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guarda vs curatela vs tutela

English translation: physical custody vs. conservatorship vs. guardianship

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Spanish term or phrase:guarda vs curatela vs tutela
English translation:physical custody vs. conservatorship vs. guardianship
Entered by: Brenda Joseph
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20:47 Jun 7, 2006
Spanish to English translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law (general)
Spanish term or phrase: guarda vs curatela vs tutela
Tutela: guardianship of minors?
Curatela: guardianship of legally unable adults?
Guarda: ?
Brenda Joseph
Local time: 03:18
physical custody vs. conservatorship vs. guardianship
Explanation:
You are asking three questions here, so I believe three separate answers are warranted. I can only speak for the terms as used in Spain, but I believe that they are used similarly in most Spanish-speaking jurisdictions, although there may be significant variations. But at least in Spain, these are not "generic" terms, but rather each of them has a very specific legal meaning.

"Guarda" = "physical custody". "Guarda" as used in the context of divorce or separation refers to the physical custody ("guarda y custodia") of the children in a marriage, as opposed to legal custody, which is called "patria potestad." In a divorce or separation, the parents will usually continue to maintain joint legal custody of their children ("patria potestad compartida"), but the physical custody ("guarda y custodia") will usually reside with only one parent, the other having visitation rights ("régimen de visitas") and obviously child maintenance duties ("alimentos"). Physical custody may also be joint ("guarda y custodia compartida").

In the context of your text "guarda" may be used in a different sense, so I am offering the following just in case:
"guarda de hecho" = "de facto" guardianship; the actual guardian ("guardador de hecho") of a child who is not a parent, but who is also not court-appointed
"acogimiento" = foster parenting

"Curatela" = "conservatorship". "Curatela", as you indicate, is the court-ordered guardianship of emancipated minors, "pródigos" or incompetent adults ("incapacitados"), and in English is called "conservatorship", a "conservator" ("curador") being "a person appointed by a court to manage the estate or affairs of someone who is legally incapable of doing so" (Black's Law Dictionary, 8th, p. 324).

"Tutela" = "guardianship" "Tutela", as you indicate, is the court-ordered guardianship of minors (and often incompetents) by a person other than a parent, the "tutor" being called "guardian" and the "tutelado" being the "ward." "Tutela" is not equivalent to "legal custody", since the "patria potestad" over a child can only be exercised by a parent.

In the definitions provided below (from Diccionario de Derecho Bosch, Barcelona, 1995) you will see that "curatela" is less "severe" and the "curador" exercises fewer powers than the "tutor".

I hope some of this fits your context!

CURATELA-Consiste en el otorgamiento al encargado de la misma, llamado curador, de unas facultades tutelares que suplirán defectos de capacidad del sometido a curatela para casos concretos y determinados. En este sentido, podría decirse que la curatela es una tutela delimitada por su extensión y contenido; es como una tutela en tono menor. Están sujetos a curatela los emancipados cuyos padres fallecieran o quedaran impedidos para la asistencia prevenida legalmente; los que obtuvieron el beneficio de la mayor edad; y los declarados pródigos. En todos estos casos, la intervención del curador se limitará a los actos que los menores o pródigos no puedan realizar por sí solos. La curatela procede también para las personas incapacitadas en cuya sentencia de incapacitación o resolución judicial que la modifique se decida la curatela; en tal caso, ésta sólo tendrá por objeto la asistencia del curador para aquellos actos previstos expresamente en la decisión judicial. El nombramiento, inhabilidad, excusa y remoción de curador se regulan de la misma forma que las del tutor.

Código civil, artículos 286 a 288, y 291.

