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Social Sciences - Economics
|English term or phrase: george soros|
|George Soros was born in Budapest in 1930 but, today, spends most of his time in New York City. Not much is known about his early years. He is the only eminent \"holocaust survivor\" who has been accused of collaboration with the Nazis. In 1947, he managed to sneak through the Iron Curtain, and, the official story goes, \"he landed penniless in London, but by hard work and sheer genius, he rose to become one of the planet\'s most successful investors and richest men.\"|
Mr. Soros\' peculiar moral values, political views, and ideological preferences would be immaterial without the money that he can spend promoting and imposing them. The bulk of that money-currently estimated at not less than seven billion dollars-was earned in the minus-sum game of currency and stock speculation, contributing nothing to the creation of wealth and making millions of ordinary people poorer in the process. His offshore Quantum Fund-legally headquartered in Curacao, beyond U.S.-government supervision-specializes in speculative investments to take advantage of deliberately induced political and economic weaknesses of different countries and regions. In an interview with the Swiss weekly L\'hebdo (May 1993), Soros outlined his strategy: \"I speculate on discrepancy between the reality and the public image of this reality, until a correctional mechanism occurs, which approaches these two.\"
His profits are staggering. On September 16, 1992, he famously made a billion dollars in one day by betting against the Bank of England and the pound sterling. In July 1997, he contributed to the Southeast Asian financial crisis by shorting the Thai bath. In early 2000, he supposedly suffered losses on tech stocks, but some analysts now suggest that the burn of the NASDAQ was controlled and that Soros helped to start the fire. By last November, he was betting the U.S. dollar would plummet. As the London Independent reported (November 28, 2003), his activities were contributing to a growing belief on Wall Street that the dollar would slide even further.
There is nothing new in Soros\' approach to making money or in the ability of such a person to make an impact, invariably detrimental, on his host society\'s morals and culture. What is new with Mr. Soros-in addition to the implausible claim that a private speculator could get as far as he has unaided by any established financial interests-is his systematic, concerted effort to use a large part of his fortune to promote his peculiar social and political views. He does so through a global network of \"nongovernmental organizations\" named after himself and active primarily in Eastern Europe but also in Africa, Latin America, and the United States. At age 75, money is not his object but his tool. He has used it to develop a well-coordinated global operation centered on the Open Society Institute (OSI) in New York, which funds a network of subsidiaries in over 50 countries.
Even before the Open Society network came into being, Soros\' blueprint for postcommunist \"shock therapy\" reform had been put to the test. First came Poland, where the first postcommunist prime minister, Tadeusz Mazowiecki, was close to Soros and subsequently remained associated with his local subsidiary, the Stefan Batory Foundation. In his book Underwriting Democracy, Soros says that he personally prepared the broad outlines of Poland\'s comprehensive economic reform:
I joined forces with Professor Jeffrey Sachs of Harvard University, who was advocating a similar program, and sponsored his work in Poland through the Stefan Batory Foundation . . . The IMF approved and the program went into effect on Jan. 1, 1990. It was very tough on the population, but people were willing to take a lot of pain in order to see real change.
Poland was only a start, however; far more important to his goals was his association in 1991-92 with Russia\'s \"reformist\" leaders Anatoly Chubais and Yegor Gaidar and their Harvard guru Sachs. Within a year of their \"shock therapy,\" hyperinflation had wiped out Russians\' savings and the long-suffering middle class with it. Pensioners were literally starving. The parallel \"privatization\" of Russia\'s huge resources-timber, oil, gas, chemicals, media-created the robber oligarchs and contributed to Russia\'s effective deindustrialization. The country was lowered into neocolonial dependence: a supplier of energy and raw materials and an importer of high technology and manufactured goods. Nevertheless, in early 1993, Soros felt that Russia had not gone far enough: \"The social safety net would also provide a powerful incentive to shut down loss-making enterprises. Factories could be idled and the raw materials and energy that go into production could be sold for more than the output.\"
George Soros is out to deconstruct nations and states as Europe has known them for centuries, with Russia always the main prize. In an interview with the Moscow daily Komersant (August 8, 1997), he declared that \"a strong central government in Russia cannot be democratic.\" \"The rescue of a free Russian economy depends on the attraction of Western investments,\" he added, and, to that end, \"Russia\'s general public must accept the ideology of an open society.\"
By that time, a total of 29 \"Soros Foundations\" were active in every postcommunist country. In 1994, his foundations spent a total of $300 million; by 1998, that figure had risen to $574 million. These are enormous sums in an impoverished and vulnerable Eastern Europe.
