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technisch

English translation: practical

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22:08 Oct 25, 2006
German to English translations [PRO]
Tech/Engineering - Energy / Power Generation / liability
German term or phrase: technisch
General context: an engineering text on 'Moderne Kraftwerkstechnik'

What I'm looking for here is peer suggestions for how to handle the translation of 'technisch' in the sense (apparently) of 'gegenübergestellt an wissenschaftlich-theoretisch'.

I'm inclined to regard it as a quasi-synonym of 'angewandte' or 'für technische Anwendungen', but even then I'm not happy with my ideas ('practical uses of ...' or '... used in technical applications').

Sample phrases (except for the first one, which is the intro to the chapter, they are not directly related to each other in context):

VERBRENNUNG
1 Allgemeines
Die Verbrennung eines Brennstoffes ist ein chemisch physikalischer Vorgang, bei dem eine Umwandlung der im Brennstoff gebundenen chemischen Energie in Wärmeenergie (unter starker Wärme- und Lichtentwicklung) erfolgt. Im chemischen Sinne heißt das, daß sich alle im Brennstoff befindlichen brennbaren Bestandteile mit Sauerstoff verbinden – sie oxidieren. Die Oxidation geht sehr schnell und stürmisch vor sich. Die technische Verbrennung verlangt eine sichtbare Flammenbildung.

1.1 Die technische Verbrennung
Eine technische Verbrennung kann nur stattfinden, wenn der Brennstoff - bei Vorhandensein von Sauerstoff - seine ihm eigene Zündtemperatur überschreitet. Sie findet nur an den Stellen statt, wo der Brennstoff mit dem Sauerstoff bzw. mit der Verbrennungsluft in Berührung kommt.
...
3.1 Die vollkommene Verbrennung
Der Begriff vollkommene Verbrennung ist unabhängig davon, ob mit Luftüberschuß oder stöchiometrisch gefahren wird. Die einzige Bedingung die zu erfüllen ist ist die, alles Brennbare zu verbrennen. Im den Abgas darf also kein CO, H2, C, S etc. sein, weder als Gas noch als Ruß oder Flugasche. Ebenfalls darf sich in der Asche/Schlacke kein unverbrannter Stoff sein.
Überprüft und beurteilt wird die technische Verbrennung durch kontinuierliche Messung des Sauerstoff- und des CO-Gehaltes im Abgas sowie durch die Analysen von Filterstaub und Schlacke auf brennbare Bestandteile.
...
3.4 Der Luftüberschuß
Die Verbrennung in technischen Feuerungen erfolgt immer mit Luftüberschuß
...
4.2.2 Promptes NO
entsteht in der Flammenfront. Hier wird molekularer Stickstoff unter Beteiligung von Kohlenwasserstoffradikalen über Zwischenprodukte in NO umgewandelt.
Das Prompte NO ist in technischen Flammen von untergeordneter Bedeutung.
...
Für technische Flammen interessant sind nur das thermische NO und das Brennstoff NO.
Ken Cox
Local time: 02:11
English translation:practical
Explanation:
I'm not sure about this; I was thinking along the lines of industrial combustion at first, or combustion in the technical sense, but that doesn't really mean a lot in English, plus it doesn't go with flames.

However, on looking up "industrial combustion", I did come across the following definition which refers to practical combustion and practical flames.

See: combustion: Definition and Much More from Answers.comIn its broad definition, combustion includes fast exothermic chemical ... is the major mode of fuel utilization in domestic and industrial heating, ...
www.answers.com/topic/combustion - 88k -

This may be what you're looking for....
Selected response from:

Claire Cox
United Kingdom
Local time: 01:11
Grading comment
This probably comes closest to the intended meaning in the context, and at least it's less cumbersome than what I had in mind.
I must admit that I find scitrans's suggestion enticing (although I can hear the chorus of hisses and boos already), nd English may well adopt this usage as a result of European influence, but in many of the cited NE examples 'technical combustion' is compound adjective, which is not quite the same an adjective plus a noun.
Finally, I recognise John's point -- 'xxxtechnisch' is often the equivalent of 'xxxwise' in English -- but IMO technisch does have a real meaning in this case.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4Waste and Disposal Management via Burning/Incineration (see others below also)
Brett Richards, B.S., M.B.A.
4Ignore it
John Jory
4 -1technicalsci-trans
3pragmatic/method/administrated/engineered/efficacious/utilitarian
Brett Richards, B.S., M.B.A.
2practical
Claire Cox


  

Answers


13 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 2/5Answerer confidence 2/5
technisch ...
practical


Explanation:
I'm not sure about this; I was thinking along the lines of industrial combustion at first, or combustion in the technical sense, but that doesn't really mean a lot in English, plus it doesn't go with flames.