TUTELA-Mediante esta institución se suple la deficiencia que afecta a los menores sin padres y a los incapacitados aunque sean mayores de edad. El tutor es el representante del tutelado. Este debe respeto y obediencia a aquél. En el ejercicio de su cargo, el tutor podrá recabar el auxilio de la autoridad, y podrá corregir al menor tutelado de forma razonable y moderada. El tutor está obligado a velar por el tutelado y, en particular, a procurarle alimentos; a educar al menor y procurarle una formación integral; a promover la adquisición o recuperación de la capacidad del tutelado y su mejor inserción en la sociedad; a informar al juez anualmente sobre la situación del menor o incapacitado y rendirle cuenta anual de su administración. El tutor es el administrador legal de patrimonio del tutelado y, en dicha función, observará la diligencia de un buen padre de familia. La tutela se ejercerá bajo la vigilancia del juez. Este, en la resolución en que constituya la tutela o en otra posterior, establecerá las medidas de vigilancia y control que crea oportunas; en cualquier momento, puede el juez exigir del tutor informe sobre la situación del tutelado y del estado de la administración.

Código civil, artículos 231 a 233, y 267 a 270.

La demandante, además de pedir la guarda y custodia de su hijo menor, ... El demandado reconvino suplicando la guarda y custodia del hijo menor, ...
www.aranzadi.es/online/areas/civil/artpub/bib_2005_2650_ac1...

quedarían bajo la guarda y custodia de la madre, con un régimen de visitas ... se la condiciona en cuanto a la guarda y custodia de sus hijas a la ...
extranjeros.mtas.es/es/general/ATC_127.pdf -

1 de Santa Cruz al apreciar un cambio de circunstancias que aconsejaba atribuir la guarda y custodia del menor al padre, aunque posteriormente fue ...
www.tribunalconstitucional.es/AUTOS2004/ATC2004-198.htm







--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 13 hrs (2006-06-08 10:00:37 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

"Curatela" can also be rendered as "curatorship" and "curador" as "curator." Black's Law Dictionary offers the following definitions:

CURATOR-A temporary guardian or conservator appointed by a court to care for the property or person of a minor or incapacitated person.
--(Civil law) A guardian who manages the estate of a minor, an absent person or an incapacitated person.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 17 hrs (2006-06-08 13:47:24 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

It appears that "conservatorship" is the preferred term in the US, rather than "curatorship", which seems to be used mor often to refer to "museum curatorship".

Here are examples from government websites (".gov") from different US states:

California Courts: Self-Help Center: Seniors: Duties of a Conservator
A conservatorship can be set up after a judge decides that a person (called the "conservatee") can't take care of themselves or their finances. ...
www.courtinfo.ca.gov/selfhelp/seniors/duties.htm

Conservatorship. At the point where a ward’s assets are valuable enough to require some investment management, the appointment of a conservator will be ...
www.michigan.gov/ltc/0,1607,7-148-7484_7503-14945--,00.html

Selected Montana Statutes about Guardianship and Conservatorship ... Title: Guardianship & Conservatorship: A Handbook for Lawyers Author: Scott K. Summers ...
courts.mt.gov/library/topics/guardian.asp

Single guardianship or conservatorship for two or more persons. 475.065. When application is made for the appointment of a guardian or conservator for two ...
www.moga.mo.gov/statutes/C400-499/4750000065.HTM

A guardianship or conservatorship, arranged through an attorney, blocks a person from acting on his or her own behalf. This arrangement is useful when a ...
www.opm.gov/wrkfam/elder-print-version.htm
Selected response from:

Rebecca Jowers
Spain
Local time: 08:18
Grading comment
Thank you Rebecca. You've been very helpful!!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +1physical custody vs. conservatorship vs. guardianshipRebecca Jowers
4 +2custodianship
Tony Keily
4custody / guardianship
David Russi
4custody
Marina Soldati
1**ver Proz.com Search***
Claudia Hoepelman


  

Answers


4 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
custody


Explanation:
http://www.proz.com/kudoz/1041780

Marina Soldati
Argentina
Local time: 03:18
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 268
Notes to answerer
Asker: Gracias Marina, pero Custody no es tenencia? La guarda es en el proceso de adopción, pero no sé cuál sería la traducción.

Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

45 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 1/5Answerer confidence 1/5
**ver Proz.com Search***


Explanation:
veo aquí guardianship, wardship (custodia/tutela de menores, tutelage


    Reference: http://proz.com/search
Claudia Hoepelman
United States
Local time: 02:18
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 8
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
custody / guardianship


Explanation:
tutela / guarda (sinónimos en el DRAE) = custody
curatela = guardianship

tutela:
1. f. Autoridad que, en defecto de la paterna o materna, se confiere para cuidar de la persona y los bienes de aquel que, por minoría de edad o por otra causa, no tiene completa capacidad civil.
2. f. Cargo de tutor.
3. f. Dirección, amparo o defensa de una persona respecto de otra.

curatela > curaduría
curaduría.

1. f. Cargo de curador de un menor.



David Russi
United States
Local time: 00:18
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 290
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

49 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
custodianship


Explanation:
I'd go for this one on the 'guarda' question. 'Guarda' seems to be a pretty loose term that can range from various notions of 'care' to protective custody. I'm not sure whether the web reference in the source language below will add or subtract confusion, but for what it's worth...

In regard to 'unable', I'd prefer 'incapacitated'.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 11 hrs (2006-06-08 08:11:15 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

I should have said that I agree with 'guardianship' for the other two terms!


    Reference: http://www.vaneduc.edu.ar/uai/comuni/conexion/conexion-7/der...
Tony Keily
Local time: 08:18
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Stuart Allsop
1 hr

agree  MikeGarcia: Also check with Thomas West III's Dictionary, pages 128 and 228.-
11 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

13 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
physical custody vs. conservatorship vs. guardianship


Explanation:
You are asking three questions here, so I believe three separate answers are warranted. I can only speak for the terms as used in Spain, but I believe that they are used similarly in most Spanish-speaking jurisdictions, although there may be significant variations. But at least in Spain, these are not "generic" terms, but rather each of them has a very specific legal meaning.

"Guarda" = "physical custody". "Guarda" as used in the context of divorce or separation refers to the physical custody ("guarda y custodia") of the children in a marriage, as opposed to legal custody, which is called "patria potestad." In a divorce or separation, the parents will usually continue to maintain joint legal custody of their children ("patria potestad compartida"), but the physical custody ("guarda y custodia") will usually reside with only one parent, the other having visitation rights ("régimen de visitas") and obviously child maintenance duties ("alimentos"). Physical custody may also be joint ("guarda y custodia compartida").

In the context of your text "guarda" may be used in a different sense, so I am offering the following just in case:
"guarda de hecho" = "de facto" guardianship; the actual guardian ("guardador de hecho") of a child who is not a parent, but who is also not court-appointed
"acogimiento" = foster parenting

"Curatela" = "conservatorship". "Curatela", as you indicate, is the court-ordered guardianship of emancipated minors, "pródigos" or incompetent adults ("incapacitados"), and in English is called "conservatorship", a "conservator" ("curador") being "a person appointed by a court to manage the estate or affairs of someone who is legally incapable of doing so" (Black's Law Dictionary, 8th, p. 324).

"Tutela" = "guardianship" "Tutela", as you indicate, is the court-ordered guardianship of minors (and often incompetents) by a person other than a parent, the "tutor" being called "guardian" and the "tutelado" being the "ward." "Tutela" is not equivalent to "legal custody", since the "patria potestad" over a child can only be exercised by a parent.

In the definitions provided below (from Diccionario de Derecho Bosch, Barcelona, 1995) you will see that "curatela" is less "severe" and the "curador" exercises fewer powers than the "tutor".

I hope some of this fits your context!

CURATELA-Consiste en el otorgamiento al encargado de la misma, llamado curador, de unas facultades tutelares que suplirán defectos de capacidad del sometido a curatela para casos concretos y determinados. En este sentido, podría decirse que la curatela es una tutela delimitada por su extensión y contenido; es como una tutela en tono menor. Están sujetos a curatela los emancipados cuyos padres fallecieran o quedaran impedidos para la asistencia prevenida legalmente; los que obtuvieron el beneficio de la mayor edad; y los declarados pródigos. En todos estos casos, la intervención del curador se limitará a los actos que los menores o pródigos no puedan realizar por sí solos. La curatela procede también para las personas incapacitadas en cuya sentencia de incapacitación o resolución judicial que la modifique se decida la curatela; en tal caso, ésta sólo tendrá por objeto la asistencia del curador para aquellos actos previstos expresamente en la decisión judicial. El nombramiento, inhabilidad, excusa y remoción de curador se regulan de la misma forma que las del tutor.