Those foundations say that they are \"dedicated to building and maintaining the infrastructure and institutions of an open society.\" What this means in practice is clear from their many fruits. Regarding \"women\'s health\" programs in Central and Southeastern Europe, for instance, one will look in vain for breast-cancer detection or prenatal or postnatal care. Soros\' main goal is clear and frankly stated: \"to improve the quality of abortion services.\" Accordingly, his Public Health Program has supported the introduction of medical abortion in Albania, Latvia, Lithuania, and Slovakia and the introduction of manual vacuum aspiration (MVA) abortion in Macedonia, Moldova, and Russia. In addition,
OSI has also worked with international and local NGOs to respond to the growing strength of the antiabortion movement. Through its influence on ministries of health and hospital administrators, that movement has made strides in reducing access to abortion . . . OSI will continue to support training in quality of care and efforts to keep abortion legal, safe, and accessible for all women in the region.
Why is Soros so interested in promoting more abortions in Eastern Europe? Overpopulation cannot be the reason: The region is experiencing a colossal demographic collapse and has some of the lowest fertility rates in the world. Unavailability of abortion cannot be the answer either: According to a recent U.N. report, five European countries had more abortions than live births in 2000-the Russian Federation, Bulgaria, Belarus, Rumania, and Ukraine. Overall, the report said, abortion rates are \"substantially higher in central and eastern Europe and the CIS countries than in western Europe and North America.\" The only logical answer is that Soros wants as few Russians and others born into this world as possible.
Soros\' public-health programs also \"support initiatives focusing on the specific health needs of several marginalized communities\" and promote \"harm reduction\": \"Its primary goal is to empower drug users to protect their health. Needle/syringe exchange and substitution therapies (e.g., methadone) are at the center of harm reduction health interventions.\" His \"harm reducers\" have expanded their work with special initiatives on \"sex workers\" and prisoners and launched a policy initiative that attempts to ensure that \"repressive drug policies do not impede the expansion of harm reduction efforts.\"
Over the past five years, the Soros network has given a successful start to previously nonexistent \"gay\" activism in almost all of its areas of operation. The campaign for \"LGBT [lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender] Rights\" is directed from Budapest, where Miriam Molnar\'s 1999 policy paper published by OSI defined the \"problem\" as discrimination and the low level of acceptance, visibility, and political representation of LGBT\'s. It was necessary either \"to convince the society to accept LGBT people as equal and let the society make pressure [sic] to the politicians (through media) to change laws\" or \"to convince the politicians that LGBT people are equal and that they need help in convincing the rest of the society.\" The overall goals were to generate discussion about LGBT identity within the community, to make them visible and \"create a positive image,\" and to establish regular forums of discussion with other groups in the region. Specific tasks included the development of websites in English with subsites in local languages, the establishment of task forces that would react to all \"homophobic\" media outbursts in one \"Pink Book,\" and the organization of two-week summer schools for teachers that would \"provide training about discrimination of [sic] LGBT people, disabled people, overweight people etc.\"
In November 1999, a pilot project began at the Center for Publishing Development (OSI Budapest) on homosexual books in Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Slovenia, and Slovakia. That same year, Nash Mir (Our World) Gay and Lesbian Center announced that it had been registered as an NGO in the Ukraine. From that moment, the group was free to pursue its stated goals, including \"fight against sexual-orientation discrimination\" and \"homophobic sentiments in societal consciousness\" and \"assistance to upbringing of gays\' and lesbians\' self-consciousness as equal and valuable members of society.\" The group expressed gratitude for its legalization to the \"Ukrainian branch of Soros Foundation Network (Renaissance Foundation) which lobbied our question in the Ministry of Justice and render [sic] legal assistance to us.\"
Gay.ru is a Soros-funded Moscow NGO that has developed \"into an established and recognized Russian gay and lesbian center\" and \"the clearing house for lesbian and gay groups scattered across the country\":
We keep contacts with all existing gay, lesbian, and AIDS organizations in Russia and maintain on-going correspondence and reporting to international gay and lesbian organizations . . . We have collected the biggest off-line library that features over a hundred Russian titles and some fifty English classic books on gay studies. It was greatly enhanced by the Core Collection on Gay and Lesbian Issues awarded to us by the Soros Foundation in 2000.
In Bucharest, Monika Barcsy of the local Soros branch bewailed the fact that, in Rumania, \"the homosexual identity is stigmatized\" and is one of the main bases for treating individuals as \"the others\" in an attitude of intolerance. Their families became the victims of prejudice \"just because the society is unable to accept the legitimacy of same-sex relations as a \'normal\' manifestation.\" The author singles out the Rumanian Orthodox Church as a prime culprit: \"The problem is that many Christian Orthodox students\' organizations and other student groups support the church.\" In 1994, she points out, more than 100 theology students began a series of demonstrations in front of Rumania\'s parliament against homosexual propaganda in the media and collected signatures demanding legislation to criminalize same-sex relations. Barcsy concludes by reiterating the standard Soros line:
Gay men and lesbians need rights that guarantee them the expression of their identity in the public sphere . . . [T]he legal status of gays and lesbians, their ability to move and appear in public, to speak out and act together should be considered a very good test of the civic openness. [It] can\'t be resolved with the new laws made under the pressure of different human rights organizations. Romania needs . . . to ameliorate the negative responses towards the homosexuals from the majority population . . . There are \"problems\" with the society as a whole, and the society\'s mentality can\'t be changed overnight.
