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período de santificación

English translation: initiation

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Spanish term or phrase:período de santificación (santeros, Yoruba)
English translation:initiation
Entered by: Parrot
Options:
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19:17 Mar 8, 2002
Spanish to English translations [Non-PRO]
Art/Literary / cortometraje
Spanish term or phrase: período de santificación
Michel Mirabal muestra sus obras mientras habla de la religión Yoruba cubana. No puede salir de su casa porque está en período de santificación. Michelle pinta un cuadro de una mano gigante.
luciana
initiation
Explanation:
I may be wrong in interpreting from context. Following is an excerpt from Mircea Eliade (The History of Religions):

SANTERIA is a religious tradition of African origin that developed in Cuba and that was spread throughout the Caribbean and the United States by exiles from the revolution of 1959. Santeria began in the nineteenth century when hundreds of thousands of men and women of the Yoruba people, from what are now Nigeria and Benin, were brought to Cuba to work in the island's booming sugar industry. Despite brutal conditions, some were able to reconstruct their religious lives through a fusing of the traditions remembered from their homeland and from their encounter with the folk piety of the Roman Catholic church.

The Cuban Yoruba often used the iconography of Catholic saints to express their devotions to Yoruba spirits called orishas. The name Santeria, "the way of the saints," is the most common Spanish word used to describe these practices, and the word santero (m.) or santera (f.) indicates an initiated devotee. Later generations of santeros would construct elaborate systems of correspondences between orishas and saints, leading observers to see this Caribbean religion as a model for understanding religious syncretism and cultural change. Despite the frequent presence of Catholic symbols in Santeria rites and the attendance of santeros at Catholic sacraments, Santeria is essentially an African way of worship drawn into a symbiotic relationship with Catholicism.

Santeros believe that every individual, before he or she is born, is given a destiny, or road in life, by the Almighty. It is the responsibility of the individual to understand his or her destiny and to grow with it rather than to be a victim of it. Santeros recognize a pantheon of orishas whose aid and energy can bring devotees to a complete fulfillment of their destinies. The basis of Santeria is the development of a deep personal relationship with the orishas, a relationship that will bring the santero worldly success and heavenly wisdom. Devotion to the orishas takes four principal forms: divination, sacrifice, spirit mediumship, and initiation.

For the ordinary devotee, Santeria serves as a means for resolving the problems of everyday life, including problems of health, money, and love. Divination can reveal the sources of these problems, and it points the way to their resolution. Santeria has preserved several Yoruba systems of divination in a hierarchical ranking according to their reliability and the amount of training required to master them. The most complex system of divination in Santeria, Ifa, can be "read" only by male priests called babalawos. In response to a querent's problem, a babalawo will throw a small chain (ekwele) that has eight pieces of shell, bone, or other material affixed to it. Each piece is shaped so that, when thrown, it lands either concave or convex side up. This arrangement results in 256 possible combinations, each representing a basic situation in life. The combination that falls at any particular time is the purest expression of fate, and thus of the God-given destiny of the querent. Most of the patterns refer to stories that tell of the problems faced by the orishas and heroes in the past, and that relate the solutions that were found. These solutions become the archetypes used by the querent to resolve the problem that he or she has brought to Ifa.

Nearly all problems are resolved by deepening the devotee's relationship with the orishas. There is no firmer way for the devotee to show this relationship than through the symbolism of shared foodóthat is, through sacrifice. The orishas, like all living things, must eat in order to live. Although they are immensely powerful, they are by no means immortal, and for continued life they depend on the sacrifice and praise of human beings. Each orisha enjoys certain special foods, ranging from cakes to stews, fruits, or drinks. If an orisha requests, santeros will sacrifice fowl, sheep, or other animals. The slaughter is always performed quickly and cleanly according to ritual rules, and the flesh is nearly always cooked and consumed by the congregation as part of the orisha's feast.

The most dramatic form of devotion to the orishas is ceremonial spirit mediumship. At certain ceremonies called bembes, guemileres, or tambores, a battery of drums calls the orishas to join the devotees in dance and song. If an orisha so chooses, he or she will "descend" and "seize the head" of an initiate. In this state the incarnated orisha may perform spectacular dances that the human medium would be hard put to imitate in ordinary consciousness. More important, an incarnated orisha will deliver messages, admonitions, and advice to individual members of the community, bringing their heavenly wisdom to bear on their devotees' earthly problems.

