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I realise this question has been open for a long time, but just to clarify. This is what the encyclopaedia (encyclopedia.farlex.com) says:
Thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries, associated with atheroma. Arteriosclerosis is often LOOSELY used as a synonym.
Furring-up of the interior of an artery by deposits, mainly of cholesterol, within its walls.
Associated with atherosclerosis, atheroma has the effect of narrowing the lumen (channel) of the artery, thus restricting blood flow. This predisposes to a number of conditions, including thrombosis, angina, and stroke.
So even though the terms are used as synonyms in common talk, and the two conditions often share a common aetiology, there seems to be some fine differences for the technical reader (furring up VS hardening).