A key pillar of Soros\' activities is his dictum that \"no-one has a monopoly on the truth\" and that \"civic education\" should replace the old \"authoritarian\" model. Civic education does not have to be \"just a dialogue\" between a teacher and students, he says; in addition, \"we have projects like health education, where people use new ways to discuss issues like hygiene, diet, and sex.\" While \"this does not sound like traditional civic education,\" he continues, it is \"a new way for teachers to relate to their pupils,\" just as citizens must relate in new ways to governments and elected officials in societies trying to become more open and democratic.
Accordingly, throughout postcommunist Eastern Europe, the Soros Foundation\'s primary stated goal is to \"democratize the education system\" by \"instituting curriculum reforms.\" What this means in practice has been demonstrated over the past three years by Serbia\'s education minister Gaso Knezevic, a friend and confidante of Soros. Since the first day of his tenure, Mr. Knezevic has insisted that schools must be transformed from \"authoritarian\" institutions into \"exercise grounds\" for the \"unhindered expression of students\' personalities in the process of equal-footed interaction with the teaching staff, thus overcoming the obsolete concept of authority and discipline rooted in the oppressive legacy of patriarchal past.\" Mr. Knezevic started his reform with primary schools, with a pilot program of \"educational workshops\" for children ages 7 to 12. The accompanying manual, financed by the Open Society, rejects the quaint notion that the purpose of education is the \"acquisition of knowledge\" and insists that the teacher has to become the class \"designer\" and that his relationship with students should be based on \"partnership.\"
In Russia, Soros\' associates exercise great control over the selection of textbooks for Russian schools. According to a press release by the Gaidar Youth Library, financial support from the Open Society Institute provided it with computers, videocassettes, and CD\'s, all of which made \"special training\" for the children of \"underprivileged people\" possible in the library:
We organized a special seminar \"Children\'s rights nowadays\" for all specialists who took part in our project . . . The working group of the program \"The Circle of Friends\" is grateful to the \"Open Society\" Institute (Soros Fund, Budapest) for the opportunity to realize this project in a full volume.
In 1999, the Moscow Open Society office started a major five-year project, \"The Development of Education in Russia.\" Its goal is to \"reeducate rural teachers at a cost of US $100-150 million\" (Nezavisimaya Gazeta, September 19, 1998). It is also applying a program called \"Tolerance\" in Russian secondary schools, but its masterminds may have made a linguistic blunder. According to a Russian critic of the program,
The Russian translation of this Latin word-tyerpimost-has the dual meaning of prostitution and could be confused with doma tyerpimosti, houses of ill fame . . . How come this financial manipulator tries to teach us about tolerance, us who grew up with Leo Tolstoy, one of the first philosophers of non-violence? . . . But Mr. Soros is also a horribly distorted mirror, which should make us see our own, present image, without blinking or turning away. There are times when evil can become an eye-opener, when its derisive laughter can waken us up and help regaining our strength. We should not miss this opportunity.
A first step in that direction may have been taken last November 7, when the OSI Moscow office was raided by a private security company hired by the owner of the building with whom the foundation was engaged in a protracted legal battle. Only weeks before, Mikhail Khodorkovsky, the billionaire oligarch and OSI Moscow executive director who has his own NGO called the Open Russia Foundation, was arrested and charged with tax evasion, theft, forgery, and fraud. Soros denounced the arrest as an act of \"persecution\" that should disqualify Russia from belonging to the G-8 group of industrialized countries. \"I believe that he acted within the constraints of the law. I am doing the same in the United States,\" said Soros, alluding to his multimillion-dollar donations toward \"regime change\" in Washington next November. The American press indignantly reported that the raid was directed against a philanthropic organization that had spent \"more than $US 1 billion on charitable projects in Russia in the past 15 years.\"
\"Racism\" is Soros\' regular obsession, but he faced the potential problem of finding it in racially nondiverse Eastern European countries. This has been resolved by identifying a designated victim group-Gypsies! \"Few minority groups in Europe face as much social, economic, and political discrimination as do Romani people,\" says OSI. Being a \"Roma activist\" has become a lucrative designation within the community. Seventy of the most promising ones came to the conference \"Roma in Expanding Europe: Challenges for the Future,\" held in Budapest last summer, at which Soros inaugurated a \"Decade of Roma Inclusion.\" The conference offered policy recommendations, some of which could have been written by Jesse Jackson: first, obligatory and free preschool education in desegregated classrooms; second, Romani assistants in the classroom, especially in preschool; third, antibias training for teachers and school administrators; and fourth, integration of Romani history and culture in textbooks at all levels.
