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|Spanish to English translations [PRO]|
Education / Pedagogy / Professional Examination Certificate
|Spanish term or phrase: The certificate is signed: "Ing. Juan Pérez, Director"|
|I am translating a Professional Examination Certificate from a University in Mexico, to be used in a University in Canada. My customer wants me to translate absolutely everything, including the Director's Profession. Would "Engineer Juan Pérez, Director" be acceptable in Canada?|
|Mr. Juan Pérez, Director|
In English we don't have Eng. as a title (except "Eur. Ing." -http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/European_Engineer), and as it's just the signature of the Director, I don't believe it's appropriate or necessary to mention his academic training here (whatever the "Ing." may relate to - "engineer" has too broad a range of meanings in English)
Note added at 8 hrs (2007-07-08 15:42:41 GMT)
and it is not normal practice to mention your academic discipline after your name, either - otherwise I might put "Langs." after my name ;-)
Selected response from:
Local time: 13:19
|Thank-you, Rachel I did as you suggested: Juan Perez, Director, (no title, no Mr.)|
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer
36 mins confidence: peer agreement (net): +2
Juan Pérez, Engineer/Director
This structure might work for you
Local time: 06:19
Works in field
Native speaker of: English, Spanish
PRO pts in category: 108
|Notes to answerer|
|Asker: Thank-you, David, best regards. I decided no to use a title at all.|
3 hrs confidence:
Juan Perez (engineer), Director
I would definitely use parenthesis but I'm not sure about the capitalization......
Local time: 07:19
Native speaker of: English
|Notes to answerer|
|Asker: Good suggestion, Paty, Thank-you. I decided no to use at title at all. Best regards.|
Asker: Sara, Thank-you for all of your information. It's very enlightening. I decided not to use any title at all.
|Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)|6 hrs confidence: peer agreement (net): +3
Juan Perez, Eng., Director
The Engineer's degree in the United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom the highest award for non-postgraduate studies is the Master of Engineering (MEng). In England, this is a four year course or a 'sandwich' five year course (with a year out working in industry in year 3, although in some cases a year industry can be achieved in four years). In Scotland, it is a five year course. The Bachelor of Engineering (BEng) is usually a three year course (four in Scotland), or can also include a year in industry. Many universities offer the MEng, and may then allow a transfer onto the BEng (this is because the MEng is the quickest route to chartership).
 The Engineer's degree in the United States
In the United States, the bachelor's degree is the standard undergraduate degree awarded to engineering students and is generally the only degree required for licensure (that is, it is the first professional degree in the field). For graduate students, the master's degree is by far the most common route, which may be followed by the doctorate. The Degree of Engineer or Engineer's Degree is the least commonly obtained advanced degree in engineering. It is usually preceded by a master's degree and is not a prerequisite to a doctoral degree. It serves as a terminal degree for practicing engineers. The availability of degrees and the specific requirements differ considerably between institutions and between specialties within an institution. Officially, both undergraduate programs and graduate programs at the master's-level may receive ABET-accreditation, but ABET will only accredit a bachelor's or a master's degree at a given institution (not both). In practice, although undergraduate accreditation is common, master's-level accreditation is rare unless an undergraduate program is not available (for example, the Naval Postgraduate School).
In many other fields, the master's degree would naturally be followed by a traditional research doctorate (Ph.D.). But in this case, the engineer's degree provides an alternative that has been tailored for professionals rather than academicians. Some schools, Stanford and Caltech for example, require a thesis. But, the requirements are generally less than those of Ph.D. candidates and more comparable to those of most Master of Science students. Others, like Santa Clara University, do not have a specific research requirement. For this reason, many consider an engineer's degree to be on a level between a master's degree and a doctorate. Nonetheless, it is in fact a terminal degree, much like the Ed.S. degree in education.
