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20:32 May 11, 2002
English to Turkish translations [Non-PRO]
Tech/Engineering - Electronics / Elect Eng / electronics
English term or phrase: for lesson
TRANSFORMERS
INTRODUCTION
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by electromagnetic induction (also called transformer action). It is most often used to step up or step down voltage. Occasionally, it is used as an isolating device to eliminate a direct mechanical electrical connection between the power source and the loads. The electrical energy is always transferred without a change in frequency but may involve changes in the effective value of voltage and current. Because a transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction, it must be used with an input source that varies in amplitude.
Examining a very unusual transformer will show power is transferred through the use of electromagnetic induction. This direct current transformer will demonstrate the actions of a step-up transformer and provide stop-action analysis of the moving magnetic field. Figure 8-1 shows a one-line diagram of the primary and secondary automobile ignition system. The primary circuit, or power source side, includes the battery positive terminal, the ignition switch, the primary winding to the ignition points, and the battery negative terminal. The secondary circuit starts with the secondary winding wire and connects the distributor rotor and the spark plug.

When both the ignition switch and the points are closed, there is a complete circuit through the 12-volt battery terminals and the primary windings. As a current initially moves through the conductor, an expanding magnetic field is created. As the magnetic field from the primary winding expands across the secondary windings, a type of generator is created which produces an EMF in the secondary windings. Through electromagnetic induction, the secondary winding has all the necessities for generating an EMF a conductor (the secondary winding), the magnetic field (from the current flow through the primary winding), and the relative motion between the expanding magnetic field and the secondary winding.
As the contact points open, the primary field collapses. With this collapse, there is again relative motion between the magnetic field and the secondary windings. This motion and the increased number of conductors in the secondary windings allow the coil to step up voltage from the original 12 volts to the 20,000 volts necessary to fire this type of ignition system.
The distributor, ignition points, and condenser that comprise this DC switching device are very costly. It is not very practical to use DC to step up voltage. AC has certain advantages over DC because it changes direction readily and has a constantly moving magnetic field. One important advantage is that when AC is used, the voltage and current levels can be increased or decreased by means of a transformer.
BASIC OPERATION OF A TRANSFORMER
The transformer circuit in Figure 8-2 shows basic transformer action. The primary winding is connected to a 60 hertz AC source. The magnetic field (flux) expands and collapses about the primary winding. The expanding and contracting magnetic field around the primary winding cuts the secondary winding and induces an EMF into the winding. When a circuit is completed between the secondary winding and a load, this voltage causes current to flow. The voltage may be stepped up or down depending on the number of turns of conductor in the primary and secondary windings.

The ability of a transformer to transfer power from one circuit to another is excellent. For marine engineering applications, the power loss is negligible. Power into the transformer is considered equal to power out. It is possible to increase, or step up, the voltage to loads with a subsequent reduction in current. The power formula (P = I x E) demonstrates this phenomenon. The transformer is rated by power or VA for volts times amps. Transformers are rated more often in kVA for thousands of volt amps. The terms \"step up\" or \"step down\" refer to the actions of the voltage. A step-down transformer means that the voltage of the source has been reduced to a lesser value for the loads.
Examples of step-down transformers can be found on most Army watercraft. The ship service generator provides 450 VAC to the distribution system. The lighting panels and smaller motors require 115 VAC for a power supply. The ship\'s transformers step down the 450 volts to 115 volts. Although there is a lesser voltage in the load side than in the power supply side, the current in the load side will be greater than the current provided from the source side.
For example, if the ship service generator provides 450 VAC at 20 amperes to the primary winding of the transformer, the secondary winding of the transformer will provide 115 VAC at 78 amperes to the loads.
Primary (generator) side:
P = I x E
P = 20 amps x 450 volts
P = 9,000 VA (or 9kVA)
Secondary (load) side:

I = 78 amps
The conventional constant-potential transformer is designed to operate with the primary connected across a constant-potential source, such as the AC generator. It provides a secondary voltage that is substantially constant from no load to full load.
Transformers require little care and maintenance because of their simple, rugged, and durable construction.
APPLICATIONS
Various types of small single-phase transformers are used in electrical equipment. In many installations, transformers are used in switchboards to step down the voltage for indicating lights. Low-voltage transformers are included in some motor control panels to supply control circuits or to operate contractors and relays.
Instrument transformers include potential, or voltage, transformers and current transformers. Instrument transformers are commonly used with AC instruments when high voltages or large currents are to be measured.
TRANSFORMER COMPONENTS
The principle parts of a transformer and their functions are --
 The core, which provides a path for the magnetic lines of flux.
 The primary winding, which receives power from the AC power source.
 The secondary winding, which receives power from the primary winding and delivers it to the load.
 The enclosure, which protects the above components from dirt, moisture, and mechanical damage.
CORE CHARACTERISTICS
The composition of a transformer core depends on such factors as voltage, current, and frequency. Size limitations and construction costs are also factors to be considered. Commonly used core materials are air, soft iron, and steel. Each of these materials is suitable for particular applications and unsuitable for others. Generally, air-core transformers are used when the voltage source has a high frequency (above 20 kHz). Iron-core transformers are usually used when the source frequency is low (below 20 kHz). A soft-iron-core transformer is useful when the transformer must be physically small, yet efficient. The iron-core transformer provides better power transfer than does the air-core transformer. A transformer whose core is constructed of laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat readily, providing efficient transfer of power. Most transformers in the Army marine field contain laminated steel cores. These steel laminations (Figure 8-3) are insulated with a nonconducting material, such as varnish, and then formed into a core. It takes about 50 such laminations to make a core an inch thick.

The laminations reduce certain losses which will be discussed later. The most effective transformer core is one that offers the best path for the most lines of flux with the least magnetic and electrical energy loss.
Two main shapes of cores are used in laminated steel-core transformers: the hollow core and the shell core.
The hollow core is shaped with a square through the center (Figure 8-3). The core is made up of many laminations of steel. Figure 8-4 shows how the transformer windings are wrapped around both sides of the core.

The shell core is the most popular and efficient transformer (Figures 8-5 through 8-7).



As shown, each layer of the core consists of E- and I-shaped sections of metal. These sections are butted together to form laminations. The laminations are insulated from each other and then pressed together to form a core.
TRANSFORMER WINDINGS
Two wires called windings are wound around the core. Each winding is electrically insulated from the other. The terminals are marked according to the voltage: H indicates the higher voltage, and X indicates the lesser voltage. Figure 8-8 shows examples of this.

Additionally, H1 and X1 indicate polarity. Since AC is constantly changing polarity, the H1 and X1 indicate that the polarities at both these terminals are identical during the same instant in time. At the same moment H1 has current moving through it in a given direction, the induced current through terminal X1 is moving in the same direction. When H1 and X1 are directly opposite each other, a condition known as subtractive polarity is formed (Figure 8-9 view B). When the H1 and the X1 are diagonally positioned, a condition known as additive polarity is formed (view A).