As a devotee grows in these ways of devotion, one particular orisha may begin to assert itself as the devotee's patron, and the love of this orisha will provide the devotee with his or her basic orientation in life. When this orisha calls for it, the devotee will undergo a demanding and irrevocable initiation into the mysteries of the patron orisha. The initiation ceremony is carried out with great solemnity and care in the home of an initiate of long experience. During a lengthy period of isolation and instruction, the devotee is brought to a spiritual rebirth as a true child of the orisha. During this ceremony the orisha is "enthroned in the head" of the devotee and is "sealed" as a permanent part of the devotee's personality.

As the initiate grows in this new level of devotion, his or her relationship with the seated orisha becomes in[13 Encyclopedia of Religion 67] creasingly fluid. The sacrificial exchange between them comes to be seen as the outward manifestation of an inner process. Thus Santeria culminates in a mysticism of identity between human and divine, where the road of life is the way of the orishas.

Santeria continues to grow in the late twentieth century. Its popularity in Cuba seems to have been little affected by the socialist revolution, and thanks to nearly one million Cuban exiles, it is thriving in Venezuela, Puerto Rico, and the United States. The number of full initiates is difficult to determine because of the tradition of secrecy that santeros have maintained in order to survive a history of oppression and misunderstanding. The presence of Santeria in a given neighborhood may be gauged by the profusion of botanicas, small retail stores that sell the herbs and ritual paraphernalia of Santeria ceremonies. In 1981, there were at least eighty botanicas in Miami, Florida, and more than a hundred in New York City
Selected response from:

Parrot
Spain
Local time: 11:14
Grading comment
I was really surprised to read such a wonderful interpretation of something that unfortunately I don't know but it is really interesting!!!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +1period of sanctificationAntonio Costa
4 +1initiation
Parrot
4Sanctification period.LEALZ


  

Answers


2 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
period of sanctification


Explanation:
I suppose it is a kind ritual of purification or the like.

Antonio Costa
PRO pts in pair: 179

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  LEALZ: more solemn!
20 mins
  -> Thank you. Are you the same LEALZ as below?
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

16 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Sanctification period.


Explanation:
period of time before a priest is cannonized as St.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-03-08 19:36:58 (GMT)
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sorry about canonize

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-03-08 19:39:10 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

a period of time a selected priest must wait to be canonized as St.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-03-08 19:42:35 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Period of Purification is another option as pointed out by Antonio...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-03-08 19:46:51 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Period of Purification is another option as pointed out by Antonio...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-03-08 19:47:28 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

a period of time a selected priest must wait to be canonized as St.

LEALZ
United States
Local time: 02:14
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in pair: 27
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

42 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +1
initiation


Explanation:
I may be wrong in interpreting from context. Following is an excerpt from Mircea Eliade (The History of Religions):

SANTERIA is a religious tradition of African origin that developed in Cuba and that was spread throughout the Caribbean and the United States by exiles from the revolution of 1959. Santeria began in the nineteenth century when hundreds of thousands of men and women of the Yoruba people, from what are now Nigeria and Benin, were brought to Cuba to work in the island's booming sugar industry. Despite brutal conditions, some were able to reconstruct their religious lives through a fusing of the traditions remembered from their homeland and from their encounter with the folk piety of the Roman Catholic church.

The Cuban Yoruba often used the iconography of Catholic saints to express their devotions to Yoruba spirits called orishas. The name Santeria, "the way of the saints," is the most common Spanish word used to describe these practices, and the word santero (m.) or santera (f.) indicates an initiated devotee. Later generations of santeros would construct elaborate systems of correspondences between orishas and saints, leading observers to see this Caribbean religion as a model for understanding religious syncretism and cultural change. Despite the frequent presence of Catholic symbols in Santeria rites and the attendance of santeros at Catholic sacraments, Santeria is essentially an African way of worship drawn into a symbiotic relationship with Catholicism.

Santeros believe that every individual, before he or she is born, is given a destiny, or road in life, by the Almighty. It is the responsibility of the individual to understand his or her destiny and to grow with it rather than to be a victim of it. Santeros recognize a pantheon of orishas whose aid and energy can bring devotees to a complete fulfillment of their destinies. The basis of Santeria is the development of a deep personal relationship with the orishas, a relationship that will bring the santero worldly success and heavenly wisdom. Devotion to the orishas takes four principal forms: divination, sacrifice, spirit mediumship, and initiation.

