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T.Viral

English translation: MMR Vaccine

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Portuguese term or phrase:T.Viral
English translation:MMR Vaccine
Entered by: Elizabeth Castaldini
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18:33 Jun 30, 2004
Portuguese to English translations [PRO]
Medical - Medical (general) / Vaccines
Portuguese term or phrase: T.Viral
Still on vaccines. I guess someone out there must have a lot of experience. :))))
Elizabeth Castaldini
Local time: 05:19
MMR Vaccine
Explanation:
This "T.Viral" stands for "Tríplice Viral" and refers to the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella, in English better known as the MMR Vaccine.

Main Use Active Ingredient Manufacturer
Prevention of measles, mumps and rubella
Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (live) GlaxoSmithKline
Aventis Pasteur MSD


How does it work?

MMR vaccine contains a mixture of live, attenuated (weakened) measles, mumps and rubella (German measles) viruses. It works by provoking the body's immune response, without causing the diseases.

When the body is exposed to foreign organisms, the immune system produces antibodies. These antibodies are specific to the infecting agent and their first function is to help the body recognise and kill the foreign organisms. The antibodies formed remain in the body and recognise and attack any future infection with the same organism. This is known as active immunity.

Protection against many infections can be provided artificially by means of vaccines derived from altered forms of infecting organisms. These vaccines stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies in the same way as genuine infection, without actually causing the disease. Each organism stimulates the production of a specific type of antibody, therefore different vaccines are required for each disease.

This combination vaccine provides immunity against measles, mumps and German measles (rubella). It is given in two doses as part of the childhood vaccination schedule; the first dose is given at age 12–15 months, and a second (booster) dose is given before the child starts school at three to five years of age. The vaccine can also be given to adults susceptible to these diseases.

There have been many scare stories in the media recently over a possible link between the MMR vaccine and autism or bowel disease. However, the Medical Research Council in the UK has reviewed all the current evidence and research regarding the use of the vaccine and has concluded that there is no link between the MMR vaccine and these disorders. Because latest research has shown no connection, the Chief Medical Officer has advised that the MMR vaccine is the safest and best way to protect children against measles, mumps and rubella, and recommends that all children are given the vaccine at the appropriate time.

Over 500 million doses of MMR have been used in over 90 countries around the world since the early 1970s, and no country in the world recommends giving MMR vaccine as three separate injections. The World Health Organisation states that MMR is a highly effective vaccine with an outstanding safety record. If you are concerned about your child receiving the vaccine, please talk to your doctor or pharmacist, who will be happy to give you further information on this matter and discuss the risks and benefits of giving or not giving the vaccine. A lot of helpful information can also be found at www.mmrthefacts.nhs.uk

What is it used for?

Vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (German measles)
Selected response from:

Paul Dixon
Brazil
Local time: 06:19
Grading comment
Thank you so much. :)
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +3MMR Vaccine
Paul Dixon
5T. Viral
Maria Luisa Duarte


Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


8 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
T. Viral


Explanation:
T. Viral CTL Escape Mutations do Not Explain HIV Progression in HLA B*5701+ Patients
S. Migueles*, A. Laborico, H. Imamichi, and M. Connors
NIAID, NIH, Bethesda, MD


Background: Evidence is accumulating that HIV-specific CD8+ T-cell responses are critical in restricting virus replication and altering the course of human HIV infection. While high frequencies of B5701-restricted HIV-specific CD8+ T cells are present in some long-term nonprogressors (LTNP), these numbers are similar in B5701+ patients with progressive HIV infection. Thus, it remains unclear if loss of immune control in these patients is due to escape from immune surveillance, e.g., CTL escape mutations, or through qualitative differences in the CD8+ T-cell response.



    Reference: http://www.retroconference.org/2002/Abstract/13908.htm
Maria Luisa Duarte
Spain
Local time: 11:19
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in PortuguesePortuguese
PRO pts in category: 30
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

37 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +3
MMR Vaccine


Explanation:
This "T.Viral" stands for "Tríplice Viral" and refers to the vaccine against measles, mumps and rubella, in English better known as the MMR Vaccine.

Main Use Active Ingredient Manufacturer
Prevention of measles, mumps and rubella
Measles, mumps, rubella vaccine (live) GlaxoSmithKline
Aventis Pasteur MSD


How does it work?

MMR vaccine contains a mixture of live, attenuated (weakened) measles, mumps and rubella (German measles) viruses. It works by provoking the body's immune response, without causing the diseases.

When the body is exposed to foreign organisms, the immune system produces antibodies. These antibodies are specific to the infecting agent and their first function is to help the body recognise and kill the foreign organisms. The antibodies formed remain in the body and recognise and attack any future infection with the same organism. This is known as active immunity.

Protection against many infections can be provided artificially by means of vaccines derived from altered forms of infecting organisms. These vaccines stimulate the immune system to produce antibodies in the same way as genuine infection, without actually causing the disease. Each organism stimulates the production of a specific type of antibody, therefore different vaccines are required for each disease.

This combination vaccine provides immunity against measles, mumps and German measles (rubella). It is given in two doses as part of the childhood vaccination schedule; the first dose is given at age 12–15 months, and a second (booster) dose is given before the child starts school at three to five years of age. The vaccine can also be given to adults susceptible to these diseases.

There have been many scare stories in the media recently over a possible link between the MMR vaccine and autism or bowel disease. However, the Medical Research Council in the UK has reviewed all the current evidence and research regarding the use of the vaccine and has concluded that there is no link between the MMR vaccine and these disorders. Because latest research has shown no connection, the Chief Medical Officer has advised that the MMR vaccine is the safest and best way to protect children against measles, mumps and rubella, and recommends that all children are given the vaccine at the appropriate time.

Over 500 million doses of MMR have been used in over 90 countries around the world since the early 1970s, and no country in the world recommends giving MMR vaccine as three separate injections. The World Health Organisation states that MMR is a highly effective vaccine with an outstanding safety record. If you are concerned about your child receiving the vaccine, please talk to your doctor or pharmacist, who will be happy to give you further information on this matter and discuss the risks and benefits of giving or not giving the vaccine. A lot of helpful information can also be found at www.mmrthefacts.nhs.uk

What is it used for?

Vaccination against measles, mumps and rubella (German measles)



    Reference: http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/medicines/showpreparation.asp?id=...
Paul Dixon
Brazil
Local time: 06:19
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in PortuguesePortuguese
PRO pts in category: 32
Grading comment
Thank you so much. :)

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Javier Ramos
3 hrs

agree  Ana Rita Santiago
4 hrs

agree  Henrique Magalhaes
16 hrs
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