch. 6, 9, note t; Story, Eq. Jur. SSSS 789, 790, 1212. See Conversion. For the origin of trusts in the civil law, see 5 Toull. Dr. Civ. Fr. liv. 3, t. 2, c. 1, n. 18; 1 Brown's Civ. Law, 190. Vide Resulting Trusts. See, generally, Bouv. Inst. Index, h. t.
TESTAMENT, civil law. The appointment of an executor or testamentary heir, according to the formalities prescribed by law. Domat, Liv. 1, tit. 1, s. 1.
2. At first there were only two sorts of testaments among the Romans that called calatis comitiis, and another called in procinctu. (See below.) In the course of time these two sorts of testament having become obsolete, a third form was introduced, called per aes et libram, which was a fictitious sale of the inheritance to the heir apparent. The inconveniences which were experienced from these fictitious sales again changed the form of testaments; and the praetor introduced another which required the seal of seven witnesses. The emperors having increased the solemnity of those testaments, they were called written or solemn testaments, to distinguish them from nuncupative testaments which could be made without writing. Afterwards military testaments were introduced, in favor of soldiers actually engaged in military service.
3. Among the civilians there are various kinds of testaments, the principal of which are mentioned below.
4. A civil testament is one made according to all the forms prescribed by law, in contradistinction to a military testament, in making which some of the forms may be dispensed with. Civil testaments are more ancient than military ones; the former were in use during the time of Romulus, the latter were introduced during the time of Coriolanus. See Hist. de la Jurisp. Rom. de M. Terrason, p. 119.
5. A common testament is one which is made jointly by several persons. Such testaments are forbidden in Louisiana, Civ. Code of Lo. art. 1565, and by the laws of France, Code Civ. 968, in the same words, namely, "A testament cannot be made by the same act, by two or more persons, either for the benefit of a third person, or under the title of a reciprocal or mutual disposition."
6. A testament calatis comitiis, or made in the comitia, that is, the assembly of the Roman people, was an ancient manner of making wills used in times of peace amonn the Romans. The comitia met twice a year for this purpose. Those who wished to make such testaments caused to be convoked the assembly of the people by these words, calatis comitiis. None could make such will's that were not entitled to be at the assemblies of the people. This form of testament was repealed by the law of the Twelve Tables.
7. Testament ab irato, a term used in the civil law. A testament ab irato, is one made in a gust of passion or hatred against the presumptive heir rather than from a desire to benefit the devisee. When the facts of unreasonable anger are proved, the will is annulled as unjust, and as not having been freely made. Vide Ab irato.
8. A mystic testament is also called a solemn testament, because it requires more formality than a nuncupative testament; it is a form of making a will, which consists principally in enclosing it in an envelope and sealing it in the presence of witnesses.
9. This kind of testament is used in Louisiana. The following are the provisions of the civil code of that state on the subject, namely: the mystic or secret testament, otherwise called the close testament, is made in the following manner: the testator must, sign his dispositions, whether he has written. them himself, or has caused them to be written by another person. The paper containing, those dispositions, or the paper serving as their envelope, must be closed and sealed. The testator shall present it thus closed and sealed to the notary and to witnesses, or he shall cause it to be and sealed in their presence; then he shall declare to the notary, in the presence of the witnesses, that that paper contains his testament written by himself, or by another by his direction, and signed by him, the testator. The notary shall then draw up the act of superscription, which shall be written on that paper, or on the sheet that serves as its envelope, and that act shall be signed by the testator, and by the notary and the witnesses. Art. 1577, 5 M. R. 1 82. All that is above prescribed shall be done without interruption or turning aside to other acts; and in case the testator, by reason of any hindrance that has happened since the signing of the testament, cannot sign the act of superscription, mention shall be made of the declaration made by him thereof; without its being necessary, in that case, to increase the number of witnesses. Art. 1578. Those who know not how, or are not able to write, and those who know not how, or are not able to sign their names, cannot make dispositions in the form of the mystic will. Art. 1579. If any one of the witnesses to the act of superscription knows not how to sign, express mention shall be made thereof. In all cases the act must be signed by at least two witnesses. Art. 1580.
10. Nuncupative, testament, a term used in the civil law. A numcupative testament was one made verbally, in the presence of seven witnesses; it was not necessary that it should have been, in writing; the proof of it was by parol evidence.
11. In Louisiana, testaments, whether nuncupative or mystic, must be drawn up in writing, either by the testator himself, or by some other person under his dictation. Civil Code of Lo. art. 1568. The custom of making verbal statements, that is to say, resulting from the mere deposition of witnesses, who were pregent when the testator made known to them his will, without his having committed it, or caused it to be committed to writing, is abrogated. Id. art. 1569. Nuncupative testaments may be made by public act, or by act under private signature. Id. art. 1570. See Will, nuncupative.
12. Olographic testament, a term used in the civil law. The olographic tes-tament is that which is written wholly by the testator himself. In order to be valid, it must be entirely written, dated, and signed by the hand of the tes-tator. It is subject to no other form. See Civil Code of Lo. art.