KudoZ home » Russian to English » Bus/Financial

физическое лицо

English translation: individual; natural person

Advertisement

Login or register (free and only takes a few minutes) to participate in this question.

You will also have access to many other tools and opportunities designed for those who have language-related jobs
(or are passionate about them). Participation is free and the site has a strict confidentiality policy.
GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Russian term or phrase:физическое лицо
English translation:individual; natural person
Entered by: Teresa Pearce
Options:
- Contribute to this entry
- Include in personal glossary

14:04 May 10, 2002
Russian to English translations [PRO]
Bus/Financial
Russian term or phrase: физическое лицо
В целях упорядочения ввоза товаров физическими лицами на территорию...
Yelena.
United Kingdom
Local time: 02:40
Either individual or natural person
Explanation:
You should only need to use the term "natural person" in legal documents where you need to make it absolutely clear that the "person" is not a corporation, e.g. where a company's articles specify that its directors may be corporations or "natural persons". Otherwise, the word "individual" is plain English, which is now preferred even by lawyers!

P.S. Tatiana, for once I don't think there's any difference between US and British usage on this point.
Selected response from:

Teresa Pearce
United Kingdom
Local time: 02:40
Grading comment
Большое спасибо всем! Ценные предложения. Документ - газетная статья, ориентированная на американского читателя. Поэтому, следуя вашим подсказкам, в переводе я употребляла individual, но в цитате из самого постановления (тот самый контекст, который я привела)- natural person.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

Advertisement


Summary of answers provided
5 +10natural person
Natalie
5 +8individualDina Galeyeva
4 +4natural person
Jack Slep
4 +2individual person, natural person, physical personAnna Launay
5 +1Either individual or natural personTeresa Pearce
4 +1Жаркая дискуссия :-)
Remedios
4 +1-AYP
4 +1...
Rostov
4 +1physical personLarhen
5словари, словари... В поддержку варианта Дины - не для grading.Tatiana Neroni
1 +1всякое физическое лицо есть юридическое лицоM. R. Rahimi


Discussion entries: 1





  

Answers


7 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +10
natural person


Explanation:
Peter Collin Dictionary of Law

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-10 14:41:17 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------


The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
... Customs Valuation Code means the Agreement on Implementation of ... requirement or practice;.
national means a natural person who is a citizen or permanent ...
www.dfait-maeci.gc.ca/nafta-alena/chap2-e.asp

CUSTOMS REGIME
... A TRAVELLER” is a natural person who, holding no ...
www.cust.lt/eng/information/travel_f.htm

... if a person other than a natural person; or (B) if a natural person ...
www.ustreas.gov/ofac/legal/statutes/isa.pdf

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-10 14:42:40 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

По поводу person - просьба обратить внимание на последнюю ссылку.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-10 15:20:27 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Dear all, thank you for your comments. And in Peter Collin Dictionary of Law the entry INDIVIDUAL is absent...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-10 17:49:19 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Dear colleagues, I see that in your opinion \'individual\' would be better in the context. I am not a lawyer, but as far as I know, 1) \"Individual\" is not a legal term and 2) an INDIVIDUAL CAN BE A LEGAL ENTITY.
Here are some examples:
\"The domain name is considered to be registered to a \"legal entity\", even if the legal entity is an individual (e.g., Lee Smith)\"
http://www.panix.com/corp/register/reginstrs.html

... McDonald’s Franchises,” and states the legal entity is “an individual (franchise operator).” McDonald’s Corporation, and all wholly owned subsidiaries ...
www.sconet.state.oh.us/rod/documents/ 5/2002/2002-ohio-1576.doc

Allows for a single point of access for
processes that may not know if the Legal Entity is an Individual or an. ...
www.commerce.state.mn.us/IDEA/Current/ txttad-feb27-mar01,2001,financialmanagment.html

If the legal entity is an individual, the transfer duty is between 5 and 8 % of the purchase price. If ...
www.polity.org.za/govdocs/white_papers/landwp03.html

I think, that a legal document should be not only nicely written, but first of all LEGALLY CORRECT.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-11 15:17:42 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Вот кое-что из Канадского права:
Bijural Terminology Record
Common Law: natural person
Civil Law: natural person

Title of the Legislative Text
Federal Real Property Act, S.C. 1991, c. 50 (title changed to Federal Real Property and Federal Immovables Act by the Federal Law-Civil Law Harmonization Act, No. 1, S.C. 2001, c. 4, s. 10)

Provision
5. (2) Federal real property within Canada may, at the discretion of the Minister of Justice, be granted by any instrument by which, under the laws in force in the province in which the property is situated, real property may be transferred by a private person.

Problem
The terms \"private person\" and sujets de droit privй are foreign to civil law, which uses the term personne physique instead, conveyed in most cases by \"natural person \" in English.

Solution
In the English version, the term \"private person\" is replaced by \"natural person \". In the French version, the term sujets de droit privй is replaced by personne physique. These terms are also used in common law.
http://canada.justice.gc.ca/en/ps/bj/harm/personne_physique....