Another form of polarity marking is through the use of dots. Dot notation is used with diagrams to express which terminals are positive at the same instant in time (Figure 8-10).

All transformers are not wired the same way, and improper connections can damage the entire electrical circuit. The terms \"additive polarity\" and \"subtractive polarity\" come from the means of testing unmarked transformers. Do not connect a transformer opposite to its intended purpose. Do not connect a step-down transformer for step-up application because the internal stresses set up within the transformer may damage it.
SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS FOR TRANSFORMERS
Figure 8-11 shows typical schematic symbols for transformers. View A shows the symbol for an air-core transformer. Views B and C show iron-core transformers. The bars between the windings indicate an iron core. Frequently, additional connections are made to the transformer windings at points other than the ends of the windings. These additional connections are called taps. When a tap is connected to the center of the winding, it is called center tap. View C shows the schematic representation of a center-tapped iron-core transformer.

NO-LOAD CONDITION
A transformer can supply voltages that are usually higher or lower than the source voltage. This is done through mutual induction, which takes place when the changing magnetic field produced by the primary voltage cuts the secondary winding.
A no-load condition exists when a voltage is applied to the primary, but no load is connected to the secondary (Figure 8-12). Because of the open switch, there is no current flowing in the secondary winding. With the switch open and an AC voltage applied to the primary, there is, however, a very small amount of current, called exciting current, flowing in the primary. The exciting current \"excites\" the winding of the primary to create a magnetic field.

The amount of the exciting current is determined by three factors, which are all controlled by transformer action:
 The amount of voltage applied.
 The resistance of the primary winding\'s wire and core losses.
 The inductive reactance which depends on the frequency of the exciting current.
This very small amount of exciting current serves two functions:
 Most of the exciting energy is used to support the magnetic field of the primary.
 A small amount of energy is used to overcome the resistance of the wire and core. This is dissipated in the form of heat (power loss).
Exciting current will flow in the primary winding at all times to maintain this magnetic field, but no transfer of energy will take place as long as the secondary circuit is open.
WARNING
The open secondary leads provide a potential hazard to personnel. Should a path between the secondary leads develop, current will result. The soldier should never come in contact with the exposed secondary leads when the primary leads are energized.
COUNTER ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE
When an AC flows through a primary winding, a magnetic field is established around the winding. As the lines of flux expand outward, relative motion is present, and a counter EMF is induced in the winding. Flux leaves the primary at the north pole and enters the primary at the south pole. The CEMF induced in the primary has a polarity that opposes the applied voltage, thus opposing the flow of current in the primary. It is the CEMF that limits the exciting current to a very low value.
VOLTAGE IN THE SECONDARY
Figure 8-12 shows a voltage is induced into the secondary winding of a transformer. As the exciting current flows through the primary, magnetic lines of force are generated. During this time, while current is increasing in the primary, magnetic lines of force expand outward from the primary and cut the secondary. A voltage is induced into a winding when magnetic lines cut across it. Therefore, the voltage across the primary causes a voltage to be induced across the secondary.
TURNS AND VOLTAGE RATIOS
The total voltage induced into the secondary winding of a transformer is determined mainly by the ratio of the number of turns in the primary to the number of turns in the secondary and by the amount of voltage applied to the primary. Figure 8-13 view A shows a transformer whose primary consists of 10 turns of wire and whose secondary consists of a single turn of wire. As lines of flux generated by the primary expand and collapse, they cut both the 10 turns of the primary and the single turn of the secondary. Since the length of the wire in the secondary is about the same as the length of the wire in each turn of the primary, CEMF induced into the secondary will be the same as the EMF induced into each turn in the primary. This means that if the voltage applied to the primary winding is 10 volts, the CEMF in the primary is almost 10 volts. Thus, each turn in the primary will have an induced CEMF of about 1/10th of the total applied voltage, or 1 volt. Since the same flux lines cut the turns in both the secondary and the primary, each turn will have an EMF of 1 volt induced into it. The transformer in Figure 8-13 view A has only one turn in the secondary thus, the EMF across the secondary is 1 volt.

The transformer in view B has a 10-turn primary and a 2-turn secondary. Since the flux induces 1 volt per turn, the total voltage across the secondary is 2 volts. The volts per turn are the same for both the primary and secondary windings. Since the CEMF in the primary is equal (or almost equal) to the applied voltage, a proportion may be set up to express the value of the voltage induced in terms of the voltage applied to the primary and the number of turns in each winding. This proportion also shows the relationship between the number of turns in each winding and the voltage across each winding.
This proportion is expressed by the following equation:

Where: Np = number of turns in the primary
Ep = voltage applied to the primary
Es = voltage induced in the secondary
Ns = number of turns in the secondary
The equation shows that the ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage equals the ratio of secondary turns to primary turns. The equation can be written as --
(Ep) x (Ns) = (Es) x (Np)
The following formulas are derived from the above equation:

If any three quantities in the above formulas are known, the fourth quantity can be calculated.
Example: A transformer has 200 turns in the primary, 50 turns in the secondary, and 120 volts applied to the primary. What is the voltage across the secondary (Es)?
Given:
Np = 200 turns
Ns = 50 turns
Ep = 120 volts
Es = ?

Es = 30 volts
The transformer in the above problem has fewer turns in the secondary than the primary. As a result, there is less voltage across the secondary than across the primary. A transformer in which the voltage across the secondary is less than the voltage across the primary is called a step-down transformer. The ratio of a four-to-one step-down transformer is written 4:1. A transformer that has fewer turns in the primary than in the secondary will produce a greater voltage across the secondary than the voltage applied to the primary. A transformer in which the voltage across the secondary is greater than the voltage applied to the primary is called a step-up transformer. The ratio of a one-to-four step-up transformer is written as 1:4. In the two ratios, the value of the primary winding is always stated first.
EFFECT OF A LOAD
When an electrical load is connected across the secondary winding of a transformer, current flows through the secondary and the load. The magnetic field produced by the current in the secondary interacts with the magnetic field produced by the current in the primary. This interaction results from the mutual inductance between the primary and secondary windings.
POWER RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDINGS
The turns ratio of a transformer affects current as well as voltage. If voltage is doubled in the secondary, current is halved in the secondary. Conversely, if voltage is halved in the secondary, current is doubled in the secondary. In this manner, all the power delivered to the primary by the source is also delivered to the load by the secondary (minus whatever power is consumed by the transformer in the form of losses). In the transformer shown in Figure 8-14, the turns ratio is 20:1. If the input to the primary is 10 amperes at 450 volts, the power in the primary is 4,500 watts (P = I x E). If the transformer has no losses, 4,500 watts is delivered to the secondary. The secondary steps down the voltage to 22.5 volts and will increase the current to 200 amperes. Thus, the power delivered to the load by the secondary is P = E x I = 22.5 volts x 200 amps = 4,500 watts.