Legally mandated affirmative-action programs for Roma in high schools and universities were recommended by the delegations of Rumania and Serbia-Montenegro. On employment, the conference recommended tax incentives for those who employ Roma and access to low-interest credit for small Roma-owned family businesses. The Czech and Slovak delegations also proposed setting aside a percentage of government contracts for Roma construction firms. In the area of housing, specific demands were made to combat \"racism and discrimination,\" including the \"legalization\" of shantytowns and \"equal access\" to municipal housing. The conference concluded that combating racial discrimination against Roma must be pursued through the adoption of comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation complying with the requirements of the E.U. Race Equality Directive.
The Rumanian delegation demanded that the Bucharest government recognize the Roma holocaust by issuing a public apology along with urgent adoption of a reparations package. The European Union was asked to make sure that Roma are broadly involved in the design, implementation, and evaluation of all E.U. spending on Roma projects.
Soros\' \"programs\" would have been deemed laughable or outrageous in their target countries only a decade ago. No one is laughing today, however. For thousands of young Eastern Europeans, to become a \"Soroshite\" represents today what joining the Party represented to their parents: an alluring opportunity to have a reasonably paid job, to belong to a privileged elite, and, for many, to travel abroad. The chosen few go to Soros\'s own Central European University in Budapest, where they are taught that affirming a scientifically grounded truth is \"totalitarian\" and that the sovereign nation-state is evil.
There is not one patriot (Russian, Croat, Latvian, Serb, Rumanian, Hungarian) or one practicing Christian on Soros\' payroll. In all postcommunist countries, Soros relies on the sons and daughters of the old communist establishment, who are less likely to be tainted by any atavistic attachments to their native soil, culture, and traditions. The more successful among them-and the most loyal-may spend years drifting from one \"project\" to another, and some have been living that way for more than a decade. Soros has revealed (in Underwriting Democracy) that his Open Society foundations will help create an international web, at the heart of which will be the computerized base of personal data that will enable Western multinationals to find the local candidates they need.
These new janissaries, just like those of the Ottoman army of old, have to prove their credentials by being more zealous than the master himself; as the Balkan proverb has it, \"a convert is worse than a Turk.\" Nobody is more insanely vehement in his insults against the Serbian people and their history, religion, art, and suffering than a dozen Serb-born columnists who are on the payroll of Sonja Licht, Soros\' Gauleiter in Belgrade.
Hoi polloi are force-fed the daily fare of OSI agitprop by \"the Soros media\"-the term now exists in over a dozen languages-from the Gazeta Wyborcza in Warsaw to Danas (Today) in Serbia, the Monitor in Montenegro, the Markiza TV channel in Bratislava, and Vreme weekly and the B-92 electronic media conglomerate in Belgrade. They invariably parrot Soros\' views and ambitions, reflected by the agenda of the local Soros foundation at home and, in world affairs, by the International Crisis Group (ICG), largely financed by Soros and run by his appointees.
Soros\' agenda in world affairs is clear from the fact that his appointees include Gen. Wesley Clark, who commanded NATO forces in the war against Serbia in 1999; Louise Arbour, the former chief prosecutor of the Yugoslav war-crimes tribunal at The Hague; former assistant secretary of state Morton Abramowitz, an enthusiastic supporter of Bosnian Muslims and Albanians in the wars of Yugoslav succession; and former national security advisor Zbigniew Brzezinski, whose visceral Russophobia aided and abetted the rise of Osama bin Laden and his jihadist cohorts.
As Gilles d\'Aymery noted two years ago, Soros is not just the power behind the Open Society Institute, the U.S. Institute of Peace, the National Endowment for Democracy, Human Rights Watch, Amnesty International, and the International Crisis Group:
[L]ike an immense Jules Verne octopus, [he] extends his tentacles all over Eastern Europe, South-Eastern Europe, the Caucasus as well as the republics of the former Soviet Union. With the help of these various groups [it is possible] not only to shape but to create the news, the agenda and public opinion to further aims which are, in short, the control of the world, its natural resources and the furtherance of the uniform ideal of a perfect world polity made in America.
That polity will not be \"American\" in any recognizable sense if Soros has his way, however. Here, he supports increased government spending and tax increases, drug legalization, euthanasia, open borders and immigration, immigrant entitlements, feminism, free abortion on demand, affirmative action, and \"gay\" rights. He opposes the death penalty in any circumstance. One of the trustees of OSI is Lani Guinier, the law professor whom Bill Clinton tried to nominate as head of the civil-rights division of the Department of Justice but changed his mind when she was found to favor minority veto power over legislation. Its president is Aryeh Neier, who had for 12 years been executive director of the Soros-funded Human Rights Watch and, before that, national director of the American Civil Liberties Union for eight years.