Natalie
Poland
Local time: 03:40
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in pair: 3860

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  diana bb
7 mins

disagree  Dina Galeyeva: i'd better say 'by individuals' however in Russia the term 'persons' is used too
7 mins
  -> Абсолютное заблуждение. Физическое лицо - это физическое лицо. А что такое 'person' c точки зрения законодательства - не очень понятно. И потом, почему 'in Russia'? Нужен точный перевод НА АНГЛИЙСКИЙ.

agree  Jack Doughty: with Dina, I'd rather say "individual" too. Юридическое лицо is legal entity, so you might think it would be "physical entity", but it isn't, this term means something else entirely.
14 mins

agree  Irene Chernenko: This is also supported by the Foreign Trade Dictionary (Voskresenskaja) and the Foreign Trade and Foreign Economic Dictionary (Zhdanova)
16 mins

agree  Yuri Geifman: I agree with Dina and Jack on this one... although formally "natural person" is correct, "individuals" sounds better in context
28 mins

agree  Lyudmyla Thompson: I checked in two different dict-s and found out that both of you are right:the Rus-Eng. Foreign Trade Dict. gives Natural person for 'fizicheskoe litso'and individual for ' lichnost', but the Eng-Rus Dict.of Legal Terms gives Individual for both.
55 mins

agree  protolmach: Agree with Dina and Jack on this
1 hr

agree  Burravoe Ltd: Agree with Jack on this
1 hr

disagree  Tatiana Neroni: Agree with Dina, explanation below.
1 hr

agree  xxxxeni: Collins R-E Dictionary,2000 дает "физ.лицо (юр) - natural person, individual" через запятую. Может, оба варианта возможны?
3 hrs

agree  Rostov: see more RE below
9 hrs

agree  Remedios
14 hrs

agree  M. R. Rahimi: не знаю кто тут прав. Я думаю, что выражение физическое лицо пришло в русский язык путем дословного перевода natural person or physical person. если бы я был депутатом госдумы я бы предложил заменить его выражением "частное лицо"-)). См ниже ответ 10
20 hrs

agree  Сергей Лузан
2 days21 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

8 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
individual person, natural person, physical person


Explanation:
ndividual person
natural person
physical person

Anna Launay
France
Local time: 03:40
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in pair: 101

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  M. R. Rahimi
20 hrs

agree  Сергей Лузан: Хороший набор, 2-ое - лучше.
2 days21 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

19 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +8
individual


Explanation:
This document seems to be a customs declaration, and in customs law it is better to use the term 'individual'.

Dina Galeyeva
United States
Local time: 20:40
PRO pts in pair: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Oleg Lebedev
52 mins

agree  Tatiana Neroni: Да, этот термин предпочтителен перед "person". Под person чаще подразумевается юр. лицо, а это официальный документ.
1 hr

agree  Remedios: И только так
1 hr

agree  xxxDell
4 hrs

agree  Alex_B
8 hrs

agree  xxxBrainworks
9 hrs

agree  Yakov Tomara
21 hrs

agree  Сергей Лузан
2 days21 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

27 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
physical person


Explanation:
Oxford dictionary

Larhen
Russian Federation
Local time: 04:40

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Сергей Лузан
2 days21 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
словари, словари... В поддержку варианта Дины - не для grading.


Explanation:
Здесь опять-таки имеем проблему - для чего переводим? Чтобы точно отразить суть русскоязычного документа на английском, используя русскую же традицию перевода термина НА АНГЛИЙСКИЙ (несмотря на то, что перевод может быть непонятен целевой аудитории или противоречить законодательной практике) или-таки для того, чтобы донести до целевой аудитории, что имеется в виду в официальном документе?

Не берусь судить за другие англоговорящие страны, но в США в этом случае больше употребляют individual (и вообще не люблю категоричности в ответах - Наташа, зачем рубить сплеча и говорить, что это "абсолютно неправильно", бывает же, что кто-то что-то может не знать?). Некоторые разделы права в США не просто предполагают, а ТРЕБУЮТ употребление "individual" для обозначения физического лица (живого человека, а не организации). Под person предполагается юр. лицо.

Поэтому Дина права хотя бы в контексте США. За другие страны не берусь судить, зависит от того, для кого перевод, но осмелюсь предположить, что если перевод даже универсальный, рассчитан на всех англоговорящих, американцы составляют подавляющее большинство англоговорящих носителей языка и превалируют среди туристов тоже, поэтому, возможно, вариант, понятный американцам и стоит взять за основу. Хотя на вкус автора вопроса, конечно.

Думаю, впрочем, что и physical person, и natural person будут также понятны, но не стоит отвергать individual, потому что так "не может быть никогда". Может быть и бывает...