The reason for this is that when the number of turns in the secondary is decreased, the opposition to the flow of the current is also decreased. Hence, more current will flow in the secondary. If the turns ratio of the transformer is increased to 1:2 (step up), the number of turns on the secondary is twice the number of turns on the primary. This means the opposition to current is doubled. Thus, voltage is doubled, but current is halved due to the increased opposition to current in the secondary. With the exception of the power consumed within the transformer, all power delivered to the primary by the source will be delivered to the load. The form of the power may change, but the power in the secondary almost always equals the power in the primary. This can be expressed in the formula:
Ps = Pp - P1
Where: Ps = powered delivered to the load by the secondary
Pp = power delivered to the primary by the source
P1 = power losses in the transformer
ACTUAL TRANSFORMER LOSSES
Practical power transformers, although highly efficient, are not perfect devices. Small power transformers used with electrical components have an 80 to 90 percent efficiency range, while large distribution system transformers may have efficiencies exceeding 98 percent.
The total power loss in a transformer is a combination of losses. One loss is due to the resistance in the conductors of the primary and secondary windings. This loss is called copper loss or I2R loss. As current increases through the resistance of the conductor, there is a drop in voltage proportional to the increase in current flow. This phenomenon is found wherever there is a resistance. Ohm\'s Law shows this.
Example: The initial electrical load demands 10 amperes. The resistance in the transformer winding conductor is .4 ohms. The voltage drop across the winding conductor is 4 volts.
E = I x R
E = 10 amps x .4 ohms
E = 4 volts
If the electrical demand is increased and a current of 70 amperes is now required, the voltage drop across the winding conductor will increase.
E = I x R
E = 70 amps x .4 ohms
E = 28 volts
As current flow increases, there is a resulting increase in heat. The resistance of copper increases as current and temperature increase. This further affects the voltage drop. This makes secondary voltage decrease as load is applied.
Whenever current flows in a conductor, power is dissipated in the resistance of the conductor in the form of heat. The amount of power dissipated by the conductor is directly proportional to the resistance of the wire and to the square of the current through it.
The greater the value of either the current or the resistance, the greater the power dissipated.
P = I x E
P = 70 amps x 28 volts
P = 1,960 watts
or
P = I2 x R
P = 702 amps x .4 ohms
P = 4,900 amps x .4 ohms
P = 1,960 watts
This is the power consumed or lost due to the resistance of the conductor.
The resistance of a given conductor or winding is a function of the diameter of the conductor and its length. Large diameter, lower resistance wire is required for high-current-carrying applications whereas small diameter, higher resistance wire can be used for low-current-carrying applications.
Two other losses are due to eddy currents and hysteresis in the core of the transformer. Copper loss, eddy current loss, and hysteresis loss result in undesirable conversion of electrical energy to heat energy.
Eddy Current Loss
The core of a transformer is usually constructed of some type of ferromagnetic material because it is a good conductor of magnetic lines of flux.
Whenever the primary of an iron-core transformer is energized by an AC source, a fluctuating magnetic field is produced. This magnetic field cuts the conducting core material and induces a voltage into it. The induced voltage causes random currents to flow through the core which dissipate power in the form of heat. These undesirable currents are eddy currents.
To minimize the loss resulting from eddy currents, transformer cores are laminated. Since the thin, insulated laminations do not provide an easy path for current, eddy current losses are greatly reduced.
Hysteresis Loss
When a magnetic field is passed through a core, the core material becomes magnetized. To become magnetized, the domains within the core must align themselves with the external field. If the direction of the field is reversed, the domains must turn so that their poles are aligned with the new direction of the external field.
Transformers normally operate at 60 hertz. Each tiny atomic particle domain must realign itself twice each cycle or a total of 120 times a second. The energy used to turn each domain is dissipated as heat within the iron core. This is hysteresis loss, which results from molecular friction. Hysteresis loss can be held to a small value by proper choice of core materials during the manufacturing process.
TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY
To compute the efficiency of a transformer, the input power and the output power from the transformer must be known. The input power equals the product of the voltage applied to the primary and the current in the primary. The output power equals the product of the voltage across the secondary and the current in the secondary. The difference between the input power and the output power represents a power loss. This percentage of efficiency of a transformer is calculated using the standard efficiency formula:
Efficiency (in percentage) = power out x 100 power in
TRANSFORMER RATINGS
When a transformer is to be used in a circuit, more than just the turns ratio must be considered. The voltage, current, and power-handling capabilities of the primary and secondary windings must be considered as well.
The maximum voltage that can safely be applied to any winding is determined by the type and thickness of the insulation used. When a better (and thicker) insulation is used between the windings, a higher maximum voltage can be applied to the windings.
The maximum current that can be carried by a transformer winding is determined by the diameter of the wire used for the winding. If current is excessive in a winding, a higher than ordinary amount of power will be dissipated by the winding in the form of heat. This heat may become sufficiently high to cause the insulation around the wire to break down. If this happens, the transformer will become permanently damaged.
The power-handling capability of a transformer depends on its ability to dissipate heat. If the heat can be safely removed, the power-handling capability of the transformer can be increased. This is sometimes done by immersing the transformer in oil or by using cooling fins. The power-handling capability of distribution system transformers is measured in the volt-ampere unit (kVA). Smaller units generally used in resistive circuits are measured in the watt unit (KW).
DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS
Step-down and isolation distribution transformers supply voltages to the various circuits in the electrical system. Distribution transformers are rated at 500 kVA or less. These are the type found on Army vessels. They are the dry type and are air-cooled and drip-proof. They can operate at 30-degree inclinations. They are designed for ambient temperature operation of 40C and 50C.
The high- and low-voltage windings in a distribution transformer can usually be distinguished by observing the diameter of the conductor. Since most transformers located on board ship are the stepdown type, the low-voltage winding will have the larger diameter conductor. This is because the power is not changed. The reduction in voltage means an increase of current. Current determines the diameter of the conductor.
ISOLATION TRANSFORMERS
Isolation transformers do not change either the power or the voltage and current levels. Instead, they provide an extra degree of protection to the distribution system for those circuits that are set aside for access by other than engineering personnel and the circuits that are available for unspecified electrical apparatus.
Should one of these circuits have a catastrophic electrical casualty that prevents local circuit breakers and overloads from operating properly, the isolation transformer prevents a mechanical connection of the circuit with the rest of the distribution system. A catastrophic electrical problem will damage the transformer and allow time for the rest of the distribution system to react to the electrical problem. The isolation transformers effectively isolate these problem circuits from the rest of the single-phase distribution system. The areas under the added protection of the isolation transformer include galley equipment and \"hotel\" services (120-volt electrical outlets).
TRANSFORMER TAPS
Typical transformers used for electrical components and control circuits have several primary and/or secondary windings. Figure 8-15 shows the schematic symbol for a typical multitap transformer. For any given voltage across the primary, the voltage across each of the secondary windings is determined by the number of turns in each secondary. A winding may be center-tapped like the secondary 350-volt winding in Figure 8-15. To center-tap a winding means to connect a wire to the center of the coil, so that between this tap and either terminal of the winding there appears one-half of the voltage developed across the entire winding.