That he is anti-Bush is unremarkable, but Soros\' statement last December that the defeat of the President is \"a matter of life and death\" was silly. His largesse to Bush\'s foes-although substantial-does not reflect the stated urgency of the moment: $15 million for America Coming Together; $3 million for John Podesta\'s new think tank; and $2.5 million for MoveOn.org falls far short of a month\'s cost of running his many foundations around the world.
Soros remains primarily committed to destroying the remaining bastions of the family, sovereign nationhood, and Christian Faith east of the Trieste-Stettin line. He senses that his full-throttle intervention in America is not necessary, because things are gradually going his way anyway. No matter who is his party\'s anointed candidate come next November, the real choice will be between George and Gyorgy, and that is not much of a choice.
As is customary in geniuses of post-modernism, Soros’ biography is full of romantic detail and white spots. According to some, he – a Jewish boy – was miraculously saved from extermination in Nazi camps; he was hidden by Christians, then obtained false documents. Another version is that he himself, being a teenager at that time, helped the fascists to rob Hungarian Jews and that, therefore, he was forced to flee in 1947. There, the poor thing allegedly worked as a railway porter, a dishwasher in a bar - and suddenly he was able to enter one of the most prestigious universities in the world, the London School of Economics. And furthermore, he became a close associate of the Rothschild bankers. Democracy is s society of equal opportunities!
Then follows the marvelous story how the hard-working, modest youth, saving his pennies and pfennigs, became a global financial with huge quantities of money of non-transparent origin, and hidden from the tax men on the secretive island of Curacao, Mr. Soros plans and executes pirate-style attacks on national currencies, shatters their exchange-rates on the world money markets.
The first big hits by these \"royal pirates from Curacao\" were directed against European currencies, of friends and allies of the United States. In 1992 a \"Black Wednesday\" was organized in England, when the English pound fell by 12 percent. The country’s economy was badly hit, but Soros’ fee amounted to US $1 billion. In the same year, the Italian lira was seriously devalued, in order to force its \"democrats\" to start a fire sale of state property, and to buy up such properties for a song. The Russian Chubais breed does not live on the shores of the Neva.
Soros also lent a hand in bankrupting Argentina. Whilst the intimate friend of our reformers, Domingo Cavallo, was destroying Argentina’s production system, Soros bought up 400,00 ha. of land (not to mention real estate in Buenos Aires) and turned the large-scale beef producer. He intends to supply Europe – just at a time when in Europe the psychosis about \"mad cow disease\" was rampant, yet in the USA nobody has ever heard about such an affliction.
In year 1997 the Soros \"Sonderkommando\" was transferred to the Eastern Front – the task was to stop the economic growth of the \"Asian Tigers\". Here the conditions required some hard work – but the currencies of Malaysia, Indonesia, and the Philippines crashed. For some time the economies of these countries were undermined. Indonesia was thrown into complete chaos. According to the estimates, it cost Malaysia US $30 billion to save its financial system, and the country was thrown back it its development by 10-15 years.
Taiwan too, was badly hit. This destructive speculator generated such hatred there, that a special decree threatened \"any person cooperating with Soros funds\" would be charged with a criminal offense. What harsh treatment of robbers! What lack of tolerance!
It is true that the currency speculators broke their teeth on China’s yuan. The nut proved too hard, and the Chinese outplayed the speculators and even brought about Soros’ financial collapse there. Moreover, he was barred from entering China. This was due of no traitors inside China’s financial system. In all other cases, spies supplied Soros with confidential information. This is a remarkable exception in our times, when treason and prostitution have become the most prestigious occupations in the civilized world.
This small list of details is cited to illustrate the kind of destructive machinery – named conditionally \"SOROS\" invaded, in the 1980s, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Poland and in 1987 the Soviet Union, and took over key positions in Moscow.
Fist of all, Mr. Soros is not a banker whose chief purpose is profit only. He heads a special task force of the shadowy Imperialist inspired World Government, which conducts financial wars, and whose goals can only be a guess. Money here is not the purpose, but a weapon. Losses to national currencies are achieved even at costs (to the initiators), and if there is profit, it is tens of timers less than the damage inflicted on victim country. This is a way of taming and punishing recalcitrants under the New World Order. These wars are justified by the ideology of globalization and more attractive private concepts.