However, on looking up "industrial combustion", I did come across the following definition which refers to practical combustion and practical flames.

See: combustion: Definition and Much More from Answers.comIn its broad definition, combustion includes fast exothermic chemical ... is the major mode of fuel utilization in domestic and industrial heating, ...
www.answers.com/topic/combustion - 88k -

This may be what you're looking for....

Claire Cox
United Kingdom
Local time: 01:11
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: English
PRO pts in category: 74
Grading comment
This probably comes closest to the intended meaning in the context, and at least it's less cumbersome than what I had in mind.
I must admit that I find scitrans's suggestion enticing (although I can hear the chorus of hisses and boos already), nd English may well adopt this usage as a result of European influence, but in many of the cited NE examples 'technical combustion' is compound adjective, which is not quite the same an adjective plus a noun.
Finally, I recognise John's point -- 'xxxtechnisch' is often the equivalent of 'xxxwise' in English -- but IMO technisch does have a real meaning in this case.
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2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
technisch ...
pragmatic/method/administrated/engineered/efficacious/utilitarian


Explanation:
I don't really like the sound of "technisch" in this context even in German. Perhaps they couldn't find a better word either.

pragmatic/method/administrated/engineered/efficacious/utilitarian

utilitarian (instead of "combustion used in technical applications," --> utilitarian combustion)
pragmatic (instead of "practical uses of," --> uses of pragmatic combustion)
pragmatics
engineered burn
method combustions
functional combustions
practicable
intentional combustion
controlled incineration
managed burns
applied combustion(s)
application combustion(s)
administrated combustion
intentional combustion
operative incineration
arranged burns
planned burns
controlled burns
intended combustions
methodical combustions
required
real-world
as required by hard reality
in the real world
field
in the field
workable
actual
unavoidable
feasible
realistic
necessary
serviceable
working
effective
real life
In reality,...
purposeful


Good luck!

Brett Richards, B.S., M.B.A.
United States
Local time: 17:11
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in SpanishSpanish
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12 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Ignore it


Explanation:
The widespread habit of German authors to use 'technisch' either separately or to hook it as a suffix to every other word (I guess it's supposed to sound more scientific) is a pain in the ... for translation.
If you simply ignore the word, the original text loses precisely NOTHING in 99% of all cases.

In your case, I would go for:

1.1 Combustion

1.2 Complete combustion

Practically all of the googlies found for "technical combustion" (as suggested by sci-trans) are either on German sites or from texts by German authors.

John Jory
Germany
Local time: 02:11
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in GermanGerman, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 61
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16 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Waste and Disposal Management via Burning/Incineration (see others below also)


Explanation:
Waste and Disposal Management via Burning/Incineration (see others below also)

Waste Management by/via Burning

Waste Disposal by/via Burning

Disposal Management via Burning

Disposal Management by Incineration

Disposal by Incineration

Refuse Management via Incineration

Refuse Disposal by Incineration

Managing Waste with Incineration

Managing Refuse with Incineration

Managing Waste and Refuse with Incineration

Managing Waste and/or Refuse by/via Burning

Incineration for Disposal Management

Actually, I got these terms from watching the acclaimed television mini-series, "The Sopranos." Tony Soprano is in the "Waste Management" (lol) business! Saluti!


Brett Richards, B.S., M.B.A.
United States
Local time: 17:11
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in SpanishSpanish
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

7 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): -1
technical


Explanation:
I am quite sure that in this context the term "technisch" should be translated as "technical," and I even would go so far as to say that both words are appropriate in all cases in question. Thus:

(1) technische Verbrennung - technical combustion
(2) technische Flamme - technical flame
(3) technische Feuerung(sanlage) - technical furnace

If a thing or process is technical, it is man-made and, unlike a natural entity, exists or occurs because of an underlying purpose. And this fundamental concept of being is usually best conveyed by the attribute "technical" (or "technisch" in German) -- that is, by a description that stresses the artificial nature.

Such a view, it seems, is also common in literature. A Google-search, for example, gave the following results:

814 for "technical combustion"
609 for "technical flames"
28 for "technical furnaces"

Examples

(1) Translation: Technische Verbrennung -> Technical Combustion

German
Die kurz- und mittelfristige Vision dieses Sonderforschungsbereichs ist die Erarbeitung des Verständnisses von instationären Phänomenen bei der technischen Verbrennung, so dass zukunftssicheren, fortschrittlichen Verbrennungskonzepten zum technischen Durchbruch verholfen werden kann.