AUTOTRANSFORMERS
It is not always necessary to have two or more separate and distinct windings in a transformer. Figure 8-16 is a schematic diagram of an autotransformer. A single winding is tapped to produce what is electrically a primary and secondary winding.

Through inductance, the magnetic field from the power supply can produce a CEMF into the primary winding as well as an EMF into the secondary winding. Voltage is self-induced into every coil of wire.
Example: *Assume that 208 volts is applied to the autotransformer in Figure 8-17. The primary includes all the turns, but the secondary includes only half the turns. The turns ratio is 2:1. Secondary voltage is --


There is a 10.4-ohm resistive load. Load current is --

It may be hard at first to understand how the secondary can have twice the primary current. After all, the primary and secondary are the same coil. Secondary current, however, is the sum of two separate currents. One is primary current which also flows in the secondary circuit. The other is produced by the back-voltage (CEMF), which is self-induced in the secondary part of the coil.
The primary current of 5 amperes is conducted to the secondary current. The other 5 amperes is transformed in the transformer.*
The autotransformer is used extensively for reduced voltage starting of larger motors, such as the fire pump. This is one of the most effective ways to hold the line current and voltage to a minimum when a maximum current (or torque per line ampere) is required at the motor.
The autotransformer is used for motor starting. It is never used to supply feeders or branch circuits in the distribution system. Figure 8-18 view B shows a damaged autotransformer. If this type of casualty took place, the voltage to the load would increase to the value available at the primary side. This could be electrically devastating to all the electrical loads connected to the secondary side.

TRANSFORMER SAFETY
If transformers are being worked on or inspected, the following additional rules apply:
 Remove the transformer from all power sources in the primary and secondary circuitry.
 Remove all the fuses from the power source.
 Trip circuit breakers and take action to prevent their accidental resetting.
 Short out transformer secondaries before connecting and disconnecting equipment.
 To prevent potentially high voltage and current levels, always connect a load to the secondary side of the transformer before energizing the primary. The voltmeter is an excellent high-resistance load when connected with alligator clips.
*The area between the asterisks (*) is reprinted with permission, copyright by Goodheart-Willcox.

TRANSFORMERS
INTRODUCTION
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by electromagnetic induction (also called transformer action). It is most often used to step up or step down voltage. Occasionally, it is used as an isolating device to eliminate a direct mechanical electrical connection between the power source and the loads. The electrical energy is always transferred without a change in frequency but may involve changes in the effective value of voltage and current. Because a transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction, it must be used with an input source that varies in amplitude.
Examining a very unusual transformer will show power is transferred through the use of electromagnetic induction. This direct current transformer will demonstrate the actions of a step-up transformer and provide stop-action analysis of the moving magnetic field. Figure 8-1 shows a one-line diagram of the primary and secondary automobile ignition system. The primary circuit, or power source side, includes the battery positive terminal, the ignition switch, the primary winding to the ignition points, and the battery negative terminal. The secondary circuit starts with the secondary winding wire and connects the distributor rotor and the spark plug.

When both the ignition switch and the points are closed, there is a complete circuit through the 12-volt battery terminals and the primary windings. As a current initially moves through the conductor, an expanding magnetic field is created. As the magnetic field from the primary winding expands across the secondary windings, a type of generator is created which produces an EMF in the secondary windings. Through electromagnetic induction, the secondary winding has all the necessities for generating an EMF a conductor (the secondary winding), the magnetic field (from the current flow through the primary winding), and the relative motion between the expanding magnetic field and the secondary winding.
As the contact points open, the primary field collapses. With this collapse, there is again relative motion between the magnetic field and the secondary windings. This motion and the increased number of conductors in the secondary windings allow the coil to step up voltage from the original 12 volts to the 20,000 volts necessary to fire this type of ignition system.
The distributor, ignition points, and condenser that comprise this DC switching device are very costly. It is not very practical to use DC to step up voltage. AC has certain advantages over DC because it changes direction readily and has a constantly moving magnetic field. One important advantage is that when AC is used, the voltage and current levels can be increased or decreased by means of a transformer.
BASIC OPERATION OF A TRANSFORMER
The transformer circuit in Figure 8-2 shows basic transformer action. The primary winding is connected to a 60 hertz AC source. The magnetic field (flux) expands and collapses about the primary winding. The expanding and contracting magnetic field around the primary winding cuts the secondary winding and induces an EMF into the winding. When a circuit is completed between the secondary winding and a load, this voltage causes current to flow. The voltage may be stepped up or down depending on the number of turns of conductor in the primary and secondary windings.

The ability of a transformer to transfer power from one circuit to another is excellent. For marine engineering applications, the power loss is negligible. Power into the transformer is considered equal to power out. It is possible to increase, or step up, the voltage to loads with a subsequent reduction in current. The power formula (P = I x E) demonstrates this phenomenon. The transformer is rated by power or VA for volts times amps. Transformers are rated more often in kVA for thousands of volt amps. The terms \"step up\" or \"step down\" refer to the actions of the voltage. A step-down transformer means that the voltage of the source has been reduced to a lesser value for the loads.
Examples of step-down transformers can be found on most Army watercraft. The ship service generator provides 450 VAC to the distribution system. The lighting panels and smaller motors require 115 VAC for a power supply. The ship\'s transformers step down the 450 volts to 115 volts. Although there is a lesser voltage in the load side than in the power supply side, the current in the load side will be greater than the current provided from the source side.
For example, if the ship service generator provides 450 VAC at 20 amperes to the primary winding of the transformer, the secondary winding of the transformer will provide 115 VAC at 78 amperes to the loads.
Primary (generator) side:
P = I x E
P = 20 amps x 450 volts
P = 9,000 VA (or 9kVA)
Secondary (load) side:

I = 78 amps
The conventional constant-potential transformer is designed to operate with the primary connected across a constant-potential source, such as the AC generator. It provides a secondary voltage that is substantially constant from no load to full load.
Transformers require little care and maintenance because of their simple, rugged, and durable construction.
APPLICATIONS
Various types of small single-phase transformers are used in electrical equipment. In many installations, transformers are used in switchboards to step down the voltage for indicating lights. Low-voltage transformers are included in some motor control panels to supply control circuits or to operate contractors and relays.
Instrument transformers include potential, or voltage, transformers and current transformers. Instrument transformers are commonly used with AC instruments when high voltages or large currents are to be measured.
TRANSFORMER COMPONENTS
The principle parts of a transformer and their functions are --
 The core, which provides a path for the magnetic lines of flux.
 The primary winding, which receives power from the AC power source.
 The secondary winding, which receives power from the primary winding and delivers it to the load.
 The enclosure, which protects the above components from dirt, moisture, and mechanical damage.
CORE CHARACTERISTICS
The composition of a transformer core depends on such factors as voltage, current, and frequency. Size limitations and construction costs are also factors to be considered. Commonly used core materials are air, soft iron, and steel. Each of these materials is suitable for particular applications and unsuitable for others. Generally, air-core transformers are used when the voltage source has a high frequency (above 20 kHz). Iron-core transformers are usually used when the source frequency is low (below 20 kHz). A soft-iron-core transformer is useful when the transformer must be physically small, yet efficient. The iron-core transformer provides better power transfer than does the air-core transformer. A transformer whose core is constructed of laminated sheets of steel dissipates heat readily, providing efficient transfer of power. Most transformers in the Army marine field contain laminated steel cores. These steel laminations (Figure 8-3) are insulated with a nonconducting material, such as varnish, and then formed into a core. It takes about 50 such laminations to make a core an inch thick.