Thus, for example, Soros pushes the idea of an \"Open Society.\" But in itself, this idea is meaningless, but we have learned how receptive people are for beautiful phrases. When Soros arrived in Moscow in 1987, and embraced the dissident Sakharov, he was applauded by the Russian intelligencia. He was immediately introduced to Raisa Gorbachev and established, in conjunction with the Cultural Foundation, an American-Soviet Foundation named the \"Cultural Initiative\". Thus, we became entangled in the cob-web of this \"universal human values.\"
It must be stressed, that the basis for Soros’ activities in the Soviet Union in 1987 was created by Gorbachev, who knew well enough that he dealt with a prominent ideologue and even philosopher of anti-Communism, who was closely associated with the American secret service – his links to the CIA and Israeli Mossad had caused Soros’ expulsion from these countries: Hungary, Czechoslovakia and Romania. Soros did not hide then, and does not do so today, that his entire \"humanitarian\" activity was aimed at the destruction of the USSR. This ought to be kept in mind by those old communists who still believe that Gorbachev \"wanted the best, but it just didn’t work out.\"
In the member countries of the socialist camp, and in the USSR in particular, Soros participated in the solution of the most important personnel and organizational issues of the \"democratic revolution\". In Poland, her financed the work of Jeffrey Sachs, who was preparing the Western \"shock therapy\" and privatization in that country. Many still remember that Sachs introduced the same programme in Russia, assisted by Gaidar and Chubais. Soros organized and financed the trips to the USA by Grigori Yavlinski and his team, who carried back the \"500 days\" programme, and also paid for the training of young Russian \"reformers in the USA.
Soros became the middleman between Russia’s oligarchs and Western financial operators and was actively involved in the oligarch’s political intrigues (for example in the 1996 elections). He now proudly recounts all that in his books. Chubais is indebted to Soros for his enduring presence. This is how this promoter of the \"open society\" put it in one of his books:
\"I know Chubais well. In my view he is a true reformer, who sold his soul to the devil in order to vanquish the red-brown menace which, in his view, would come to power in Russia, unless counter-acted.
It is elating to learn that Soros praises his soul-brother for selling his soul to save the world from the Russian plague. Oh you, our democratic intellectuals – you follow crazed paranoiacs in their messianic war against Russia.
As a speculator Soros is also active on the Russian securities market – this too, is an important frontline of the silent war against Russia. The targets here are the main strategic sectors of our economy. Soros has bought one billion dollars worth of shares in \"Svyazizvest\" – the corporation controlling the entire telephone communications in Russia. After this purchase, Soros said in an interview that his funds will actively participate in the buying-out of Russian oil and natural gas companies. It needs to be understood that the control over these sectors is not merely an economic operation, but is primarily (equal to) the political enslavement of the country.
However, the main programme of this Soros brigade in Russia is directed at the minds of our citizens, and primarily at those of the intelligencia and youth. If they swallow the hook, everything else will fall into place. Watching the progress of this programme over the past ten years, one would say that it is brilliant – if only such a word were appropriate for something as perverse and cynical. This \"open society\" for Soros is the ideology of breaking-and-entering, the removal of all kinds of protective shields. Down with the frontiers which protect and safeguard the country’s efforts to regain strength after years of crisis! Down with the moral norms which parents use to protect their children from the temptation of evil Down with the country’s history which lends support to the young in times of troubles! Soros tries to tear down all these alleged Soviet \"chains of totalitarianism\". In an interview in the newspaper \"Komersant of August 8, 1997 Soros said¨: \"I am convinced that a strong central government in Russia cannot be democratic. Secondly, the rescue of a free Russian economy depends on the attraction of Western investments. Thirdly, Russia’s general public must accept the ideology of an ‘open society’.
In another change of tack, in 1990 the Thatcher government decided to join the European Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM), with the pound set at about DM 2.90. However the country was forced to withdraw from the system on Black Wednesday (September 16, 1992) as an international group of currency speculators led by George Soros exploited the fixed exchange rate by speculating on the interest rate differences between Britain and Germany (earning several billion dollars in the process).
Black Wednesday saw interest rates jump from 10 per cent to 12 per cent, and then to 15 per cent in a futile attempt to stop the pound falling below the ERM limits, costing the country tens of billions of pounds as the exchange rate moved to DM 2.20.
European Exchange Rate Mechanism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.
The European exchange rate mechanism (or ERM) was a system introduced by the European Community in March 1979, as part of the European Monetary System (EMS), to reduce exchange-rate variability and achieve monetary stability in Europe, in preparation for Economic and Monetary Union and the introduction of a single currency, the Euro, which took place in January 1999.
The ERM is based on the concept of fixed currency exchange rate margins, but with exchange rates variable with those margins. Before the introduction of the Euro, exchange rates were based on the ECU, the European unit of account, whose value was determined as a weighted average of the participating currencies.
A grid of bilateral rates was calculated on the basis of these central rates expressed in ECUs, and currency fluctuations had to be contained within a margin of 2.25% either side of the bilateral rates (with the exception of the Italian lira, which was allowed a margin of 6%). Determined intervention and loan arrangements protected the participating currencies from greater exchange rates fluctations.