English
The short-term and middle-term vision of this joint research project is the understanding of instationary phenomena in technical combustion so that advanced combustion concepts that have a guaranteed future can be brought on the road to technical success.
http://www.innovations-report.com/html/reports/dfg_engineeri...

(2) Literature Examples of "Technical Combustion"

Meier, U.E. (1998): Laser-Based Diagnostics in View of Application in Technical Combustion. Gas Kinetics Discussion Group "Experiment and Application ...
http://elib.dlr.de/3194/

Description:, Identifies issues for discussion at the Technical Combustion Sessions of the National Roundtable on Waste Minimization and Combustion. ...
http://yosemite.epa.gov/osw/rcra.nsf/ea6e50dc6214725285256bf...

Title: Mathematical modeling and high-speed imaging of technical combustion processes Authors: Wolfrum, Juergen Affiliation: AA(Univ. ...
http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1995SPIE.2513..426W

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 Tag1 Stunde (2006-10-26 23:43:19 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

The attribute "technical" in "technical combustion" and "technical flames"

(In response to the criticism of John Jory)

The general topic is *combustion* (including its analysis and control) in *technical* systems, such as

- internal combustion engines
- gas turbines
- rocket engines
- oil burners
- coal-fired power stations, etc.

In short: we are talking about special oxidation processes that are meant to be initiated, controlled, and exploited by means of devices such as those listed above. We are therefore dealing with a *concept*, and this concept is designated by the term "technical combustion" (or, in a specialized meaning, by "technical flames"). Because there are other ways of burning things and also other kinds combustion in this world, the attribute "technical" is anything but superfluous here.

You claim that "the original text loses precisely NOTHING in 99% of all cases." Well, if so, what about the remaining 1%? What does that remainder refer to anyway?

Whether you like it or not, the term "technical combustion" is being used by both native and non-native speakers of English around the globe. And the same also holds for "technical flames."

To backup this claim, I have listed several literature examples containing the term "technical combustion," presumably most (if not all) of them originating from non-German authors.

(1) USA

Sales Trainees COMBUSTION
Job Description
The North American Manufacturing Co., a leading global supplier of industrial combustion systems, is seeking a number of individuals to prepare for future *technical combustion* sales positions in the US.

Send resume and salary requirements to:
North American Manufacturing Co.
4455 East 71st Street • Cleveland, OH 44105
Attention: H. R/Future Combustion Salesman
http://www.namfg.com/emp/st-c.htm

Thermal-Solution INC. 2153 Niagara Falls Boulevard Amherst, NY
Application
Refer to Datasheet 8.02 for special version for H2 applications. Suitable for gases of families 1, 2, 3 and other neutral *technical combustion* gases.
http://www.thermal-solution.com/Dungs/Valve_Proving/VDK_200_...


*Technical Combustion*, Inc.
Littleton CO
http://www.fireye.net/pdf/sites/UserListUSA.pdf

Bulletin 4097 - *Technical Combustion* Brochure
http://www.bacharach-inc.com/PDF/Instructions/11-9026.pdf

TITLE: "EPA National Roundtable on Hazardous Waste Minimization
and Combustion (November 15-18, 1993) Discussion
Document: Technical Combustion Sessions"
AVAILABILITY: Hotline
EPA ORDER NO.: EPA530-R-93-019

This document provides the framework and background information
for the *technical combustion* discussions that were held at the ...
http://www.epa.gov/epaoswer/hotline/93report/nov93.txt


ADA-ES Appoints Dr. Nina Bergan French to Direct New Business Area
Business Wire, April 28, 2005
LITTLETON, Colo. -- ADA-ES, Inc. (NASDAQ: ADES) today announced that Dr. Nina Bergan French has joined ADA-ES to direct the development of the Company's new enhanced coal products. Dr. French provides a combination of *technical combustion* expertise and business development experience required to lead this new business area.
http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m0EIN/is_2005_Apri...


Los Alamos
N AT I O N A L L A B O R A T O R Y
The *technical combustion* literature shows that plastics, less than 1 inch in
diameter, and other entrained organics, are completely oxidized under ambient
conditions at ≥ 800 ーC for less than five minutes [Eller et al. 1999; ACS 1995;
Bockhorn et al.].
http://www.osti.gov/bridge/servlets/purl/775827-z3qcwT/webvi...