In the past, it was not uncommon for a would-be engineer to earn an engineer's degree as their first and only college degree. But since World War II this has fallen out of favor, and it becomes continually more difficult to find a school that offers this option.
Note: A degree with some form of the word "engineer(ing)" in the title is not necessarily an engineer's degree in this sense. Particularly, a "Master of Engineering" (M.Eng.) or "Engineering Doctorate" (Eng. D) degree is not an Engineer's degree, nor is any other bachelor's, master's, or doctoral degree. Rather, the engineer's degree is in a category of its own. For example, a student with a B.S. and M.S. in electrical engineering might next earn the degree Electrical Engineer. The person would then have a B.S. in E.E., a M.S. in E.E., and an E.E. degree. The former two are degrees in engineering, and only the latter degree is actually an Engineer's degree.
 Common abbreviations of engineering disciplines (U.S. and Canada)
An abbreviation of the discipline is often used to represent an engineer's degree where one might typically use M.S. or Ph.D. Several are potentially ambiguous, especially P.E.
* Agricultural Engineer - Ag. E. or A.E.
* Biomedical Engineer - B.M.E.
* Chemical Engineer - Ch. E. or Chem. E.
* Petroleum Engineer - P.E.
* Building Engineer - B.E.
* Ceramic Engineer - Cer. E.
* Civil Engineer - C.E.
* Clinical Engineer - C.E.
* Computer Engineer - Cp. E.
* Electrical Engineer - E.E.
* Industrial Engineer - I.E.
* Structural Engineer - S.E
* Software Engineer - S.E. or S.W.E.
* Engineer in Aeronautics and Astronautics - E.A.A.
* Engineer in Computer Science - E.C.S.
* Engineer in Mechanics - E.M.
* Environmental Engineer - Env. E.
* General Engineer - G.E.
* Geological Engineer - G.E.
* Materials Engineer - Mat. E.
* Mechanical Engineer - Mech. E. or M.E.
* Mechatronic Engineer - M.T.E.
* Mining Engineer - Min. E
* Naval Engineer - Nav. E.
* Nuclear Engineer - Nucl. E.
* Ocean Engineer - Ocean. E.
* Systems Engineer - Sys. E.
 Engineer's degrees in Europe
In countries with significant German influence on higher education, universities specializing in technical studies award their students an engineer's degree instead of a master's degree. In addition to Germany itself, this includes states like Austria, Belarus, Belgium, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Finland, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russia, Serbia, Slovakia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and Ukraine. The degree of Engineer may be the first one received (after five years of study), or more often, it may follow a bachelor's degree (usually three years for the bachelor's plus two years for the engineer's).
In local language, the degree is called inżynier (Polish), inžinier (Slovak) or inženýr (Czech), the abbreviation is Ir. (inż. in Poland, Ing. in the Czech Republic and Slovakia) and is written before the person's name (In Germany, Ing. is used for engineers without an academic degree, obtained after four years of study without scientific research, see below.) In German, the degree is called Diplomingenieur (abbr. Dipl.-Ing.) and in Finnish, diplomi-insinööri (abbr. DI). The word diplom refers to the thesis written at the end of the studies. In Poland degree of inżynier is available after 3- or 3.5-studies (like licencjat in non-engieering science) after final thesis completed (rather easier subjects taken than for MSc., or magister inżynier (abbr. mgr inż. placed before the name of degree holder), which refers to MSc. and engineer together, and is available after 5-years study and final thesis completed.
There is also the degree Diplom-Ingenieur (FH) (abbr. Dipl.-Ing (FH)) in Germany, but this is a professional degree in engineering from a German Fachhochschule. It is intermediate in rank between a bachelor's degree and a master's degree.
In Belgium, the degree is Burgerlijk Ingenieur or Ingénieur Civil (abbrev. Ir.). In Portugal, the degree is Engenheiro (abbrev. Eng.), and in Spain it is called Ingeniero (Ing). In Greece, the degree is Διπλωματούχος Μηχανικός (diplomatouhos mihanikos) and the abbreviation is Διπλ.-Μηχ..