Ireland\'s participation in ERM resulted in the Irish Pound breaking parity with the Pound Sterling in 1979, becoming an entirely separate currency, the Irish Punt.
In 1992, the United Kingdom participated but was forced to exit the program after the Pound Sterling came under major pressure from currency speculators led by George Soros. September 16, 1992, was subsequently dubbed \"Black Wednesday\".
In 1993, the margin had to be expanded to 15% to accommodate monetary problems with the Italian lira and the Pound Sterling.
On December 31, 1998, the ECU exchanges rates of the Eurozone countries were frozen and the value of the Euro, which then superseded the ECU on a 1:1 basis, was thus established.
In 1999, ERM II replaced the original ERM. The Greek and Danish currencies were part of the system, but as Greece joined the euro in 2001, the Danish krone was left as the only participant member. Currencies in ERM II are allowed to float within a range of +/- 15% against the euro. In the case of the krone, this means an exchange rate of 7.46038 DKK = 1 €.
As of 1 May 2004, the ten National Central Banks (NCBs) of the new member countries became party to the ERM II Central Bank Agreement. The national currencies themselves will become part of the ERM II at different dates, as mutually agreed.
The Estonian kroon, Lithuanian litas, and Slovenian tolar were included in the ERM II on June 28, 2004. More national currencies will follow.
EU countries that have not adopted the euro must participate for at least two years in the ERM II before joining the Eurozone
George Soros (born August 12, 1930) is a Hungarian-born American businessman. He is famous as a currency speculator and a philanthropist. Currently, he is the chairman of Soros Fund Management and the Open Society Institute and is also director of the Council on Foreign Relations. In the run-up to the 2004 United States Presidential election, he became known in the United States for donating large sums of money to organizations seeking to unseat US President George W. Bush.
George Soros is the son of the Esperanto writer Tivadar Soros. Soros was born in Hungary and lived there until 1946, when he escaped the Soviet occupation by participating in an Esperanto youth congress in the West. (Soros was taught to speak the language from birth.) As a young man, Soros traded currencies in the black market during the Nazi occupation of Hungary. Soros was fourteen when the Nazis invaded Hungary and he avoided the fate of many Jews as the grandson of a Hungarian official overseeing the confiscation of Jewish properties, who was assisted by his son-in-law, Tivadar Soros.
Soros emigrated to England in 1947 and graduated from the London School of Economics in 1952. In 1956 he moved to the United States. He has stated that his intent was to earn enough money on Wall Street to support himself as an author and philosopher. His net worth reached an estimated $11 Billion.
\"The Man Who Broke the Bank of England\"
On Black Wednesday (September 16, 1992), Soros became instantly famous when, believing the Pound Sterling was overvalued, he speculated aggressively against it. The Bank of England was forced to withdraw the currency out of the European Exchange Rate Mechanism, and Soros earned an estimated US$ 1.1 billion in the process. He was dubbed \"the man who broke the Bank of England.\" In 1997, under similar circumstances during the Asian financial crisis, former Malaysian Prime Minister Mahathir bin Mohamad accused Soros of bringing down the Malaysian currency, the ringgit.
Despite his carefully groomed media image, Soros is a controversial figure. Although he has become extremely wealthy as an international investor and currency speculator (his fortune in 2004 was estimated at US$ 7 billion), he freely acknowledges that the current system of financial speculation undermines healthy economic development in many underdeveloped countries.
\"But it was in France that Soros got into trouble with the authorities. In 1988, he was asked to join a takeover attempt of a French bank. He declined, but he did buy the bank\'s stock. In 2002, a French court ruled that was insider trading.\"
\"Soros denies any wrongdoing and says news of the takeover was public knowledge. Nevertheless, he was fined more than $2 million…roughly the amount French authorities say he made from the trades.\" Bill Moyers PBS (http://www.pbs.org/now/transcript/transcript_soros.html)
Critics point out that Soros plays the currency markets through Quantum Fund, his privately-owned investment fund registered in Curaçao, Netherlands Antilles, a Caribbean tax haven which has repeatedly been cited by the International Task Force on Money Laundering of the OECD as one of the world\'s most important centers for laundering the illegal proceeds of the Latin American drug trade. By operating from Curaçao, Soros not only avoids paying taxes but also hides the nature of his investors and what he does with their money.
Soros has critics from all over the political spectrum: American conservatives dislike his dump-Bush campaign, and supporters of Israel dislike his rhetoric with inflammatory comparisons to Nazi Germany and Yasser Arafat.
