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中間項

English translation: medium

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18:22 Sep 1, 2006
Japanese to English translations [PRO]
Social Sciences - Government / Politics / Chinese Government
Japanese term or phrase: 中間項
したがって、そこには「キリスト教同様にしっかりと根をおろした儒教倫理から、市民的な生活方法論へとみちびく中間項が存在しなかった」のである.

having some difficulty rendering this into palatable English. the idea is that Confucianism, has strong roots, like Christianity, but unlike Christianity, it doesn't provide a strong foundation on which to base civil society (i.e. organizations that are founded by individuals for individuals)

Thanks!
Ben Dooley
Local time: 13:08
English translation:medium
Explanation:
中間 obviously means "intermediate" or "in between".
項 is hard to explain, but it is a connecting point, an end point or a term (in its mathematical sense explained later).

中間項 is a highly abstract word which is almost never used in a daily conversation, so I thought about why the author chose this highly abstract word. Perhaps he did not want to commit himself to saying 'intermediate X'. X could be theory, thought, etc., but he did not want to specify any of them. I looked for an equally abstract term and came up with "medium".

The word 項 is often used in math as a translation of "term" as of a multinomial or of a number series. This fact may not be directly relevant to this context, but I think it indicates its abstract nature and academic (or even pedantic) tone of the word 項.
Selected response from:

sigmalanguage
Japan
Local time: 02:08
Grading comment
Thanks as always!

Best,
Ben
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
3 +1Stepping stones/intermediate steps
SLMorales
3mediumsigmalanguage
3particular wisdomisoyo
3(daily | practical | handy) guidance
R. A. Stegemann
1intermediariesV N Ganesh


  

Answers


36 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
Stepping stones/intermediate steps


Explanation:
Just off the top of my head and without actually researching it, either of these terms strikes me as a decent fit for the context. Maybe it will at least help trigger a better option in your mind... Good luck! Looks like a fascinating project you've been working on!

SLMorales
United States
Local time: 12:08
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
Notes to answerer
Asker: Thanks for the help Shannon!


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  R. A. Stegemann: Corresponds closely with the Japanese text.
6 hrs
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6 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
(daily | practical | handy) guidance


Explanation:
Simply another option.

Discussion: Though I have confidence that you are rendering well the author's mind, I wonder if the author whose work you have chosen to translate is competent in his field.

Christian thought is composed of a variety of schools. This said Catholic and Confucian doctrine are both very authoritarian in nature and neither forms a very strong basis for civil society in the manner you have suggested.

Among Japanese Christians the Catholic church appears to dominate. Does your author even bother to distinguish between what took place in the Christian church before and after the 16th century?

R. A. Stegemann
Saudi Arabia
Local time: 02:08
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 8
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18 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
particular wisdom


Explanation:
i understood '項'as key element is or something like that.

isoyo
Local time: 02:08
Native speaker of: Native in JapaneseJapanese
PRO pts in category: 8
Notes to answerer
Asker: Thank you Isoyo. You're always a great help! Best, Ben

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1 day15 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
medium


Explanation:
中間 obviously means "intermediate" or "in between".
項 is hard to explain, but it is a connecting point, an end point or a term (in its mathematical sense explained later).

中間項 is a highly abstract word which is almost never used in a daily conversation, so I thought about why the author chose this highly abstract word. Perhaps he did not want to commit himself to saying 'intermediate X'. X could be theory, thought, etc., but he did not want to specify any of them. I looked for an equally abstract term and came up with "medium".

The word 項 is often used in math as a translation of "term" as of a multinomial or of a number series. This fact may not be directly relevant to this context, but I think it indicates its abstract nature and academic (or even pedantic) tone of the word 項.


sigmalanguage
Japan
Local time: 02:08
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in JapaneseJapanese
PRO pts in category: 20
Grading comment
Thanks as always!

Best,
Ben
Notes to answerer
Asker: I think he chose it because he enjoys obfuscation. Most of the piece could have been written much more simply, but where's the fun in that :) ? Thanks as always.

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11 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 1/5Answerer confidence 1/5
intermediaries


Explanation:
Confucianism incorporated an ancestor cult in which the deceased were regarded as intermediaries between heaven and earth, and the afterlife was envisioned ....

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Note added at 12 hrs (2006-09-02 06:35:58 GMT)
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.If religion is interpreted as an organized system, then Confucianism isdefinitely not a religion. It has no priesthood, no church, no Bible, nocreed, no conversion, and no fixed system of gods....

regime, do not consider Confucianism religious. As Wing-tsit Chan states: . ... intermediary between the world of the supernatural and the world of man.” ...
www.riccibase.com/inter-religio/PDF/ir09.pdf -

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 day17 hrs (2006-09-03 12:14:43 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

中間式 (intermediate expressions) と中間項 (intermediate term) の定義 (p.152 上). – bind ρ in ie は、中間式 ie は ρ の中で評価されることを表す。 ...
www.psg.cs.titech.ac.jp/~max/pa2.pdf -
In this context 中間項 means an intermediary between god and man( messenger of god)


    www.query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F0DEED91F38F93BA35752C1A960958260&sec=&pagewanted=print - 12k
V N Ganesh
Local time: 22:38
Native speaker of: English
PRO pts in category: 20
Notes to answerer
Asker: Thanks for the help! Best, Ben

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