The laminations reduce certain losses which will be discussed later. The most effective transformer core is one that offers the best path for the most lines of flux with the least magnetic and electrical energy loss.
Two main shapes of cores are used in laminated steel-core transformers: the hollow core and the shell core.
The hollow core is shaped with a square through the center (Figure 8-3). The core is made up of many laminations of steel. Figure 8-4 shows how the transformer windings are wrapped around both sides of the core.

The shell core is the most popular and efficient transformer (Figures 8-5 through 8-7).



As shown, each layer of the core consists of E- and I-shaped sections of metal. These sections are butted together to form laminations. The laminations are insulated from each other and then pressed together to form a core.
TRANSFORMER WINDINGS
Two wires called windings are wound around the core. Each winding is electrically insulated from the other. The terminals are marked according to the voltage: H indicates the higher voltage, and X indicates the lesser voltage. Figure 8-8 shows examples of this.

Additionally, H1 and X1 indicate polarity. Since AC is constantly changing polarity, the H1 and X1 indicate that the polarities at both these terminals are identical during the same instant in time. At the same moment H1 has current moving through it in a given direction, the induced current through terminal X1 is moving in the same direction. When H1 and X1 are directly opposite each other, a condition known as subtractive polarity is formed (Figure 8-9 view B). When the H1 and the X1 are diagonally positioned, a condition known as additive polarity is formed (view A).

Another form of polarity marking is through the use of dots. Dot notation is used with diagrams to express which terminals are positive at the same instant in time (Figure 8-10).

All transformers are not wired the same way, and improper connections can damage the entire electrical circuit. The terms \"additive polarity\" and \"subtractive polarity\" come from the means of testing unmarked transformers. Do not connect a transformer opposite to its intended purpose. Do not connect a step-down transformer for step-up application because the internal stresses set up within the transformer may damage it.
SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS FOR TRANSFORMERS
Figure 8-11 shows typical schematic symbols for transformers. View A shows the symbol for an air-core transformer. Views B and C show iron-core transformers. The bars between the windings indicate an iron core. Frequently, additional connections are made to the transformer windings at points other than the ends of the windings. These additional connections are called taps. When a tap is connected to the center of the winding, it is called center tap. View C shows the schematic representation of a center-tapped iron-core transformer.

NO-LOAD CONDITION
A transformer can supply voltages that are usually higher or lower than the source voltage. This is done through mutual induction, which takes place when the changing magnetic field produced by the primary voltage cuts the secondary winding.
A no-load condition exists when a voltage is applied to the primary, but no load is connected to the secondary (Figure 8-12). Because of the open switch, there is no current flowing in the secondary winding. With the switch open and an AC voltage applied to the primary, there is, however, a very small amount of current, called exciting current, flowing in the primary. The exciting current \"excites\" the winding of the primary to create a magnetic field.

The amount of the exciting current is determined by three factors, which are all controlled by transformer action:
 The amount of voltage applied.
 The resistance of the primary winding\'s wire and core losses.
 The inductive reactance which depends on the frequency of the exciting current.
This very small amount of exciting current serves two functions:
 Most of the exciting energy is used to support the magnetic field of the primary.
 A small amount of energy is used to overcome the resistance of the wire and core. This is dissipated in the form of heat (power loss).
Exciting current will flow in the primary winding at all times to maintain this magnetic field, but no transfer of energy will take place as long as the secondary circuit is open.
WARNING
The open secondary leads provide a potential hazard to personnel. Should a path between the secondary leads develop, current will result. The soldier should never come in contact with the exposed secondary leads when the primary leads are energized.
COUNTER ELECTROMOTIVE FORCE
When an AC flows through a primary winding, a magnetic field is established around the winding. As the lines of flux expand outward, relative motion is present, and a counter EMF is induced in the winding. Flux leaves the primary at the north pole and enters the primary at the south pole. The CEMF induced in the primary has a polarity that opposes the applied voltage, thus opposing the flow of current in the primary. It is the CEMF that limits the exciting current to a very low value.
VOLTAGE IN THE SECONDARY
Figure 8-12 shows a voltage is induced into the secondary winding of a transformer. As the exciting current flows through the primary, magnetic lines of force are generated. During this time, while current is increasing in the primary, magnetic lines of force expand outward from the primary and cut the secondary. A voltage is induced into a winding when magnetic lines cut across it. Therefore, the voltage across the primary causes a voltage to be induced across the secondary.
TURNS AND VOLTAGE RATIOS
The total voltage induced into the secondary winding of a transformer is determined mainly by the ratio of the number of turns in the primary to the number of turns in the secondary and by the amount of voltage applied to the primary. Figure 8-13 view A shows a transformer whose primary consists of 10 turns of wire and whose secondary consists of a single turn of wire. As lines of flux generated by the primary expand and collapse, they cut both the 10 turns of the primary and the single turn of the secondary. Since the length of the wire in the secondary is about the same as the length of the wire in each turn of the primary, CEMF induced into the secondary will be the same as the EMF induced into each turn in the primary. This means that if the voltage applied to the primary winding is 10 volts, the CEMF in the primary is almost 10 volts. Thus, each turn in the primary will have an induced CEMF of about 1/10th of the total applied voltage, or 1 volt. Since the same flux lines cut the turns in both the secondary and the primary, each turn will have an EMF of 1 volt induced into it. The transformer in Figure 8-13 view A has only one turn in the secondary thus, the EMF across the secondary is 1 volt.

