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andrelina

English translation: adrenalin(e), epinephrin(e)

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Italian term or phrase:adrenalina
English translation:adrenalin(e), epinephrin(e)
Entered by: Angela Arnone
Options:
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17:13 Jun 8, 2002
Italian to English translations [PRO]
Medical / medication
Italian term or phrase: andrelina
It's part of a list of medication that must be kept in a first aid kit.
Get no hits on Google for it and my dictionaries don't list it.
Could it be a typo?
TIA
Angela
Angela Arnone
Local time: 19:51
andrenilin
Explanation:
is my guess

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Note added at 2002-06-08 17:20:37 (GMT)
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sorry....

adrenaline

don\'t know what I was thinking of

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Note added at 2002-06-08 17:21:38 (GMT)
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Just shows how easy it is to \'do a typo!\'
Selected response from:

jerrie
United Kingdom
Local time: 18:51
Grading comment
Thanks to all!
Angela

3 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +6andrenilin
jerrie
5adrenaline
Francesco Barbuto
4epinephrine
Sarah Ponting
4adrenalinagmel117608


  

Answers


5 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +6
andrenilin


Explanation:
is my guess

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-08 17:20:37 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

sorry....

adrenaline

don\'t know what I was thinking of

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-06-08 17:21:38 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Just shows how easy it is to \'do a typo!\'

jerrie
United Kingdom
Local time: 18:51
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 11
Grading comment
Thanks to all!
Angela

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  gmel117608
3 mins
  -> Thanks

agree  Elisabeth Ghysels: alternative: epinephrine
10 mins
  -> Thanks

agree  Natalie: sure
17 mins
  -> Thanks

agree  biancaf202
5 hrs
  -> Thanks

agree  luskie: also with Elisabeth
8 hrs
  -> Thanks

agree  Enza Longo
15 hrs
  -> Thanks
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

16 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
adrenalina


Explanation:
It should be "adreanlina" whihc in english is translated with "adrenalin" , "adrenaline" or with

"epinephrine". Among the other things, adrenaline is used in case of shock.





From Picchi: Grande Diz. IT<=> EN, on CD, Hoepli, 2001
adrenalina
nf ($ epinefrina, chim) adrenalin(e), epinephrine

An example:
una scarica di adrenalina a surge of adrenalin

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Note added at 2002-06-08 17:31:06 (GMT)
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Sorry i forgot to say:
buon lavoro/Good luck
Giuseppe (Melecci)

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Note added at 2002-06-08 17:35:05 (GMT)
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Dear Angela
Here below I have pasted the definition from Enc. Britannica, Ed. 2001. Have fun!
Ciao, ciao

