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sobreseimiento libre - please read entire question

English translation: closing (of a criminal investigation or proceeding)

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Spanish term or phrase:sobreseimiento libre - please read entire question
English translation:closing (of a criminal investigation or proceeding)
Entered by: Rebecca Jowers
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02:38 May 7, 2009
Spanish to English translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law (general)
Spanish term or phrase: sobreseimiento libre - please read entire question
... en caso de que se sustente razonablemente en la concurrencia de los motivos legalmente previstos de sobreseimiento libre o provisional...

"Free" discontinuance or stay does not make sense to me... I am not clear on how 'free' applies here. Unrestricted?
silviantonia
Local time: 11:38
closing (of a criminal investigation or proceeding)
Explanation:
I would need more context here to be sure, but I believe your text concerns the definitive closing (or “archivo”) of a criminal investigation or proceeding (called “sobreseimiento libre”) vs. the temporary staying of a criminal investigation or proceeding (called “sobreseimiento provisional”).

I know that “sobreseimiento libre” appears in several bilingual legal dictionaries as “dismissal with prejudice,” while “sobreseimiento provisional” is equated with “dismissal without prejudice.” But if you look at the true definitions these expressions I believe that you will see that these are inaccurate renderings. In that regard, “dismissal with/without prejudice” are expressions used in CIVIL procedure in the U.S. (a "dismissal without prejudice" allows a civil lawsuit to be brought before the court again at a later time, while a "dismissal with prejudice" prevents the lawsuit from being brought before a court in the future). In contrast, in every Spanish legal source I have seen (dictionaries, crimpro textbooks) “sobreseimiento libre/provisional” are clearly CRIMINAL procedure terms referring to definitively closing (“sobreseimiento libre”) or temporarily staying (“sobreseimiento provisional”) a criminal investigation or proceeding.

Here are definitions that may prove useful:

--Definitions of “sobreseimiento libre” y “sobreseimiento provisional” from a “classic” (1901) textbook on criminal procedure by Santiago López Moreno:

“El sobreseimiento libre se llama así porque, no resultando delito, ó resultando plenamente comprobada la inocencia de los procesados, se manda archivar lo actuado, teniéndose como si no se hubiera instruido, sin que puedan volverse a continuar las actuaciones por el mismo y contra los mismos procesados.

El provisional, como su nombre indica, manda también archivar lo actuado; pero solo temporalmente, no de una manera definitiva. No apareciendo plenamente justificada la existencia del delito, ni suficientes motives para acusar a los procesados, la justicia, obedeciendo al principio de no prolongar indefinidamente los sumarios, les pone término; pero solo en tanto que no se suministren nuevos datos o noticias, que vengan a probar el hecho criminoso o a demostrar la participación de los procesados. Cuando esto ocurre, puede abrirse o continuarse de nuevo.”
http://www.scjn.gob.mx/NR/rdonlyres/ABABF1F9-0201-490A-8558-...


--Definitions from “Diccionario Jurídico” Thompson/Aranzadi, 2004, p. 761.

Sobreseimiento libre—“Es la resolución, en forma de auto, que pone fin al proceso penal, con carácter definitivo y efectos de cosa juzgada, bien por no haberse acreditado la perpetración del hecho motivador de su incoación o por no ser constitutivo de delito, bien por aparecer exentos de responsabilidad criminal los procesados como autores, cómplices o encubridores.”

Sobreseimiento provisional—“Es la resolución en forma de auto, en virtud de la cual se acuerda la suspensión del proceso penal cuando acreditada la existencia de un hecho delictivo, no pueda, sin embardo, acusarse a persona alguna de haber participado en el mismo, procediendo, cuando hay una duda razonable acerca de la perpetración del delito que haya dado lugar a la finalización de la causa.”

--Definition from “Diccionario de Derecho” Bosch, Barcelona, 1995:

SOBRESEIMIENTO--Es la suspensión del procedimiento criminal que, si se funda en alguna de las siguientes tres causas, se denomina también sobreseimiento libre: cuando no existan indicios racionales de haberse perpetrado el hecho que hubiere dado motivo a la formación de la causa; cuando el hecho no sea constitutivo de delito; cuando aparezcan exentos de responsabilidad criminal los procesados como autores, cómplices o encubridores. Ahora bien, el sobreseimiento libre puede ser sobreseimiento total, en cuyo caso se manda archivar la causa, o sobreseimiento parcial, en cuyo caso se mandará abrir el juicio oral respecto de los procesados a quienes no favorezca. Procederá el sobreseimiento provisional cuando no resulte debidamente justificada la perpetración del delito que haya dado motivo a la formación de la causa, o cuando resulte del sumario haberse cometido un delito y no haya motivos suficientes para acusar a determinada o determinadas personas como autores, cómplices o encubridores. El sobreseimiento provisional puede ser también total o parcial; en todo caso el auto de sobreseimiento sólo es recurrible en casación.
Ley de Enjuiciamiento criminal, artículos 634 a 645.

