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knöcherner Spinalkanal

English translation: bony spinal canal

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
German term or phrase: knöcherner Spinalkanal
English translation:bony spinal canal
Entered by: emilia de paola
Options:
- Contribute to this entry
- Include in personal glossary

17:30 Aug 27, 2012
German to English translations [PRO]
Medical - Medical (general)
German term or phrase: knöcherner Spinalkanal
I can translate the two terms but I can't understand them in the sentence below and the way they relate to the previous sentence.


Multiple sclerosis:

Der sagittale Spinalkanaldurchmesser in der Mittellinie auf Höhe C5/C6 8,2 mm. *Primär weiter knöcherner Spinalkanal*
emilia de paola
Italy
Local time: 15:00
bony spinal canal
Explanation:
The pedicle is a paired, strong, tubular bony structure made of hard cortical bone on the outside and cancellous bone on the inside. Each pedicle comes out of the side of the vertebral body and projects to the back. Pedicles act as the lateral (side) walls of the ***bony spinal canal*** that protects the spinal cord and cauda equina, or nerve roots, in the lumbar region. There is also a space created between the facet joints and pedicles of one vertebral body and the next, called the intervertebral foramen, through which the spinal nerves branch out to the rest of your body.
http://www.knowyourback.org/Pages/Definitions/AnatomySpine/B...

see also reference below

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 day9 hrs (2012-08-29 03:15:29 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Hi Emilia,
I have been doing some more research, for example trying to find out what the usual diameter of the bony spinal canal at level C5/6 is, what causes stenosis, etc. It appears that the patient in your report has an absolute stenosis based on the diameters listed below. Which does not really help with the "primär weiter". I thought of different interpretations what they might have meant:
- the bony spinal canal is primarily wide with the exception of level C4/C5 and level C5/C6 where there is severe stenosis caused by the herniated discs.
- the bony spinal canal is primarily wide (no congenital malformation, no scoliosis, no bone spurs, no dislocation or fracture), however, it is narrowed due to these bulging discs.
I would translate it as "primarily wide".
See the last link for a very detailed list of reasons of spinal canal stenosis.

Wann spricht man von einer Spinalkanalstenose?
An der Wirbelsäule spricht man von einer relativen Spinalkanalstenose wenn der Durchmesser des Kanals weniger als 12 mm beträgt und von einer absoluten Spinalkanalstenose wenn der Durchmesser weniger als 10 mm beträgt.
Dieses Kriterium reicht manchmal jedoch nicht zur Beurteilung aus, da der Spinalkanal in der Mitte noch ausreichend weit sein kann, an den Rändern des Spinalkanals jedoch schon eine Enge besteht, die die dort liegenden Nerven einengt (Rezessusstenose).
http://www.neurochirurgie-katharinen.de/spinalkanalstenose.h...

Anatomy
The anteroposterior (AP) diameter of the normal adult male cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5 (see the image below). The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm, whereas diameters of 10-13 mm are relatively stenotic in the upper cervical region.
Sagittal measurements taken of the anteroposterior diameter of the cervical spinal canal are highly variable in otherwise healthy persons. An adult male without spinal stenosis has a diameter of 16-17 mm in the upper and middle cervical levels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and reformatted computed tomography (CT) images are equally as effective in obtaining these measurements, whereas radiography is not accurate.
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/344171-overview

Cervical stenosis
- absolute (AP canal diameter < 10 mm) or relative (10-13 mm canal diameter) stenosis are risk factors for myeopathy, radiculopathy, or both due to relatively minor spondylosis pathology or trauma;
- normal is about 17 mm;
http://www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/cervical_stenosis

Cervical canal stenosis:
Radiographic assessment
normal AP diameter is approximately 17 mm.
relative stenosis 10 - 13 mm.
absolute stensosis < 10 mm.
The width of the canal is not however constant, and progressively decreases as one moves down the cervical spine.
C1 : 23 mm
C2 : 20 mm
C3 - C6 : 17mm
C7 : 15 mm
http://radiopaedia.org/articles/cervical_canal_stenosis

Causes of Spinal Stenosis
The normal central spinal canal provides adequate room for the spinal cord, the nerve roots, blood vessels and spinal fluid. Narrowing of the canal, which occurs in spinal stenosis, may be inherited or acquired. Some people have a developmentally (congenital) small spinal canal or may have a curvature of the spine (scoliosis) that alters the dimensions of the spinal canal and neuroforamen. In an inherited condition called achondroplasia, defective bone formation results in abnormally short and thickened pedicles (bony region of the spine) that reduce the diameter of (distance across) the central spinal canal.