The transformer in view B has a 10-turn primary and a 2-turn secondary. Since the flux induces 1 volt per turn, the total voltage across the secondary is 2 volts. The volts per turn are the same for both the primary and secondary windings. Since the CEMF in the primary is equal (or almost equal) to the applied voltage, a proportion may be set up to express the value of the voltage induced in terms of the voltage applied to the primary and the number of turns in each winding. This proportion also shows the relationship between the number of turns in each winding and the voltage across each winding.
This proportion is expressed by the following equation:

Where: Np = number of turns in the primary
Ep = voltage applied to the primary
Es = voltage induced in the secondary
Ns = number of turns in the secondary
The equation shows that the ratio of secondary voltage to primary voltage equals the ratio of secondary turns to primary turns. The equation can be written as --
(Ep) x (Ns) = (Es) x (Np)
The following formulas are derived from the above equation:

If any three quantities in the above formulas are known, the fourth quantity can be calculated.
Example: A transformer has 200 turns in the primary, 50 turns in the secondary, and 120 volts applied to the primary. What is the voltage across the secondary (Es)?
Given:
Np = 200 turns
Ns = 50 turns
Ep = 120 volts
Es = ?

Es = 30 volts
The transformer in the above problem has fewer turns in the secondary than the primary. As a result, there is less voltage across the secondary than across the primary. A transformer in which the voltage across the secondary is less than the voltage across the primary is called a step-down transformer. The ratio of a four-to-one step-down transformer is written 4:1. A transformer that has fewer turns in the primary than in the secondary will produce a greater voltage across the secondary than the voltage applied to the primary. A transformer in which the voltage across the secondary is greater than the voltage applied to the primary is called a step-up transformer. The ratio of a one-to-four step-up transformer is written as 1:4. In the two ratios, the value of the primary winding is always stated first.
EFFECT OF A LOAD
When an electrical load is connected across the secondary winding of a transformer, current flows through the secondary and the load. The magnetic field produced by the current in the secondary interacts with the magnetic field produced by the current in the primary. This interaction results from the mutual inductance between the primary and secondary windings.
POWER RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PRIMARY AND SECONDARY WINDINGS
The turns ratio of a transformer affects current as well as voltage. If voltage is doubled in the secondary, current is halved in the secondary. Conversely, if voltage is halved in the secondary, current is doubled in the secondary. In this manner, all the power delivered to the primary by the source is also delivered to the load by the secondary (minus whatever power is consumed by the transformer in the form of losses). In the transformer shown in Figure 8-14, the turns ratio is 20:1. If the input to the primary is 10 amperes at 450 volts, the power in the primary is 4,500 watts (P = I x E). If the transformer has no losses, 4,500 watts is delivered to the secondary. The secondary steps down the voltage to 22.5 volts and will increase the current to 200 amperes. Thus, the power delivered to the load by the secondary is P = E x I = 22.5 volts x 200 amps = 4,500 watts.

The reason for this is that when the number of turns in the secondary is decreased, the opposition to the flow of the current is also decreased. Hence, more current will flow in the secondary. If the turns ratio of the transformer is increased to 1:2 (step up), the number of turns on the secondary is twice the number of turns on the primary. This means the opposition to current is doubled. Thus, voltage is doubled, but current is halved due to the increased opposition to current in the secondary. With the exception of the power consumed within the transformer, all power delivered to the primary by the source will be delivered to the load. The form of the power may change, but the power in the secondary almost always equals the power in the primary. This can be expressed in the formula:
Ps = Pp - P1
Where: Ps = powered delivered to the load by the secondary
Pp = power delivered to the primary by the source
P1 = power losses in the transformer
ACTUAL TRANSFORMER LOSSES
Practical power transformers, although highly efficient, are not perfect devices. Small power transformers used with electrical components have an 80 to 90 percent efficiency range, while large distribution system transformers may have efficiencies exceeding 98 percent.
The total power loss in a transformer is a combination of losses. One loss is due to the resistance in the conductors of the primary and secondary windings. This loss is called copper loss or I2R loss. As current increases through the resistance of the conductor, there is a drop in voltage proportional to the increase in current flow. This phenomenon is found wherever there is a resistance. Ohm\'s Law shows this.
Example: The initial electrical load demands 10 amperes. The resistance in the transformer winding conductor is .4 ohms. The voltage drop across the winding conductor is 4 volts.
E = I x R
E = 10 amps x .4 ohms
E = 4 volts
If the electrical demand is increased and a current of 70 amperes is now required, the voltage drop across the winding conductor will increase.
E = I x R
E = 70 amps x .4 ohms
E = 28 volts
As current flow increases, there is a resulting increase in heat. The resistance of copper increases as current and temperature increase. This further affects the voltage drop. This makes secondary voltage decrease as load is applied.
Whenever current flows in a conductor, power is dissipated in the resistance of the conductor in the form of heat. The amount of power dissipated by the conductor is directly proportional to the resistance of the wire and to the square of the current through it.
The greater the value of either the current or the resistance, the greater the power dissipated.
P = I x E
P = 70 amps x 28 volts
P = 1,960 watts
or
P = I2 x R
P = 702 amps x .4 ohms
P = 4,900 amps x .4 ohms
P = 1,960 watts
This is the power consumed or lost due to the resistance of the conductor.
The resistance of a given conductor or winding is a function of the diameter of the conductor and its length. Large diameter, lower resistance wire is required for high-current-carrying applications whereas small diameter, higher resistance wire can be used for low-current-carrying applications.
Two other losses are due to eddy currents and hysteresis in the core of the transformer. Copper loss, eddy current loss, and hysteresis loss result in undesirable conversion of electrical energy to heat energy.
Eddy Current Loss
The core of a transformer is usually constructed of some type of ferromagnetic material because it is a good conductor of magnetic lines of flux.
Whenever the primary of an iron-core transformer is energized by an AC source, a fluctuating magnetic field is produced. This magnetic field cuts the conducting core material and induces a voltage into it. The induced voltage causes random currents to flow through the core which dissipate power in the form of heat. These undesirable currents are eddy currents.
To minimize the loss resulting from eddy currents, transformer cores are laminated. Since the thin, insulated laminations do not provide an easy path for current, eddy current losses are greatly reduced.
Hysteresis Loss
When a magnetic field is passed through a core, the core material becomes magnetized. To become magnetized, the domains within the core must align themselves with the external field. If the direction of the field is reversed, the domains must turn so that their poles are aligned with the new direction of the external field.
Transformers normally operate at 60 hertz. Each tiny atomic particle domain must realign itself twice each cycle or a total of 120 times a second. The energy used to turn each domain is dissipated as heat within the iron core. This is hysteresis loss, which results from molecular friction. Hysteresis loss can be held to a small value by proper choice of core materials during the manufacturing process.
TRANSFORMER EFFICIENCY
To compute the efficiency of a transformer, the input power and the output power from the transformer must be known. The input power equals the product of the voltage applied to the primary and the current in the primary. The output power equals the product of the voltage across the secondary and the current in the secondary. The difference between the input power and the output power represents a power loss. This percentage of efficiency of a transformer is calculated using the standard efficiency formula:
Efficiency (in percentage) = power out x 100 power in
TRANSFORMER RATINGS
When a transformer is to be used in a circuit, more than just the turns ratio must be considered. The voltage, current, and power-handling capabilities of the primary and secondary windings must be considered as well.
The maximum voltage that can safely be applied to any winding is determined by the type and thickness of the insulation used. When a better (and thicker) insulation is used between the windings, a higher maximum voltage can be applied to the windings.
The maximum current that can be carried by a transformer winding is determined by the diameter of the wire used for the winding. If current is excessive in a winding, a higher than ordinary amount of power will be dissipated by the winding in the form of heat. This heat may become sufficiently high to cause the insulation around the wire to break down. If this happens, the transformer will become permanently damaged.
The power-handling capability of a transformer depends on its ability to dissipate heat. If the heat can be safely removed, the power-handling capability of the transformer can be increased. This is sometimes done by immersing the transformer in oil or by using cooling fins. The power-handling capability of distribution system transformers is measured in the volt-ampere unit (kVA). Smaller units generally used in resistive circuits are measured in the watt unit (KW).
DISTRIBUTION TRANSFORMERS
Step-down and isolation distribution transformers supply voltages to the various circuits in the electrical system. Distribution transformers are rated at 500 kVA or less. These are the type found on Army vessels. They are the dry type and are air-cooled and drip-proof. They can operate at 30-degree inclinations. They are designed for ambient temperature operation of 40C and 50C.
The high- and low-voltage windings in a distribution transformer can usually be distinguished by observing the diameter of the conductor. Since most transformers located on board ship are the stepdown type, the low-voltage winding will have the larger diameter conductor. This is because the power is not changed. The reduction in voltage means an increase of current. Current determines the diameter of the conductor.
ISOLATION TRANSFORMERS
Isolation transformers do not change either the power or the voltage and current levels. Instead, they provide an extra degree of protection to the distribution system for those circuits that are set aside for access by other than engineering personnel and the circuits that are available for unspecified electrical apparatus.
Should one of these circuits have a catastrophic electrical casualty that prevents local circuit breakers and overloads from operating properly, the isolation transformer prevents a mechanical connection of the circuit with the rest of the distribution system. A catastrophic electrical problem will damage the transformer and allow time for the rest of the distribution system to react to the electrical problem. The isolation transformers effectively isolate these problem circuits from the rest of the single-phase distribution system. The areas under the added protection of the isolation transformer include galley equipment and \"hotel\" services (120-volt electrical outlets).
TRANSFORMER TAPS
Typical transformers used for electrical components and control circuits have several primary and/or secondary windings. Figure 8-15 shows the schematic symbol for a typical multitap transformer. For any given voltage across the primary, the voltage across each of the secondary windings is determined by the number of turns in each secondary. A winding may be center-tapped like the secondary 350-volt winding in Figure 8-15. To center-tap a winding means to connect a wire to the center of the coil, so that between this tap and either terminal of the winding there appears one-half of the voltage developed across the entire winding.