--Definitions from the "Diccionario de la Real Academia Española"

sobreseimiento.
1. m. Acción y efecto de sobreseer.

~ libre.
1. m. Der. El que por ser evidente la inexistencia de delito o la irresponsabilidad del inculpado, pone término al proceso con efectos análogos a los de la sentencia absolutoria.

~ provisional.
1. m. Der. El que por deficiencia de pruebas paraliza la causa.


In view of the above, I believe that translating "sobreseimiento libre" as "dismissal with prejudice" (or "discontinuance", etc.) is a mistranslation in which English civil procedure terminology is being used to translate a Spanish criminal procedure expression. Thus, your text might read something like "in the event it can reasonably be sustained that there are legal grounds for closing or staying (the criminal proceeding)"--depending on the context and text appearing prior to this excerpt.

NOTE: The relatively new Spanish civil procedure law (Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil 1/2000) provides for several instances of “sobreseimiento” of civil cases, and in that context “sobreseimiento” might appropriately be rendered as “dismissal” or “discontinuance.” But at least as used in Spain, “sobreseimiento LIBRE/PROVISIONAL” are clearly criminal procedure terms.
Selected response from:

Rebecca Jowers
Spain
Local time: 19:38
Grading comment
Because I had already submitted my translation (it is 6 in the morning in California and I have not gone to bed...) I had to send a memo with your entire explanation to my client, and I used 'permanent and temporary' discontinuance just to make it easier. I am very thankful, and I should have realized, but it's my third day on no sleep or 2 hours of sleep, that you CANNOT in a criminal case 'dismiss without prejudice' because then you would have the problem of double jeopardy (ne bis in idem, basically...) So I am off to sleep for another couple of hours... Grateful, you have no idea... This had to do with war crimes... definitely criminal law.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +4closing (of a criminal investigation or proceeding)Rebecca Jowers
4 +2dismissal without prejudice
Michael Powers (PhD)
5Absolute dismissallorenab23
4voluntary
Óscar Delgado Gosálvez
Summary of reference entries provided
Legal terminology glossary
Joseph Tein

Discussion entries: 3





  

Answers


10 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
voluntary


Explanation:
MOTION TO DISSOLVE VOLUNTARY STAY OF PROCEEDING ... "Stay and Supersedeas of Proceedings." On April 30, 2007 this Court amended its order of April ...
moritzlaw.osu.edu/electionlaw/litigation/documents/Banfield-Motion-2-22-08.pdf

Óscar Delgado Gosálvez
United States
Local time: 13:38
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 62
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

30 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
Absolute dismissal


Explanation:
We are talking about 2 things:
1) sobreseimiento libre : absolute dismissal (Sp. L. Crim. P., art 637)
2) sobreseimiento provisional: Provisional dismissal (Sp. L. Crim. P., art 641).
McGraw-Hill's Spanish and English Legal Dictionary

lorenab23
United States
Local time: 10:38
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 124
Notes to answerer
Asker: Lorena, you were right, because this does involve a case under international and Spanish criminal law. And I realize that I thought I had provided more context, but had failed to do so... Thank you, I am very grateful. The truth is that I should have provided the additional context, but I am under the gun this week...


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Joseph Tein: I think the terms 'dismissal with prejudice' and 'dismissal without prejudice' are much more common in the U.S. court system.
4 hrs
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14 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
dismissal without prejudice


Explanation:
Mike :)

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 15 mins (2009-05-07 02:54:23 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Tom West. Spanish-English Dictionary of Law and Business.

"sobreseimiento: dismissal of proceedings, discontinuance"

"sobreseimiento libre: dismissal without prejudice"

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 16 mins (2009-05-07 02:55:49 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

"sobreseimiento provinsional: dismissal without prejudice"



--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2009-05-07 03:44:33 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

# Within legal civil procedure, prejudice refers to a loss or injury. Thus, in a civil case, dismissal without prejudice is a dismissal that allows ...
en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dismissal_without_prejudice

# Term meaning dismissal without prejudice to the right of the complainant to sue again on the same cause of action.
www.intlscreening.com/resources/terminology/legal-terminolo...

# Court action that allows the later filing.
www.uscourts.gov/journalistguide/glossary.html

# When a case is dismissed but the plaintiff is allowed to bring a new suit on the same claim.
www.abanet.org/legalservices/findlegalhelp/faq_legalterms.c...