THE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN INDUSTRY PROGRAM OF THE COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING TURBULENT PROPANE-AIR FLAMES STABILIZED IN SMOOTH CERAMIC TUBES
Its major headings are: chemical kinetics, flame stability, considerations of the burned gas, and problems in *technical combustion* processes.
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/3471/4/bab10...

Matthew A. Straus
Director/Deputy Director of the Waste Management Division from 6/90 to 3/95 where he was actively involved in a broad ranges of issues, including the Land Disposal Restrictions Program, pollution prevention, the *Technical Combustion* Standards, Capacity Assurance Planning, and the Special Waste Program. In addition, Mr. Straus was responsible for developing and implementing the Administrator's Combustion Strategy.
http://www.zoominfo.com/people/straus_matthew_70294146.aspx


(2) UK

Autumn 2006 meeting
PR has suggested Biofuels. Focus should be on *technical combustion* issues
(including waste-derived fuels). Venue to be confirmed - (e.g. Cambridge would
charge £1000).
Action: PR: Formulate
http://www.ioppublishing.co.uk/Our_Activities/Groups_and_Div...


Aeronautical Combustion Colloquium at Cambridge
articles on *Technical Combustion* Problems - Problem of Combustion at High Altitudes,
http://209.85.129.104/search?q=cache:E614Eb3UIGYJ:www.wordma...

3. NOx REDUCTION TECHNIQUES
The effect of various parameters on the reduction of Thermal NOx Formation with
Gas Oil and Gas derived from theoretical computer models and from laboratory
experiments.
The primary measures consist of *technical combustion* modifications, in which the formation
of nitrogenous oxides is suppressed, or the nitrogen oxide concentration is reduced
immediately after the combustion zone.
It is a question here of achieving the desired effect
http://www.saacke.co.uk/docs/TV46 Low Nox iss.g.pdf

Effective combustion control
*Technical combustion* conditions to meet minimum requirements for temperature, oxygen and residence time
http://www.pops.int/documents/meetings/bat_bep/egbatbep1/gui...

Combustion Engineer Midlands
up to £35K dep on exp

The Combustion Group within the company is looking to recruit an enthusiastic Combustion Engineer to provide specialist *technical combustion* engineering input to a wide range of programmes.
http://209.85.135.104/search? q=cache:xehrGIPW7ZIJ:www.prestigetechnical.co.uk/details.asp?ID=134 "Technical C...


(3) Canada

Level Set Curve Matching and Particle Image Velocimetry for Resolving
Chemistry and Turbulence Interactions in Propagating Flames
RAFEEF ABU-GHARBIEH
Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Ryerson University, Toronto, ON M5B 2K3, Canada;
Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, G¨oteborg 412 96, Sweden
rafeef@ee.ryerson.ca
GHASSAN HAMARNEH AND TOMAS GUSTAVSSON
Department of Signals and Systems, Chalmers University of Technology, G¨oteborg 412 96, Sweden
CLEMENS KAMINSKI
Department of Chemical Engineering, Cambridge University, Cambridge CB2 3RA, UK

Local flame instabilities
are always the consequence of an interaction between
fluid motion and flame chemistry and their understanding
has far reaching implications in the design of next
generation *technical combustion* devices, such as aero
engines and low pollution gas turbines.
...
This can be used for model development and validation
of *technical combustion* processes.
http://www.cs.sfu.ca/~hamarneh/ecopy/jmiv2003.pdf

(4) Australia

Fuel guide
Ethanol
Ethanol is attractive environmentally because it can be substituted for petroleum-based fuels. Research by NRMA and others has shown there are no *technical combustion* problems in using a 10 per cent ethanol-in-petrol blend in internal combustion-engined vehicles. However, some vehicle manufacturers have stated they will not maintain vehicle warranty coverage at ethanol content above 10 per cent.
http://www.openroad.com.au/motoring_carcare_fuelguide.asp

(5) EU-Publications

The majority of *technical combustion* systems fall into this category,
including internal combustion engines (petrol and diesel), aircraft turbines, rocket
propulsion, heating-oil burners, coal-fired power stations, etc.
http://www.esa.int/esapub/sp/sp1251/sp1251web.pdf

Plans have been produced based on the *technical combustion* specification and work
initiated on the adaptation of the current LCV technology for new gas turbines and
potential applications.
http://ec.europa.eu/energy/library/sf97.pdf