Spinal stenosis usually occurs secondary to a chronic gradual degenerative process, which includes age related changes. Both structural and inflammatory changes occur. As part of the degenerative process spinal ligaments may thicken, calcify and buckle. Marginal bony areas of the spine may also enlarge, and osteophytes (bone spurs) often develop. The intervertebral disc may bulge and/or herniate. This combined process contributes to the development of spinal stenosis.
When the health of one part of the spine (spinal motion segment) fails, it usually places increased physical stress upon other areas of the spine. For example, degeneration of an intervertebral disc eventually leads to a loss of vertical disc height contributing to increased physical stress upon spinal joints (facet joint) at the same spinal level thus promoting spinal joint arthritis with joint enlargement in susceptible individuals. Bulging or herniation of the intervertebral disc associated with degenerative changes may narrow the spinal canal and compress the spinal cord or nerve root. When a segment of the spine becomes too mobile, the membrane (joint capsule) surrounding the spinal joints may thicken in an effort to stabilize the segment, and bone spurs may occur. This decreases the space (neuroforamen) available for nerve roots leaving the spinal cord. Conversely, when a segment of the spine is surgically fused or becomes stiff it may lead to additional physical stresses upon adjacent spinal segments.

Two more common forms of arthritis, which afflict the spine and can cause spinal stenosis, are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis remains the most common form of spinal arthritis. it occurs more frequently in middle-aged and older people. It is a chronic and degenerative process that typically involves multiple joints of the body, particularly larger weight bearing joints. The condition is characterized by a loss of normal cartilage integrity often accompanied by the overgrowth of bone, formation of bone spurs, and abnormal joint mobility. Degenerative changes affecting the vertebral body, spinal joints (facets) and the intervertebral disk at the same level is commonly referred to as spondylosis.

Another condition, which can lead to spinal stenosis, is spondylolithesis, a condition in which one vertebra slips forward with respect to the one below it. This may occur secondary to a degenerative condition. A traumatic injury to the region or may be acquired at birth (congenital). The vertebral malposition and associated disc changes can result in compromise of the adjacent spinal cord or nerve roots.

Rheumatoid arthritis usually affects people at an earlier age than osteoarthritis does and is associated with inflammation and enlargement of the soft tissues of the joints. Although not a common cause of spinal stenosis, damage to ligaments, bones, and joints that begins as synovitis (inflammation of the synovial membrane) has a severe and disrupting effect on joint function. The portions of the spine with the greatest mobility are often the areas most often afflicted in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

There are a number of conditions not related to arthritis, which can result in acquired spinal stenosis. Non-arthritic causes include tumors of the spine referring to the development of abnormal growths of bone or soft tissue that may compromise the spinal canal or neuroforamen directly by growth into the regions. Abnormal tissue growth may lead to bone resorption (bone loss) or the displacement of bone either of which can cause collapse of the involved bone.
Trauma can result in spinal stenosis secondary to spinal dislocations or fractures, which encroach upon or penetrate the central spinal canal and/or neuroforamen. Enlarged and deformed bones occur with a chronic disorder called Paget’s, which can affect any bone in the body including the spine. The disorder is characterized by excessive bone breakdown and development leading to a bony region with unusual areas of thick and fragile bone. The condition may be associated with bone pain, arthritis, bony deformities, and resultant fractures. Structural abnormalities of the involved vertebrae can cause narrowing of the spinal canal, producing a variety of neurological symptoms.