# Dismissing the case at the present time but reserving the right to re-file a new petition on the same issue, within a specific time period.
www.atps.com/lawcenter/legaltems.htm

# A dismissal that does not bar the plaintiff from refiling the charge.
www.co.wright.mn.us/department/attorney/commonlegalterms.as...

Michael Powers (PhD)
United States
Local time: 13:38
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 2002

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  MikeGarcia: Again and again...
52 mins
  -> Thank you, Mike - Mike :)

agree  Richard Boulter: Just so. Great refs in the Discussion, Mike.
54 mins
  -> Thank you, Richard - Mike :)

neutral  Flavio Posse: Hey Mike, there's a contradiction in your answer. Take another look at Tom West's, it says: "Sobreseimiento libre = dismissal WITH prejudice" "sobreseimiento provisional = dismissal WITHOUT prejudice". Your answer should read "WITH".
2 hrs
  -> Thank you, Flavio. I stand corrected. You are right, and so is Tom West. I copied the information incorrectly, so it should say, as you stated, "dismissal WITH prejudice" - Sorry for creating confusion; however, thank you for pointing it out - Mike :)

neutral  Joseph Tein: Hey Mike, maybe Flavio caught a typo here? because you have 'provisional' also as 'without prejudice'. Check out the fabulous resource below :) :)
5 hrs
  -> Thank you, Joseph. I stand corrected. I copied the information incorrectly, so it should say, as you stated, "dismissal WITH prejudice" - Sorry for creating confusion; however, thank you for pointing it out. Not a typo - I am wrong. - Mike :)
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

8 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +4
closing (of a criminal investigation or proceeding)


Explanation:
I would need more context here to be sure, but I believe your text concerns the definitive closing (or “archivo”) of a criminal investigation or proceeding (called “sobreseimiento libre”) vs. the temporary staying of a criminal investigation or proceeding (called “sobreseimiento provisional”).

I know that “sobreseimiento libre” appears in several bilingual legal dictionaries as “dismissal with prejudice,” while “sobreseimiento provisional” is equated with “dismissal without prejudice.” But if you look at the true definitions these expressions I believe that you will see that these are inaccurate renderings. In that regard, “dismissal with/without prejudice” are expressions used in CIVIL procedure in the U.S. (a "dismissal without prejudice" allows a civil lawsuit to be brought before the court again at a later time, while a "dismissal with prejudice" prevents the lawsuit from being brought before a court in the future). In contrast, in every Spanish legal source I have seen (dictionaries, crimpro textbooks) “sobreseimiento libre/provisional” are clearly CRIMINAL procedure terms referring to definitively closing (“sobreseimiento libre”) or temporarily staying (“sobreseimiento provisional”) a criminal investigation or proceeding.

Here are definitions that may prove useful:

--Definitions of “sobreseimiento libre” y “sobreseimiento provisional” from a “classic” (1901) textbook on criminal procedure by Santiago López Moreno:

“El sobreseimiento libre se llama así porque, no resultando delito, ó resultando plenamente comprobada la inocencia de los procesados, se manda archivar lo actuado, teniéndose como si no se hubiera instruido, sin que puedan volverse a continuar las actuaciones por el mismo y contra los mismos procesados.

El provisional, como su nombre indica, manda también archivar lo actuado; pero solo temporalmente, no de una manera definitiva. No apareciendo plenamente justificada la existencia del delito, ni suficientes motives para acusar a los procesados, la justicia, obedeciendo al principio de no prolongar indefinidamente los sumarios, les pone término; pero solo en tanto que no se suministren nuevos datos o noticias, que vengan a probar el hecho criminoso o a demostrar la participación de los procesados. Cuando esto ocurre, puede abrirse o continuarse de nuevo.”
http://www.scjn.gob.mx/NR/rdonlyres/ABABF1F9-0201-490A-8558-...


--Definitions from “Diccionario Jurídico” Thompson/Aranzadi, 2004, p. 761.

Sobreseimiento libre—“Es la resolución, en forma de auto, que pone fin al proceso penal, con carácter definitivo y efectos de cosa juzgada, bien por no haberse acreditado la perpetración del hecho motivador de su incoación o por no ser constitutivo de delito, bien por aparecer exentos de responsabilidad criminal los procesados como autores, cómplices o encubridores.”

Sobreseimiento provisional—“Es la resolución en forma de auto, en virtud de la cual se acuerda la suspensión del proceso penal cuando acreditada la existencia de un hecho delictivo, no pueda, sin embardo, acusarse a persona alguna de haber participado en el mismo, procediendo, cuando hay una duda razonable acerca de la perpetración del delito que haya dado lugar a la finalización de la causa.”