Giuseppe
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The adrenal gland of mammals is composed of an outer region, the cortex, which consists of adrenocortical tissue that secretes steroid hormones (steroids are fat-soluble organic compounds), and an inner region, the medulla, which is composed of chromaffin tissue, so called because its cells contain granules that can be characteristically coloured by certain reagents. Chromaffin tissue secretes two hormones, adrenaline (epinephrine) and noradrenaline (norepinephrine), which are members of a class of compounds called catecholamines. Both chromaffin and adrenocortical tissues are present in gnathostomes and probably in agnathans (although the evidence on the latter point is not yet decisive), but the tissues vary in the degree to which they are associated, being completely separated in elasmobranch fishes.
Noradrenaline and adrenaline are each composed of a benzene ring containing two hydroxyl (-OH) groups and an amine (NH2-containing) side chain as shown in Figure 3
Figure 3: The structures of epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)..
During the synthesis of these hormones, a sequence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the chromaffin granules of the secretory tissue transforms tyrosine into a compound commonly called dopa (dihydroxyphenylalanine), which then forms dopamine; dopamine then is hydroxylated (i.e., an -OH group is added) to form noradrenaline. Adrenaline is formed from noradrenaline by methylation (the addition of a methyl, or -CH3, group), a reaction that occurs outside the granules of the chromaffin cells. Noradrenaline (but not adrenaline) is also formed in certain neurons (nerve cells), where it functions as one of the chemical transmitter substances.
After their release, both hormones are so rapidly metabolized that they probably remain in the bloodstream only for a few seconds. The first step in the breakdown, which usually occurs in the liver and kidneys, is methylation of one of the hydroxyl groups of the benzene ring; the products (metanephrine or normetanephrine), or compounds derived from them, are excreted in the urine. Small quantities (about 2 to 5 percent of the daily secretion of the gland in man) of nonmetabolized hormones are also found in the urine.
Adrenaline and noradrenaline evoke diverse and widespread responses but differ from each other in certain of their effects (see Table 3 for their effects on man). Both influence the heart and blood vessels in ways which, although opposed to each other in a few respects, generally result in an increase in blood pressure and in output of blood from the heart. Both hormones also have metabolic actions. Adrenaline, for example, like glucagon, stimulates glycogenolysis (breakdown of glycogen to glucose) in the liver, which results in the raising of the level of blood sugar; in addition, it increases oxygen consumption and the output of blood from the heart, probably contributing thereby to the regulation of body temperature in mammals. Adrenaline has effects upon the nervous system, which are recognizable subjectively in man by feelings of anxiety and of increased mental alertness.
The chromaffin tissue is closely related to the sympathetic nerves of the autonomic nervous system, which innervates the components of circulation and digestion and controls their involuntary functions; in fact, the two may be said to form a sympatheticochromaffin complex. It is generally assumed that this complex acts to increase the capacity of the animal for effective action in emergencies. At such times, cardiac output increases, blood is distributed with maximum effectiveness, respiration is enhanced, and the nervous system is stimulated. The sympathetic nerves initiate these reactions and directly promote the release of adrenaline and noradrenaline because these nerves directly innervate the chromaffin cells. The hormones are thus able to develop and prolong an integrated set of responses; noradrenaline functions both as a neurohumor chemical transmitter of the sympathetic nervous system and also as a hormone of the chromaffin tissue.
The fact that adrenaline and noradrenaline, which have very similar molecular structures (Figure 3 ), can exert different actions is probably in part a consequence of the specialization of their target tissues. It has been suggested by some researchers that the target tissues possess two different kinds of receptors, the alpha type, which responds to noradrenaline, and the beta type, which responds to adrenaline. Evidence for this theory is that adrenaline has a vasodilator effect (i.e., it expands blood vessels), which can be blocked by certain drugs, and noradrenaline has an opposing vasoconstrictor effect, which can be blocked by other drugs. The actions of both hormones are thought to be mediated by CAMP; alpha responses are associated with reduced synthesis of this mediator and beta ones with increased synthesis.
The interpretation of the function of these hormones in mammals has not yet been established as applicable to lower vertebrates in which the hormones are present, but they are known to influence metabolism and heartbeat in some genera. It is possible that in early stages of vertebrate evolution, the sympatheticochromaffin complex evoked more generalized physiological responses than it now does and that more precise action developed in mammals as part of their high level of homeostatic organization. Laboratory studies show that even in mammals the complex is not essential for life; animals from which it has been removed, however, are much less able to resist environmental stresses than are those whose complex is functional.
Copyright © 1994-2001 Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.

gmel117608
Local time: 18:51
Native speaker of: Native in ItalianItalian
PRO pts in pair: 78
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14 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
adrenaline


Explanation:
Dictionaries:

1) Dizionario Medico, Italiano-Inglese, Inglese-Italiano
Editore LE LETTERE

2) Medicina e Biologia, Medicine and Biology, Zanichelli Editore

Francesco Barbuto
Local time: 19:51
Native speaker of: Native in ItalianItalian
PRO pts in pair: 11
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14 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
epinephrine


Explanation:
also epinephrin, adrenalin, adrenaline

translation of adrenalina

"A white to brownish crystalline compound, C9H13NO3, isolated from the adrenal glands of certain mammals or synthesized and used in medicine as a heart stimulant, vasoconstrictor, and bronchial relaxant."

The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language

Sarah Ponting
Italy
Local time: 19:51
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 1626
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