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coronéis

English translation: landowners

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20:31 Sep 17, 2007
Portuguese to English translations [PRO]
Social Sciences - Social Science, Sociology, Ethics, etc.
Portuguese term or phrase: coronéis
This is Portuguese from Brazil. In the context below, do you think this word could be used in a general sense of "people in charge", "landowners" etc., or does it really just refer to "people holding the military rank of colonel"? I'm reluctant to translate simply as "colonels", any suggestions welcome!

Nas encostas da Serra da Bocaina, a cidade viu seu ciclo do café acontecer nos séculos XIX e XX, impulsionando a construção de ferrovias e trazendo a riqueza aos coronéis da região.

Thanks in advance,
Solomon
Solomon Wright
Germany
Local time: 15:03
English translation:landowners
Explanation:
You are right. The title in this context has nothing to do with a military rank. The title Coronel derived from the enormous power they held over the people as major landowners.
Selected response from:

Marlene Curtis
United States
Local time: 09:03
Grading comment
Thanks to everyone who helped me understand the meaning of the term. I felt that the context didn't really justify a note as that would have given it undue emphasis, so landowners was probably best for equivalence of effect, despite losing some historical accuracy.
Cheers,
S
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +3landownersMarlene Curtis
5landowners / people in chargerhandler
3 +1"colonels"
Clauwolf
4rulers/bosses of the "coronel" system AND add note
veratek
3local political bosses
Donna Sandin
3lords
Patricia Fierro, M. Sc.


Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


11 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +3
landowners


Explanation:
You are right. The title in this context has nothing to do with a military rank. The title Coronel derived from the enormous power they held over the people as major landowners.

Marlene Curtis
United States
Local time: 09:03
Native speaker of: Native in PortuguesePortuguese
PRO pts in category: 96
Grading comment
Thanks to everyone who helped me understand the meaning of the term. I felt that the context didn't really justify a note as that would have given it undue emphasis, so landowners was probably best for equivalence of effect, despite losing some historical accuracy.
Cheers,
S

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Humberto Ribas
3 hrs
  -> Thanks Humberto!

agree  emilia eliseo: agree
5 hrs

agree  Hermann
10 hrs
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12 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +1
"colonels"


Explanation:
:) You may use "colonels" and explain in braquets:
The "colonel" was a very influent man in certain area, due to his capital power (properties). He was more important than the mayor, the sheriff, etc.

Clauwolf
Local time: 10:03
Native speaker of: Native in PortuguesePortuguese
PRO pts in category: 16

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Muriel Vasconcellos: It was an honorary title granted to large landowners and entailed certain specific responsbilities.
19 mins
  -> defined by them...
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18 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
local political bosses


Explanation:
I'm sure there were some landowners who suffered from the colonelismo system.....I suspect there were often fewer colonels than landowners....but it isn't an easy term to translate. I would not agree to using "colonels" except perhaps in italics in parentheses AFTER whatever English translation you decide to use.

Donna Sandin
United States
Local time: 09:03
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4
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9 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
landowners / people in charge


Explanation:
This is the sense. Nothing related to military ranks.

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Note added at 30 mins (2007-09-17 21:02:25 GMT)
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Look into these axamples:

History
In 1850 the powerful landowners of the coffee plantations passed the Land Law ... As was done throughout Brazilian history, in the late 40s farm workers in ...
http://198.62.75.1/www2/mst/history.html

THE FORMATION OF THE BRAZILIAN REPUBLIC
Brazil experienced some economic development, but many laws benefited coffee producers, who cultivated large fazendas of coffee plantations. ...
http://faculty.fullerton.edu/nfitch/history110b/brarep.html

For your further information and the origin of the term, read this:
from: www.terra.com.br/voltaire/500br/coronelismo.htm

Ascensão e Queda do Coronelismo
O coronelismo foi um sistema de poder político que vicejou na época da República Velha (1889-1930), caracterizado pelo enorme poder concentrado em mãos de um poderoso local, geralmente um grande proprietário, um dono de latifúndio, um fazendeiro ou um senhor de engenho próspero. Ele não só marcou a vida política e eleitoral do Brasil de então como fez por contribuir para a formação de uma clima muito próprio, cultural, musical e literário que fez da sua figura um participante ativo do imaginário simbólico nacional. Não só os homens de letras procuraram reproduzir em seus livros o que era viver sob o domínio de um coronel, como os feitos e as façanhas deles foram transmitidas, a luz de velas, de lamparinas e de lâmpadas, pela história oral do avô para o seu neto, fazendo com que quase todo mundo soubesse de uma "história" ou "causo do coronel". Identificado com o Brasil do passado, agrário, rústico e arcaico, ele ainda sobrevive em certas comarcas e em certos estados do Nordeste brasileiro como o poderoso "mandão local", uma espécie de velho barão feudal que, desconsiderando as razões do tempo e da época, insiste em manter-se vivo e atuante.
As Origens Remotas do Coronelismo
O coronelismo institucional surgiu com a formação da Guarda Nacional, criada em 1831, como resultado da deposição de dom Pedro I, ocorrida em abril daquele ano. Inspirada na instituição francesa, forjada pelos acontecimentos de 1789, a "guarda burguesa" era uma milícia civil que representava o poder armado dos proprietários que passaram a patrulhar as ruas e estradas em substituição às forças tradicionais, derrubadas pelos revolucionários. Para ser integrante dela era preciso pois ser alguém de posses, que tivesse recursos para assumir os custos com o uniforme e as armas necessárias (200 mil réis de renda anual nas cidades e 100 mil réis no campo).
Coronel, Sinônimo de Poder
O governo da Regência (1831-1842) colocou então os postos militares à venda, podendo então os proprietários e seus próximos adquirirem os títulos de tenente, capitão, major, tenente-coronel e coronel da Guarda Nacional (não havia o posto de general, prerrogativa exclusiva do Exército). Assim é que com o tempo, o coronel passou automaticamente a ser visto pelo povo comum como um homem poderoso de quem todos os demais eram dependentes. Configurou-se no Brasil daqueles tempos uma clara distinção social onde os representantes dos dominantes eram identificados pelo rango militar (coronel, major, etc..) enquanto que os dominados pelo coronel o eram pela visível identificação genérica de "gente", ou a zoológica "cria" (sou "cria" do coronel fulano).




rhandler
Local time: 10:03
Works in field
Native speaker of: Portuguese
PRO pts in category: 52
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2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
lords


Explanation:
Another option. For example, "drug lords" is a similar idea.

Patricia Fierro, M. Sc.
Ecuador
Local time: 08:03
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish, Native in EnglishEnglish
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11 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
rulers/bosses of the "coronel" system AND add note


Explanation:
this question has already been asked

http://www.proz.com/kudoz/889418

I would either keep the original and add note or use an exaplanatory term I suggest above and add note about the system

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Note added at 11 hrs (2007-09-18 07:36:10 GMT)
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corrected version:

I would either keep the original "coroneis" and add note or use an explanatory term as I suggest above and add note about the system

veratek
Brazil
Local time: 10:03
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 8
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