--Definition from “Diccionario de Derecho” Bosch, Barcelona, 1995:

SOBRESEIMIENTO--Es la suspensión del procedimiento criminal que, si se funda en alguna de las siguientes tres causas, se denomina también sobreseimiento libre: cuando no existan indicios racionales de haberse perpetrado el hecho que hubiere dado motivo a la formación de la causa; cuando el hecho no sea constitutivo de delito; cuando aparezcan exentos de responsabilidad criminal los procesados como autores, cómplices o encubridores. Ahora bien, el sobreseimiento libre puede ser sobreseimiento total, en cuyo caso se manda archivar la causa, o sobreseimiento parcial, en cuyo caso se mandará abrir el juicio oral respecto de los procesados a quienes no favorezca. Procederá el sobreseimiento provisional cuando no resulte debidamente justificada la perpetración del delito que haya dado motivo a la formación de la causa, o cuando resulte del sumario haberse cometido un delito y no haya motivos suficientes para acusar a determinada o determinadas personas como autores, cómplices o encubridores. El sobreseimiento provisional puede ser también total o parcial; en todo caso el auto de sobreseimiento sólo es recurrible en casación.
Ley de Enjuiciamiento criminal, artículos 634 a 645.

--Definitions from the "Diccionario de la Real Academia Española"

sobreseimiento.
1. m. Acción y efecto de sobreseer.

~ libre.
1. m. Der. El que por ser evidente la inexistencia de delito o la irresponsabilidad del inculpado, pone término al proceso con efectos análogos a los de la sentencia absolutoria.

~ provisional.
1. m. Der. El que por deficiencia de pruebas paraliza la causa.


In view of the above, I believe that translating "sobreseimiento libre" as "dismissal with prejudice" (or "discontinuance", etc.) is a mistranslation in which English civil procedure terminology is being used to translate a Spanish criminal procedure expression. Thus, your text might read something like "in the event it can reasonably be sustained that there are legal grounds for closing or staying (the criminal proceeding)"--depending on the context and text appearing prior to this excerpt.

NOTE: The relatively new Spanish civil procedure law (Ley de Enjuiciamiento Civil 1/2000) provides for several instances of “sobreseimiento” of civil cases, and in that context “sobreseimiento” might appropriately be rendered as “dismissal” or “discontinuance.” But at least as used in Spain, “sobreseimiento LIBRE/PROVISIONAL” are clearly criminal procedure terms.


Rebecca Jowers
Spain
Local time: 19:38
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 1776
Grading comment
Because I had already submitted my translation (it is 6 in the morning in California and I have not gone to bed...) I had to send a memo with your entire explanation to my client, and I used 'permanent and temporary' discontinuance just to make it easier. I am very thankful, and I should have realized, but it's my third day on no sleep or 2 hours of sleep, that you CANNOT in a criminal case 'dismiss without prejudice' because then you would have the problem of double jeopardy (ne bis in idem, basically...) So I am off to sleep for another couple of hours... Grateful, you have no idea... This had to do with war crimes... definitely criminal law.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  jacana54: Como siempre, ¡tus explicaciones son insuperables!
1 hr
  -> Gracias, Lucía. Muy amable!

agree  Michael Powers (PhD): For a criminal case, I completely agree. Well done, once again, Rebecca - Mike :)
1 hr
  -> Thanks Mike

agree  Flavio Posse: Thank you for the explanation, I really appreciate it. You must be a great teacher.
18 hrs
  -> Thanks so much, Flavio! While teaching legal English I learn loads of Spanish law from my students (who are all practicing lawyers or recent "licenciados en derecho"), so it's a two-way street!

agree  xxxtazdog: wonderful explanation, thank you!
207 days
  -> Thanks for your kind comment, Cindy
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Reference comments


5 hrs peer agreement (net): +2
Reference: Legal terminology glossary

Reference information:
Here's a resource that contains both these terms (libre/provisional) that everyone should love ... because it has my name as the author! (I had help from two very talented and experienced colleagues/friends who know a lot more about court interpreting than I do.)


    Reference: http://www.courts.wa.gov/programs_orgs/pos_interpret/content...
Joseph Tein
United States
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 63

Peer comments on this reference comment (and responses from the reference poster)
agree  jacana54: Lo consulto con frecuencia ;-)
4 hrs
  -> Hola Lucia :) Muchísimas gracias.
agree  Flavio Posse: Excelente trabajo, Joe. Muchas gracias por compartirlo.
21 hrs
  -> Hola Flavio. I'm happy to hear from you; I was hoping you'd see this! Ciao, amigo.
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May 7, 2009 - Changes made by Rebecca Jowers:
Created KOG entryKudoZ term » KOG term


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