Former National Review contributor and ex-House Republican staffer Phil Brennan called Soros a \"socialist billionaire\". (http://newsmax.com/archives/articles/2003/12/2/203605.shtml) Lowell Ponte of David Horowitz\'s Frontpage called Soros a \"Billionaire for the Left\".
Socialists, anarchists and other leftists, such as punk band Propagandhi, criticize Soros by pointing out the irony of using capitalism, a system of exploitation in their eyes, to help people or with the intent to do good.
A host of a Soros October 19, 2004 speech to Harrisburg\'s Tuesday Club, State Representative Mark B. Cohen of Philadelphia, said that this criticism is off-base: \"Soros is a political pragmatist using his economic resources to expand democracy and peaceful intercourse among nations. His generous contributions and potential to make further contributions give him a voice, and he is ambitious to use it for his public purposes.\"
 (http://www.frontpagemag.com/articles/ReadArticle.asp?ID=1078... Scott Shore of IntellectualConservative.com called him a \"Soft Money Marxist.\" (http://www.intellectualconservative.com/article2915.html) He has also been called a self-hating Jewish anti-Semite.
At a Jewish forum in New York City, Soros reportedly attributed a recent resurgence of anti-Semitism to the policies of Israel and the United States, and to successful Jews such as himself:
\"There is a resurgence of anti-Semitism in Europe. The policies of the Bush administration and the Sharon administration contribute to that,\" Soros said. \"It\'s not specifically anti-Semitism, but it does manifest itself in anti-Semitism as well. I\'m critical of those policies.\"
\"If we change that direction, then anti-Semitism also will diminish,\" he said. \"I can\'t see how one could confront it directly.\" ...
\"I\'m also very concerned about my own role because the new anti-Semitism holds that the Jews rule the world,\" said Soros ... \"As an unintended consequence of my actions,\" he said, \"I also contribute to that image.\" (http://www.jta.org/page_view_story.asp?intarticleid=13428&in...
It should be noted that this could be a result of Soros\'s Popperian tendency toward self-criticism.
\"How can we escape from the trap that the terrorists have set us,\" he asked. \"Only by recognizing that the war on terrorism cannot be won by waging war. We must, of course, protect our security; but we must also correct the grievances on which terrorism feeds....Crime requires police work, not military action.\"
\"An open society is a society which allows its members the greatest possible degree of freedom in pursuing their interests compatible with the interests of others,\" Soros said. \"The Bush administration merely has a narrower definition of self-interest. It does not include the interests of others.\"
\"The supremacist ideology of the Bush Administration stands in opposition to the principles of an open society, which recognize that people have different views and that nobody is in possession of the ultimate truth. The supremacist ideology postulates that just because we are stronger than others, we know better and have right on our side. The very first sentence of the September 2002 National Security Strategy (the President\'s annual laying out to Congress of the country\'s security objectives) reads, \'The great struggles of the twentieth century between liberty and totalitarianism ended with a decisive victory for the forces of freedom and a single sustainable model for national success: freedom, democracy, and free enterprise.\'\"
Soros has been active as a philanthropist since 1979, when he began providing funds to help black students attend the University of Cape Town in apartheid South Africa. Soros\' philanthropic funding in Eastern Europe mostly occurs through the Open Society Institute and national Soros Foundations, which sometimes go under other names, e.g. the Stefan Batory Foundation in Poland. He also pledged an endowment of $250 million to the Central European University (CEU).
He received honorary doctoral degrees from the New School for Social Research (New York), the University of Oxford in 1980, the Budapest University of Economics, and Yale University in 1991. Soros was a student of Karl Popper and says that his investment strategies are based on a Popperian skepticism about the reliability of any one human belief.
One could say that Soros is primarily a philosopher, and his successes in business and philanthropy are merely an expression of his views on the world. Certainly Soros sees himself that way, having aspired to be a philosopher since childhood.
Soros periodically has studied under and corresponded with Karl Popper.
He has popularized the concepts of dynamic disequilibrium, static disequilibrium, and near-equilibrium conditions. His writings also focus heavily on the concept of reflexivity.
Soros blames many of the world\'s problems on the failures inherent in market fundamentalism
893 days confidence:
Names are kept in original:
George Soros, một trong những ông trùm tài chính khét tiếng ở phố Wall, lại chuẩn bị ra tay khuấy đảo thị trường, lần này là ý định mua lại cổ phần của hãng phim lừng danh Hollywood, hãng Paramount Pictures.
Tin từ Nhật báo phố Wall ra ngày 9/1 cho hay Paramount Pictures có thể sẽ đồng ý bán lại xưởng phim lớn rất quen thuộc là DreamWorks mà người sáng lập không ai khác là đạo diễn lừng danh Steven Spielberg và David Geffen, cho một quỹ đầu tư tư nhân do huyền thoại tài chính Soros đứng đầu.
Local time: 06:55
Native speaker of: Spanish
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