For the ordinary devotee, Santeria serves as a means for resolving the problems of everyday life, including problems of health, money, and love. Divination can reveal the sources of these problems, and it points the way to their resolution. Santeria has preserved several Yoruba systems of divination in a hierarchical ranking according to their reliability and the amount of training required to master them. The most complex system of divination in Santeria, Ifa, can be "read" only by male priests called babalawos. In response to a querent's problem, a babalawo will throw a small chain (ekwele) that has eight pieces of shell, bone, or other material affixed to it. Each piece is shaped so that, when thrown, it lands either concave or convex side up. This arrangement results in 256 possible combinations, each representing a basic situation in life. The combination that falls at any particular time is the purest expression of fate, and thus of the God-given destiny of the querent. Most of the patterns refer to stories that tell of the problems faced by the orishas and heroes in the past, and that relate the solutions that were found. These solutions become the archetypes used by the querent to resolve the problem that he or she has brought to Ifa.

Nearly all problems are resolved by deepening the devotee's relationship with the orishas. There is no firmer way for the devotee to show this relationship than through the symbolism of shared foodóthat is, through sacrifice. The orishas, like all living things, must eat in order to live. Although they are immensely powerful, they are by no means immortal, and for continued life they depend on the sacrifice and praise of human beings. Each orisha enjoys certain special foods, ranging from cakes to stews, fruits, or drinks. If an orisha requests, santeros will sacrifice fowl, sheep, or other animals. The slaughter is always performed quickly and cleanly according to ritual rules, and the flesh is nearly always cooked and consumed by the congregation as part of the orisha's feast.

The most dramatic form of devotion to the orishas is ceremonial spirit mediumship. At certain ceremonies called bembes, guemileres, or tambores, a battery of drums calls the orishas to join the devotees in dance and song. If an orisha so chooses, he or she will "descend" and "seize the head" of an initiate. In this state the incarnated orisha may perform spectacular dances that the human medium would be hard put to imitate in ordinary consciousness. More important, an incarnated orisha will deliver messages, admonitions, and advice to individual members of the community, bringing their heavenly wisdom to bear on their devotees' earthly problems.

As a devotee grows in these ways of devotion, one particular orisha may begin to assert itself as the devotee's patron, and the love of this orisha will provide the devotee with his or her basic orientation in life. When this orisha calls for it, the devotee will undergo a demanding and irrevocable initiation into the mysteries of the patron orisha. The initiation ceremony is carried out with great solemnity and care in the home of an initiate of long experience. During a lengthy period of isolation and instruction, the devotee is brought to a spiritual rebirth as a true child of the orisha. During this ceremony the orisha is "enthroned in the head" of the devotee and is "sealed" as a permanent part of the devotee's personality.

As the initiate grows in this new level of devotion, his or her relationship with the seated orisha becomes in[13 Encyclopedia of Religion 67] creasingly fluid. The sacrificial exchange between them comes to be seen as the outward manifestation of an inner process. Thus Santeria culminates in a mysticism of identity between human and divine, where the road of life is the way of the orishas.

Santeria continues to grow in the late twentieth century. Its popularity in Cuba seems to have been little affected by the socialist revolution, and thanks to nearly one million Cuban exiles, it is thriving in Venezuela, Puerto Rico, and the United States. The number of full initiates is difficult to determine because of the tradition of secrecy that santeros have maintained in order to survive a history of oppression and misunderstanding. The presence of Santeria in a given neighborhood may be gauged by the profusion of botanicas, small retail stores that sell the herbs and ritual paraphernalia of Santeria ceremonies. In 1981, there were at least eighty botanicas in Miami, Florida, and more than a hundred in New York City


Parrot
Spain
Local time: 11:14
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in pair: 7645
Grading comment
I was really surprised to read such a wonderful interpretation of something that unfortunately I don't know but it is really interesting!!!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Antonio Costa: Your answers are very well evidenced. Congratulations, I leave in a country where these rites are very common and respected. However,initiation, as far as I know is the cerimony itself. But as Im am not a a fool I will agree with you.
36 mins
  -> Thanks. My doubt about "sanctification" was its very orthodox usage.
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