AUTOTRANSFORMERS
It is not always necessary to have two or more separate and distinct windings in a transformer. Figure 8-16 is a schematic diagram of an autotransformer. A single winding is tapped to produce what is electrically a primary and secondary winding.

Through inductance, the magnetic field from the power supply can produce a CEMF into the primary winding as well as an EMF into the secondary winding. Voltage is self-induced into every coil of wire.
Example: *Assume that 208 volts is applied to the autotransformer in Figure 8-17. The primary includes all the turns, but the secondary includes only half the turns. The turns ratio is 2:1. Secondary voltage is --


There is a 10.4-ohm resistive load. Load current is --

It may be hard at first to understand how the secondary can have twice the primary current. After all, the primary and secondary are the same coil. Secondary current, however, is the sum of two separate currents. One is primary current which also flows in the secondary circuit. The other is produced by the back-voltage (CEMF), which is self-induced in the secondary part of the coil.
The primary current of 5 amperes is conducted to the secondary current. The other 5 amperes is transformed in the transformer.*
The autotransformer is used extensively for reduced voltage starting of larger motors, such as the fire pump. This is one of the most effective ways to hold the line current and voltage to a minimum when a maximum current (or torque per line ampere) is required at the motor.
The autotransformer is used for motor starting. It is never used to supply feeders or branch circuits in the distribution system. Figure 8-18 view B shows a damaged autotransformer. If this type of casualty took place, the voltage to the load would increase to the value available at the primary side. This could be electrically devastating to all the electrical loads connected to the secondary side.

TRANSFORMER SAFETY
If transformers are being worked on or inspected, the following additional rules apply:
 Remove the transformer from all power sources in the primary and secondary circuitry.
 Remove all the fuses from the power source.
 Trip circuit breakers and take action to prevent their accidental resetting.
 Short out transformer secondaries before connecting and disconnecting equipment.
 To prevent potentially high voltage and current levels, always connect a load to the secondary side of the transformer before energizing the primary. The voltmeter is an excellent high-resistance load when connected with alligator clips.
*The area between the asterisks (*) is reprinted with permission, copyright by Goodheart-Willcox.

TRANSFORMERS
INTRODUCTION
A transformer is a device that transfers electrical energy from one circuit to another by electromagnetic induction (also called transformer action). It is most often used to step up or step down voltage. Occasionally, it is used as an isolating device to eliminate a direct mechanical electrical connection between the power source and the loads. The electrical energy is always transferred without a change in frequency but may involve changes in the effective value of voltage and current. Because a transformer works on the principle of electromagnetic induction, it must be used with an input source that varies in amplitude.
Examining a very unusual transformer will show power is transferred through the use of electromagnetic induction. This direct current transformer will demonstrate the actions of a step-up transformer and provide stop-action analysis of the moving magnetic field. Figure 8-1 shows a one-line diagram of the primary and secondary automobile ignition system. The primary circuit, or power source side, includes the battery positive terminal, the ignition switch, the primary winding to the ignition points, and the battery negative terminal. The secondary circuit starts with the secondary winding wire and connects the distributor rotor and the spark plug.

When both the ignition switch and the points are closed, there is a complete circuit through the 12-volt battery terminals and the primary windings. As a current initially moves through the conductor, an expanding magnetic field is created. As the magnetic field from the primary winding expands across the secondary windings, a type of generator is created which produces an EMF in the secondary windings. Through electromagnetic induction, the secondary winding has all the necessities for generating an EMF a conductor (the secondary winding), the magnetic field (from the current flow through the primary winding), and the relative motion between the expanding magnetic field and the secondary winding.
As the contact points open, the primary field collapses. With this collapse, there is again relative motion between the magnetic field and the secondary windings. This motion and the increased number of conductors in the secondary windings allow the coil to step up voltage from the original 12 volts to the 20,000 volts necessary to fire this type of ignition system.
The distributor, ignition points, and condenser that comprise this DC switching device are very costly. It is not very practical to use DC to step up voltage. AC has certain advantages over DC because it changes direction readily and has a constantly moving magnetic field. One important advantage is that when AC is used, the voltage and current levels can be increased or decreased by means of a transformer.
BASIC OPERATION OF A TRANSFORMER
The transformer circuit in Figure 8-2 shows basic transformer action. The primary winding is connected to a 60 hertz AC source. The magnetic field (flux) expands and collapses about the primary winding. The expanding and contracting magnetic field around the primary winding cuts the secondary winding and induces an EMF into the winding. When a circuit is completed between the secondary winding and a load, this voltage causes current to flow. The voltage may be stepped up or down depending on the number of turns of conductor in the primary and secondary windings.