An uncommon cause of spinal stenosis is flourosis, which refers to an excessive level of fluoride in the body. This may occur secondary to chronic inhalation of industrial dusts or gases contaminated with fluorides, prolonged ingestion of water containing large amounts of fluorides, or accidental ingestion of fluoride-containing insecticides. The condition may lead to calcified spinal ligaments, softened bones and to degenerative conditions including spinal stenosis.
http://www.spinephysicians.org/dr0sdodetail.cfm?id=1
Selected response from:

Patricia Daehler
Local time: 10:00
Grading comment
Thanks, Patricia!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
4 +4bony spinal canal
Patricia Daehler
4 -1bony spinal column
David Hollywood
Summary of reference entries provided
bony spinal canal
Patricia Daehler

Discussion entries: 2





  

Answers


11 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): -1
bony spinal column


Explanation:
faculty.washington.edu/chudler/spinal.htmlThe human spinal cord is protected by the bony spinal column shown to the left. The spinal column is made up of bones called vertebrae. Although the spinal ...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 11 hrs (2012-08-28 04:48:22 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

or: vertebral column

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 11 hrs (2012-08-28 04:49:29 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

ww.apparelyzed.com/spine.htmlThe Vertebral Column (Spinal Column) supports the head and encloses the ... 5 sacral vertebrae which are fused together to form 1 bone called the sacrum.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 11 hrs (2012-08-28 04:51:14 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

I would go with "bony spinal column" as in ...

www.mayoclinic.org/medicalprofs/spinal-column-tumors.htmlSu... for malignant and primary spinal column tumors. Tumors of the bony spinal column may require resection and stabilization to improve patient outcome, ...

David Hollywood
Local time: 11:00
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 241

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Siegfried Armbruster: Let's hope that the spinal column of this patient has more than 8.2 mm in diameter. For more info see the reference entered by Patricia
1 hr
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

18 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +4
bony spinal canal


Explanation:
The pedicle is a paired, strong, tubular bony structure made of hard cortical bone on the outside and cancellous bone on the inside. Each pedicle comes out of the side of the vertebral body and projects to the back. Pedicles act as the lateral (side) walls of the ***bony spinal canal*** that protects the spinal cord and cauda equina, or nerve roots, in the lumbar region. There is also a space created between the facet joints and pedicles of one vertebral body and the next, called the intervertebral foramen, through which the spinal nerves branch out to the rest of your body.
http://www.knowyourback.org/Pages/Definitions/AnatomySpine/B...

see also reference below

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 day9 hrs (2012-08-29 03:15:29 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Hi Emilia,
I have been doing some more research, for example trying to find out what the usual diameter of the bony spinal canal at level C5/6 is, what causes stenosis, etc. It appears that the patient in your report has an absolute stenosis based on the diameters listed below. Which does not really help with the "primär weiter". I thought of different interpretations what they might have meant:
- the bony spinal canal is primarily wide with the exception of level C4/C5 and level C5/C6 where there is severe stenosis caused by the herniated discs.
- the bony spinal canal is primarily wide (no congenital malformation, no scoliosis, no bone spurs, no dislocation or fracture), however, it is narrowed due to these bulging discs.
I would translate it as "primarily wide".
See the last link for a very detailed list of reasons of spinal canal stenosis.

Wann spricht man von einer Spinalkanalstenose?
An der Wirbelsäule spricht man von einer relativen Spinalkanalstenose wenn der Durchmesser des Kanals weniger als 12 mm beträgt und von einer absoluten Spinalkanalstenose wenn der Durchmesser weniger als 10 mm beträgt.
Dieses Kriterium reicht manchmal jedoch nicht zur Beurteilung aus, da der Spinalkanal in der Mitte noch ausreichend weit sein kann, an den Rändern des Spinalkanals jedoch schon eine Enge besteht, die die dort liegenden Nerven einengt (Rezessusstenose).
http://www.neurochirurgie-katharinen.de/spinalkanalstenose.h...