In the Netherlands, the degree is Ingenieur (abbrev. ir.). Also, ing is used in the Netherlands and in Belgium, but this is a non-academic, professional degree.
In Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the degree is Civilingeniør/Sivilingeniør/Civilingenjör (regardless of the actual specialty and thus not to be confused with the English civil engineer). This retains the 19th century idea that the "actual" engineers were the military ones.
In France, the degree is Diplôme d'Ingénieur, while the title is Ingénieur diplômé (ID) but is never used before the holder's name. In Belarus, Russia, and Ukraine, the degree is специалист инженер (specialist inzener), a first degree after 5 years of study.
A German-style engineer's degree is considered equivalent to a MSc degree in U.S. or UK and in international context, the holders of the Engineer's degree are authorized to use MSc. However, there has been some debate over whether the Engineers should differentiate themselves from a Master of Science, this degree having become victim of inflation lately. It might also be argued that, because the European high school curriculum covers the topics of the typical U.S. freshman year, the five-year-long engineer's degree is actually the complete equivalent of the U.S. degree.
In France, the Diplôme d'Ingénieur (word for word: Engineer's Degree) can be obtained after five years of engineering studies after the Baccalauréat. Engineering is taught in Ecoles d'Ingénieurs, which are part of the French Grandes écoles famous system. Since the Bologna process, the Diplôme d'Ingénieur is officially considered to be at the level of a European master's degree, though many argue that it is a bit more than a mere master's degree since competitive exams allow only top students to enter the Grandes écoles system. It is often considered as something between MSc and MEng when compared to the U.S. system as it is a blend of strong theoretical knowledge and professional experience.
Romania follows the French system and the engineering degree is called "Diploma de inginer", this being a 5 year degree course equivalent to a Master's degree (MSc/M.Eng). The five year course concludes with a comprehensive set of specialising exams ("examen de diploma"). Marks 9 or 10 are considered exceptional. Some universities award a so called "Diploma de Sub-inginer" which is a 3 year course equivalent to a B.Eng degree.
The Spanish case is practically identical to the French but for the non-existence of Grandes Écoles. Engineer's degrees in Spain traditionally used to last (at least nominally) six years though many of them were reduced to five years relatively recently.
 Abolition of the Engineer's degree in Germany
In Germany, the local engineer's degree (Diplom-Ingenieur, a first degree after 5 years of study) will be abolished by 2010, and will be replaced by postgraduate master's degrees (MSc and MEng). This disputed development is part of the German implementation of the Bologna process. However, this decision is favourable for German Universities of Applied Sciences (Fachhochschulen), since the old Diplom-Ingenieur (FH) will be replaced by the same degrees. Therefore, in contrast to the former situation, a degree from a University of Applied Sciences will be equal in rank to the equivalent degree from a traditional German university.
Contrast this decision with Finland, where the two concepts — academic and vocational engineering degree — remain separate, even if the qualification no longer requires one or the other de jure.
 Engineer's Degree in India ( Bharat )
In India the degree in engineering or technology is awarded after successful completion of four year course with specialisation in any one of branch of engineering.The degree B.E or BTech is awarded by the university to which the college or the institute is affiliated.There are different categories of engineering colleges in India.IIT and NIT which are government funded and are in the premier league. In recent times some private colleges which run on the principle of self finance ( self support ) are catching up government funded premier institutes in terms of infrastructure,faculty ,research etc.
After getting B.E or BTech degree one can opt for Master's degree in Engineering ( M.E ) or Master of Technology ( MTech )which is of two years of duration.Here specialisation is offerd within a particular branch of engineering.After completion of M.E ,one can do Phd or research .
v • d • e
| Sara Brown|
Local time: 09:19
Works in field
Native speaker of: English, Spanish
PRO pts in category: 13