The ability of a transformer to transfer power from one circuit to another is excellent. For marine engineering applications, the power loss is negligible. Power into the transformer is considered equal to power out. It is possible to increase, or step up, the voltage to loads with a subsequent reduction in current. The power formula (P = I x E) demonstrates this phenomenon. The transformer is rated by power or VA for volts times amps. Transformers are rated more often in kVA for thousands of volt amps. The terms \"step up\" or \"step down\" refer to the actions of the voltage. A step-down transformer means that the voltage of the source has been reduced to a lesser value for the loads.
Examples of step-down transformers can be found on most Army watercraft. The ship service generator provides 450 VAC to the distribution system. The lighting panels and smaller motors require 115 VAC for a power supply. The ship\'s transformers step down the 450 volts to 115 volts. Although there is a lesser voltage in the load side than in the power supply side, the current in the load side will be greater than the current provided from the source side.
For example, if the ship service generator provides 450 VAC at 20 amperes to the primary winding of the transformer, the secondary winding of the transformer will provide 115 VAC at 78 amperes to the loads.
Primary (generator) side:
P = I x E
P = 20 amps x 450 volts
P = 9,000 VA (or 9kVA)
Secondary (load) side:

I = 78 amps
The conventional constant-potential transformer is designed to operate with the primary connected across a constant-potential
victory
Turkish translation:Please send more context
Explanation:
Please send more context as I'm still wondering what the question is. The usual limit for a Kudoz question is 10 words, not ten thousand. I suggest that you post this to the jobs section.
Selected response from:

murat karahan
Turkey
Local time: 22:39
Grading comment
Graded automatically based on peer agreement. KudoZ.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +11Please send more context
murat karahan
5 +3Mesela
murat karahan
5 +1ALLAH RIZASI ICIN
Şadan Öz
1 +4ders için :)
Şadan Öz


Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


13 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +11
Please send more context


Explanation:
Please send more context as I'm still wondering what the question is. The usual limit for a Kudoz question is 10 words, not ten thousand. I suggest that you post this to the jobs section.

murat karahan
Turkey
Local time: 22:39
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish
PRO pts in category: 11
Grading comment
Graded automatically based on peer agreement. KudoZ.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  xxxsanhara: :-)
15 mins
  -> ;-)

agree  sevinc altincekic: 54.070 characters, 10.706 words, 24 pages, unbelievable:)
21 mins
  -> Unbelievable but true

agree  xxxNilgun Ozcan: congratulations indeed :))) I mean you can pass the limit of a Kudoz question by 5-10 words .. but this one... :))
39 mins
  -> I guess he/she found it too difficult to divide it into sentences and then sending them one by one. (that would have made around 1200 Kudoz questions) Hey, that's 4800 points. :)))

agree  1964: Bence niyeti ne anlamalı bunu çevirtmek istediğini sanmıyorum
50 mins
  -> for lesson yazdığına göre bize ders olsun diye yollamış olabilir

agree  Umit Altug: Yes, translating 10.000 words on transformers for free is just my idea of having fun at Saturday night
1 hr
  -> Well, it's not even fun for one week

agree  AZRA AKARTUNA: söyleyecek söz bulamıyorum doğrusu umarım Tayfun Bey haklıdır :o)))
1 hr
  -> Bence de

agree  MURAT TUKEL: this must be a record for KudoZ
2 hrs
  -> Yes!!!

agree  Ebru Inhan: söylenebilecek her şey söylenmiş sanırım..))
3 hrs
  -> Valla ben söyleyecek söz bulamadım,

agree  Nezih Doğu: 12.05.2002 Anneler Günüydü değil mi? Bu arkadaş bugünü 1 Nisan sanmış galiba!
11 hrs
  -> :) kesinlikle.

agree  Gaye Terzioglu-Booth: Maybe we can divide the whole thing into 24, of course need 24 translators. One translator per page. Make it into a big voluntary project. And lets translate like Mr Altug said, on a saturday night. OR NOT!
14 hrs
  -> Definitely not

agree  shenay kharatekin: sure
317 days
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

23 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 1/5Answerer confidence 1/5 peer agreement (net): +4
ders için :)


Explanation:
Başlığı çevirdim. Gerisini de diğer arkadaşlar halletsin.

Şadan Öz
Turkey
Local time: 22:39
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Gaye Terzioglu-Booth: Ya yapma o baslik degil ki "Transformers Introduction"'i da cevir, yap bir iyilik!
8 hrs
  -> Onu arkadaşlara da danıştım. Ekip olarak çalışıyoruz. Bitsin, yazacam.

agree  murat karahan: İkinci bir yanıt olduğunu gördüğümde biri metni çevirmiş diye korktum. Neyse. Başlıkta typo var. For lesson değil ancak four lesson olabilecek bir metin bu. Önerim dört ders.
8 hrs
  -> Murat, gel kırk dört yapalım, tam olsun!

agree  tulayoz: Şaka maka ama arkadaş çakalmış :) Hep sevmişimdir zeki insanı vesselam
4 days

agree  shenay kharatekin: bu kadar
92 days
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 day12 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
ALLAH RIZASI ICIN


Explanation:
Arkadaşlar, önceki karşılık önerimi değiştiriyorum. Bu daha uygun.

Şadan Öz
Turkey
Local time: 22:39
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  murat karahan: Eyvah! Bu dil çiftinde işimiz Allah'a kaldı zaten. Proz Support'a defalarca mail gönderdim İngilizce-Türkçe'de moderatör yok diye ama onlardan da yanıt yok. Off.
6 hrs
  -> Tayvanlısı, Hindi, Türkü.... adamlar ne yapsın!
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

2 days7 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +3
Mesela


Explanation:
Hazır aklıma gelmişken, diyelim ki biz bu metni çevirdik, diyelim ki soruyu soran kişi sayısız fedakar arkadaşımızın gece gündüz demeden verdiği sayısız güzel yanıt arasından kendince en uygununu seçti ve puanları verdi. BUNU GLOSSARY'YE NASIL GİRECEĞİZ?!!!!

murat karahan
Turkey
Local time: 22:39
Native speaker of: Native in TurkishTurkish
PRO pts in category: 11

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Şadan Öz: :)
14 hrs

agree  AZRA AKARTUNA: asker arkadaş bunun için de bir yol düşünmüş olmalı?!! :o))))
2 days14 hrs

agree  tulayoz: :)
3 days8 hrs
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