(6) Other Countries

Int.J. Applied Thermodynamics, ISSN 1301-9724
Vol.4, (No.1), pp.1-18, March-2001
Second Law Analysis of Diffusion Flames
Dorin STANCIU#, Dragos ISVORANU, Mircea MARINESCU
Dept. of Engineering Thermodynamics, Polytechnic University of Bucharest
Splaiul Independentei, 313, Bucharest-Romania
Tel: +410 01 3140097, Fax: +410 11 17
E-mail: sdorin@mdd.combustion.pub.ro
Yalcin GOGUS
Middle East Technical University, Aeronautical Eng. Dept.,
Ankara, 06531-Turkey
Fax: +90 312 210 1272
E-mail: ygogus@metu.edu.tr

Although the ideal gases mixture hypothesis restraints the generality of the analysis, its important role in the *technical combustion* processes is well - known.
http://www.icatweb.org/vol4/4.1/stanciu.pdf


Pure & Appl. Chem., Vol. 64, No. 7, pp, 965-976, 1992.
Printed in Great Britain.
@ 1992 IUPAC
Macrokinetics of high-temperature heterogeneous
reactions: SHS aspects
A.S.Shteinberg and V.A.Knyazik
Institute f o r Structural Macrokinetics, Academy of Sciences of Russia,
142432, Chernogolovka, Moscow Region, Russia

Citation:
14. V.V.Alexandrov, M.A.Korchagin, V.V.Boldyrev et al., The Problems of the Technolonical
Combustion, Proceedings of the I11 USSR Conference on the *technical combustion*, p. 11-13,
Chernogolovka (1981) (in Russ. 1.
http://www.iupac.org/publications/pac/1992/pdf/6407x0965.pdf

IEA Bioenergy Task
32 -Biomass Combustion
and Cofiring
By Sjaak van Loo, Procede, Netherlands


During the past years, Task 32 has generated a
wealth of knowledge that contributes to further
development and implementation of biomass
combustion and cofiring systems in its member
countries. This includes workshops on certain
technical and non-*technical combustion* related
topics such as aerosols emissions and cofiring,
specific studies and a Handbook of Biomass
Combustion and Cofiring.
http://www.bioenergy-noe.com/docs/thermalnet_newsletter.pdf

Comparative Assessment of Thermokinetic Mechanisms for the Cool Flame Region
of n-Heptane at Low Pressures
D. Kolaitis*, M. Founti
Heterogeneous Mixtures and Combustion Systems
School of Mechanical Engineering, National Technical University of Athens
9, Heroon Polytechniou, Polytechnioupoli Zografou, 15780 Athens, Greece

Introduction
Liquid fuels are extensively used in a large variety
of *technical combustion* applications such as furnaces,
boilers, internal combustion engines,
http://www.gfcombustion.asso.fr/ecm/2005/249_Kolaitis.pdf

Destruction of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in a Cement Kiln
Bengt Ahling
Swedish Water and Air Pollution Research Institute, Box 21060, 5-100 31 Stockholm, Sweden

Therefore, no complete confirmation wasestablished as to whether or not
samplescontained chlorinated dioxins and furans. From the
point of view of *technical combustion*, the result is not impossible,
since the highly chlorinated dioxins and furans are expected to be stable.
http://www.ahling.se/bengt/ivlrap3/F15.pdf

[PDF] Activity Report for 1999 for Centre for Combustion Science and ...
advantage that now every chemical reaction mechanism can be used in simulation of *technical combustion* processes. The quantities for the interface between ...
www.cecost.lth.se/ar99.pdf

Stazione sperimentale per i Combustibili
Viale A. De Gasperi, 3
20097 San Donato Milanese, MI
In this situation, Laser spectroscopic techniques serve two main purposes: they provide
in situ, realtime information on *technical combustion* processes and they provide data for
a full inspection of current model assumption.
http://www.ssc.it/pdf/2005/PubbliLIF_SITO_ENG.pdf

Title
*Technical combustion* calculations on personal computer systems
Project manager/staff
Pedersen, K. (akad.ing.); Hadvig, S. (lektor, DTH, civ.ing.); Wyrtz, F. (TI, civ.ing.)
http://iis-03.risoe.dk/netacgi/nph-brs.exe?s1=brint&s2=&d=FO...



sci-trans
Local time: 02:11
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: German
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  John Jory: Practically all of the googlies found for "technical combustion" are either on German sites or from texts by German authors.
5 hrs
  -> You are right, there are quite a few of those references. But I strongly disagree with your conclusions. (Please see my comments on your criticism.)
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Changes made by editors
Oct 26, 2006 - Changes made by Marcus Malabad:
Term askedtechnisch ... » technisch


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