Tatiana Neroni
PRO pts in pair: 148
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +4
natural person


Explanation:
This is in support of Natalie. Webster's Dictionary - Natural Person: a human being as distinguished in law from an artificial or juristic person.
The Russian-English Businessman's Dictionary, R-E Dictionary of Socio-Political Terms, and R-E Law Dictionary also give natural person.


    see above
Jack Slep
Local time: 21:40
Native speaker of: English
PRO pts in pair: 2126

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Natalie: Thank you, Jack. And moreover, an individual can be a legal entity (see above)
2 hrs
  -> Thanks, Natalie!

agree  diana bb
4 hrs
  -> And thank you too, Diana bb

agree  Rostov
8 hrs

agree  Сергей Лузан
2 days20 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

10 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
...


Explanation:
Agree w/ Natalie:

RE:

1. ...as follows: (a) natural persons who are nationals of, or are domiciled in the territory of, a Member of the WTO Agreement, shall ...
http://europa.eu.int/eur-lex/en/lif/dat/1994/en_394D0824.htm...

2. ...There are single tax rates applicable in the entire territory of the CR. Taxpayers are all legal and natural persons. ...
http://www.mzv.cz/washington/ekon/ekon_us/eco_313.htm


3. ...Foreign natural persons, foreign legal entities and ...
http://www.bdl.gov.lb/pub/pam/foreign.htm




Rostov
PRO pts in pair: 8

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Сергей Лузан
2 days11 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

14 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
-


Explanation:
физическое лицо = individual person, natural person, physical person, individual, physical body

AYP
Local time: 04:40
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in pair: 90

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Сергей Лузан: Кроме последнего - это уж чересчур.
2 days7 hrs
  -> thanks
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

14 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
Жаркая дискуссия :-)


Explanation:
Полезла я в Black's Law Dictionary.

Вот дефиниция:

Individual. As a noun, this term denotes a single person as distinguished from a group or class, and also, very commonly, a private or natural person as distinguished from a partnership, corporation, or association; but it is said that this restrictive signification is not necessarily inherent in the word, and that it may, in proper cases, include artificial persons.

Таким образом, вариант Натали - самый верный и исключающий разночтения, однако я за 7 лет юр. перевода, все же, чаще встречала individual :-)

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-11 04:26:39 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Елена, а Вам physical face не подойдет...? ;-)

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-11 11:41:41 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Все предложение:

Individuals [or natural persons] engaged in import of goods intended for commercial activity shall be subject to registration in the established procedure as sole proprietors [or private businessmen], without formation of a legal entity, having the right to engage in export and import transactions, and wholesale and retail trade.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-11 11:42:59 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

\"activities\", конечно же

Remedios
Kazakhstan
Local time: 07:40
Native speaker of: Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in pair: 511

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Сергей Лузан
2 days7 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

20 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 1/5Answerer confidence 1/5 peer agreement (net): +1
всякое физическое лицо есть юридическое лицо


Explanation:
не претендуя на знание юридической науки, хочу обратить внимание коллег на одно обстоятельство. Все физические лица являются субъектами права, то есть юридическими лицами. Так как большинство законов устанавливают различные права, обязанности и требования по отношению частных лиц и так называемых юридических лиц, возникла необходимость их обозначения двумя различными терминами. Кстати понятие "частное лицо" (я не знаю является ли оно эквивалентом физического лица в русском языке)по-моему больше подходило бы для обозначения индивидуума в законодательной практике.
Вывод: физическое лицо это тоже своего рода юридическое лицо, только частное а не корпоративное. И аргумент что individual может быть юридическим лицом не верен, так как individual всегда является таковым. То есть, на этом основании нельзя судить о правильности того или иного варианта перевода данного термина.

Может быть я ошибаюсь...

M. R. Rahimi
Local time: 06:40
Native speaker of: Native in TajikTajik, Native in RussianRussian
PRO pts in pair: 20

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Remedios: Боюсь, не совсем так... Подробнее о физ. и юр. лицах - в главах 3 и 4 соответственно ГК РФ (http://hipp.spb.ru/gk/index.htm)
33 mins

neutral  diana bb: To put it mildly, I would like to disagree.
1 hr

neutral  Natalie: Ой нет...
3 hrs

agree  Сергей Лузан: Полностью. Альфа и омега гражданского (буржуазного) права.
2 days1 hr
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

2 days42 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
Either individual or natural person


Explanation:
You should only need to use the term "natural person" in legal documents where you need to make it absolutely clear that the "person" is not a corporation, e.g. where a company's articles specify that its directors may be corporations or "natural persons". Otherwise, the word "individual" is plain English, which is now preferred even by lawyers!

P.S. Tatiana, for once I don't think there's any difference between US and British usage on this point.


    An English lawyer
Teresa Pearce
United Kingdom
Local time: 02:40
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 32
Grading comment
Большое спасибо всем! Ценные предложения. Документ - газетная статья, ориентированная на американского читателя. Поэтому, следуя вашим подсказкам, в переводе я употребляла individual, но в цитате из самого постановления (тот самый контекст, который я привела)- natural person.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Сергей Лузан
21 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




Return to KudoZ list


KudoZ™ translation help
The KudoZ network provides a framework for translators and others to assist each other with translations or explanations of terms and short phrases.



See also:



Term search
  • All of ProZ.com
  • Term search
  • Jobs
  • Forums
  • Multiple search