English translation: register of deeds, deed book, document register
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Be careful here, it is different for scotland, let alone for America.
"Register of Deeds" is a Scottish term, which even there does not equate to "Urkundenrolle". It does not, for example, include births and marriages.See first reference.
Iin England, such things are held in a "Register" which is maintained by the General Register Office, see second reference. For company events which are to be registered (e.g. formation) we look to the Register of Companies. I have run out of references slots, but it is not hard to find.
In any case you may be wanting the American answer so, I won´t spend further time on this right now..