Anatomy
The anteroposterior (AP) diameter of the normal adult male cervical canal has a mean value of 17-18 mm at vertebral levels C3-5 (see the image below). The lower cervical canal measures 12-14 mm. Cervical stenosis is associated with an AP diameter of less than 10 mm, whereas diameters of 10-13 mm are relatively stenotic in the upper cervical region.
Sagittal measurements taken of the anteroposterior diameter of the cervical spinal canal are highly variable in otherwise healthy persons. An adult male without spinal stenosis has a diameter of 16-17 mm in the upper and middle cervical levels. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and reformatted computed tomography (CT) images are equally as effective in obtaining these measurements, whereas radiography is not accurate.
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/344171-overview

Cervical stenosis
- absolute (AP canal diameter < 10 mm) or relative (10-13 mm canal diameter) stenosis are risk factors for myeopathy, radiculopathy, or both due to relatively minor spondylosis pathology or trauma;
- normal is about 17 mm;
http://www.wheelessonline.com/ortho/cervical_stenosis

Cervical canal stenosis:
Radiographic assessment
normal AP diameter is approximately 17 mm.
relative stenosis 10 - 13 mm.
absolute stensosis < 10 mm.
The width of the canal is not however constant, and progressively decreases as one moves down the cervical spine.
C1 : 23 mm
C2 : 20 mm
C3 - C6 : 17mm
C7 : 15 mm
http://radiopaedia.org/articles/cervical_canal_stenosis

Causes of Spinal Stenosis
The normal central spinal canal provides adequate room for the spinal cord, the nerve roots, blood vessels and spinal fluid. Narrowing of the canal, which occurs in spinal stenosis, may be inherited or acquired. Some people have a developmentally (congenital) small spinal canal or may have a curvature of the spine (scoliosis) that alters the dimensions of the spinal canal and neuroforamen. In an inherited condition called achondroplasia, defective bone formation results in abnormally short and thickened pedicles (bony region of the spine) that reduce the diameter of (distance across) the central spinal canal.

Spinal stenosis usually occurs secondary to a chronic gradual degenerative process, which includes age related changes. Both structural and inflammatory changes occur. As part of the degenerative process spinal ligaments may thicken, calcify and buckle. Marginal bony areas of the spine may also enlarge, and osteophytes (bone spurs) often develop. The intervertebral disc may bulge and/or herniate. This combined process contributes to the development of spinal stenosis.
When the health of one part of the spine (spinal motion segment) fails, it usually places increased physical stress upon other areas of the spine. For example, degeneration of an intervertebral disc eventually leads to a loss of vertical disc height contributing to increased physical stress upon spinal joints (facet joint) at the same spinal level thus promoting spinal joint arthritis with joint enlargement in susceptible individuals. Bulging or herniation of the intervertebral disc associated with degenerative changes may narrow the spinal canal and compress the spinal cord or nerve root. When a segment of the spine becomes too mobile, the membrane (joint capsule) surrounding the spinal joints may thicken in an effort to stabilize the segment, and bone spurs may occur. This decreases the space (neuroforamen) available for nerve roots leaving the spinal cord. Conversely, when a segment of the spine is surgically fused or becomes stiff it may lead to additional physical stresses upon adjacent spinal segments.

Two more common forms of arthritis, which afflict the spine and can cause spinal stenosis, are osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. Osteoarthritis remains the most common form of spinal arthritis. it occurs more frequently in middle-aged and older people. It is a chronic and degenerative process that typically involves multiple joints of the body, particularly larger weight bearing joints. The condition is characterized by a loss of normal cartilage integrity often accompanied by the overgrowth of bone, formation of bone spurs, and abnormal joint mobility. Degenerative changes affecting the vertebral body, spinal joints (facets) and the intervertebral disk at the same level is commonly referred to as spondylosis.

Another condition, which can lead to spinal stenosis, is spondylolithesis, a condition in which one vertebra slips forward with respect to the one below it. This may occur secondary to a degenerative condition. A traumatic injury to the region or may be acquired at birth (congenital). The vertebral malposition and associated disc changes can result in compromise of the adjacent spinal cord or nerve roots.

Rheumatoid arthritis usually affects people at an earlier age than osteoarthritis does and is associated with inflammation and enlargement of the soft tissues of the joints. Although not a common cause of spinal stenosis, damage to ligaments, bones, and joints that begins as synovitis (inflammation of the synovial membrane) has a severe and disrupting effect on joint function. The portions of the spine with the greatest mobility are often the areas most often afflicted in people with rheumatoid arthritis.