Código civil, artículos 286 a 288, y 291.

TUTELA-Mediante esta institución se suple la deficiencia que afecta a los menores sin padres y a los incapacitados aunque sean mayores de edad. El tutor es el representante del tutelado. Este debe respeto y obediencia a aquél. En el ejercicio de su cargo, el tutor podrá recabar el auxilio de la autoridad, y podrá corregir al menor tutelado de forma razonable y moderada. El tutor está obligado a velar por el tutelado y, en particular, a procurarle alimentos; a educar al menor y procurarle una formación integral; a promover la adquisición o recuperación de la capacidad del tutelado y su mejor inserción en la sociedad; a informar al juez anualmente sobre la situación del menor o incapacitado y rendirle cuenta anual de su administración. El tutor es el administrador legal de patrimonio del tutelado y, en dicha función, observará la diligencia de un buen padre de familia. La tutela se ejercerá bajo la vigilancia del juez. Este, en la resolución en que constituya la tutela o en otra posterior, establecerá las medidas de vigilancia y control que crea oportunas; en cualquier momento, puede el juez exigir del tutor informe sobre la situación del tutelado y del estado de la administración.

Código civil, artículos 231 a 233, y 267 a 270.

La demandante, además de pedir la guarda y custodia de su hijo menor, ... El demandado reconvino suplicando la guarda y custodia del hijo menor, ...
www.aranzadi.es/online/areas/civil/artpub/bib_2005_2650_ac1...

quedarían bajo la guarda y custodia de la madre, con un régimen de visitas ... se la condiciona en cuanto a la guarda y custodia de sus hijas a la ...
extranjeros.mtas.es/es/general/ATC_127.pdf -

1 de Santa Cruz al apreciar un cambio de circunstancias que aconsejaba atribuir la guarda y custodia del menor al padre, aunque posteriormente fue ...
www.tribunalconstitucional.es/AUTOS2004/ATC2004-198.htm







--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 13 hrs (2006-06-08 10:00:37 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

"Curatela" can also be rendered as "curatorship" and "curador" as "curator." Black's Law Dictionary offers the following definitions:

CURATOR-A temporary guardian or conservator appointed by a court to care for the property or person of a minor or incapacitated person.
--(Civil law) A guardian who manages the estate of a minor, an absent person or an incapacitated person.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 17 hrs (2006-06-08 13:47:24 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

It appears that "conservatorship" is the preferred term in the US, rather than "curatorship", which seems to be used mor often to refer to "museum curatorship".

Here are examples from government websites (".gov") from different US states:

California Courts: Self-Help Center: Seniors: Duties of a Conservator
A conservatorship can be set up after a judge decides that a person (called the "conservatee") can't take care of themselves or their finances. ...
www.courtinfo.ca.gov/selfhelp/seniors/duties.htm

Conservatorship. At the point where a ward’s assets are valuable enough to require some investment management, the appointment of a conservator will be ...
www.michigan.gov/ltc/0,1607,7-148-7484_7503-14945--,00.html

Selected Montana Statutes about Guardianship and Conservatorship ... Title: Guardianship & Conservatorship: A Handbook for Lawyers Author: Scott K. Summers ...
courts.mt.gov/library/topics/guardian.asp

Single guardianship or conservatorship for two or more persons. 475.065. When application is made for the appointment of a guardian or conservator for two ...
www.moga.mo.gov/statutes/C400-499/4750000065.HTM

A guardianship or conservatorship, arranged through an attorney, blocks a person from acting on his or her own behalf. This arrangement is useful when a ...
www.opm.gov/wrkfam/elder-print-version.htm

Rebecca Jowers
Spain
Local time: 08:18
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 1776
Grading comment
Thank you Rebecca. You've been very helpful!!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Nikki Graham: Very informative. Many thanks.
1260 days
  -> Thanks Nikki, and Saludos desde Madrid
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