There are a number of conditions not related to arthritis, which can result in acquired spinal stenosis. Non-arthritic causes include tumors of the spine referring to the development of abnormal growths of bone or soft tissue that may compromise the spinal canal or neuroforamen directly by growth into the regions. Abnormal tissue growth may lead to bone resorption (bone loss) or the displacement of bone either of which can cause collapse of the involved bone.
Trauma can result in spinal stenosis secondary to spinal dislocations or fractures, which encroach upon or penetrate the central spinal canal and/or neuroforamen. Enlarged and deformed bones occur with a chronic disorder called Paget’s, which can affect any bone in the body including the spine. The disorder is characterized by excessive bone breakdown and development leading to a bony region with unusual areas of thick and fragile bone. The condition may be associated with bone pain, arthritis, bony deformities, and resultant fractures. Structural abnormalities of the involved vertebrae can cause narrowing of the spinal canal, producing a variety of neurological symptoms.

An uncommon cause of spinal stenosis is flourosis, which refers to an excessive level of fluoride in the body. This may occur secondary to chronic inhalation of industrial dusts or gases contaminated with fluorides, prolonged ingestion of water containing large amounts of fluorides, or accidental ingestion of fluoride-containing insecticides. The condition may lead to calcified spinal ligaments, softened bones and to degenerative conditions including spinal stenosis.
http://www.spinephysicians.org/dr0sdodetail.cfm?id=1

Patricia Daehler
Local time: 10:00
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in GermanGerman
PRO pts in category: 455
Grading comment
Thanks, Patricia!
Notes to answerer
Asker: Hi Patricia, I am sure what you report is right. But what I can't understand is the relation with *Primär weiter* First they talk about the diameter of the spinal canal and then *Primär weiter knöcherner Spinalkanal.*


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  SJLD
8 mins
  -> Thank you, SJLD!

agree  Harald Moelzer (medical-translator)
55 mins
  -> Thank you, Harald!

agree  Siegfried Armbruster
17 hrs
  -> Thank you, Siegfried!

agree  uyuni: or 'osseous spinal canal': http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735230/pdf/nihm...
1 day2 hrs
  -> Thank you for the agree and the link, uyuni!
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




Reference comments


8 mins peer agreement (net): +3
Reference: bony spinal canal

Reference information:
Maybe this information below will help you.

Could you provide a bit more context (a few sentences before and after)? That would be helpful to give you an answer.


The ***bony spinal canal*** normally has more than enough room for the spinal cord. Typically, the canal is 17 to 18 millimeters around, slightly less than the size of a penny. Spinal stenosis occurs when the canal narrows to 13 millimeters or less. When the size drops to 10 millimeters, severe symptoms of myelopathy occur. Myelopathy is a term for any condition that affects the spinal cord. The symptoms of myelopathy result from pressure against the spinal cord and reduced blood supply in the spinal cord as a result of the pressure.

The ***bony spinal canal*** normally has more than enough room for the spinal cord. Typically, the canal is 17 to 18 millimeters around, slightly less than the size of a penny. Spinal stenosis occurs when the canal narrows to 13 millimeters or less. When the size drops to 10 millimeters, severe symptoms of myelopathy occur. Myelopathy is a term for any condition that affects the spinal cord. The symptoms of myelopathy result from pressure against the spinal cord and reduced blood supply in the spinal cord as a result of the pressure.
http://www.eorthopod.com/content/cervical-spinal-stenosis

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Note added at 9 mins (2012-08-27 17:40:24 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

I don't know why the paragraph appears twice. Sorry about that!

Patricia Daehler
United States
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in GermanGerman
PRO pts in category: 455

Peer comments on this reference comment (and responses from the reference poster)
agree  David Tracey, PhD
16 mins
  -> Thank you, David!
agree  Siegfried Armbruster
12 hrs
  -> Thank you, Siegfried!
agree  SJLD: please enter as an answer Patricia
13 hrs
  -> Thank you SJLD! I will :-)
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Aug 27, 2012 - Changes made by Steffen Walter:
FieldOther » Medical


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