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dolo eventual

English translation: wanton disregard (for human life)

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Spanish term or phrase:dolo eventual
English translation:wanton disregard (for human life)
Entered by: Diego Carpio
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13:31 Mar 18, 2010
Spanish to English translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law (general) / estadios psicológicos / criminología
Spanish term or phrase: dolo eventual
Lo ilustraré con un ejemplo:

1- Una persona conduce un automóvil. Al acercarse al semáforo visualiza a un peatón con quien está enemistado. El conductor arrolla al peatón sin más. (En este caso la persona obra con dolo).

2 - Una persona conduce un automóvil. Al acercarse al semáforo visualiza a un peatón. No quiere llegar tarde al trabajo así que pisa el acelerador siéndole indiferente si arrolla al peatón o no. El peatón es arrollado por este conductor. (En este caso el conductor obra con dolo eventual).

3 - Una persona conduce un automóvil. Al acercarse al semáforo visualiza a un peatón. No quiere llegar tarde al trabajo así que pisa el acelerador con la esperanza de no arrollar a este peatón. (En este caso el conductor obra con culpa conciente).

4 - Una persona conduce un automóvil. Al acercarse al semáforo arrolla accidentalmente a un peatón. (En este caso la persona obra con culpa).

Tengo una idea de cual es la traducción más adecuada. El problema es que la he visto traducida de mil maneras distintas. Mi consulta pretende generar un poco de consenso. Desde ya, muchas gracias colegas.
Diego Carpio
Argentina
Local time: 15:25
wanton disregard (for human life)
Explanation:
El equivalente en California en casos de homicidio vehicular es "Wanton disregard for human life". Si no me equivoco es uno de los elementos que la fiscalía debe probar.
Este concepto coincidiría con el ejemplo número 2.


http://www.insidesocal.com/crime/2008/05/wanton-disregard-fo...
"A Superior Court judge on Monday upheld the murder charge against Ara Grigoryan, the man charged in the July 2007 hit-and-run death of Elizabeth Sandoval. Grigoryan's defense team had sought to reduce the murder charge before going to trial, arguing that prosecutors made certain assumptions about the incident and had overblown the 20-year-old's prior driving infractions to infer a "wanton disregard" for human life -- a key finding for murder."

http://usmilitary.about.com/library/milinfo/mcm/bl118.htm
"(4) Act inherently dangerous to others.
(a) Wanton disregard of human life. Intentionally engaging in an act inherently dangerous to another—although without an intent to cause the death of or great bodily harm to any particular person, or even with a wish that death will not be caused—may also constitute murder if the act shows wanton disregard of human life. Such disregard is characterized by heedlessness of the probable consequences of the act or omission, or indifference to the likelihood of death or great bodily harm. Examples include throwing a live grenade toward another in jest or flying an aircraft very low over one or more persons to cause alarm. "

http://www.answers.com/topic/wanton-disregard
"Legal phrase used in Negligence cases to describe one person's overwhelming lack of care for the rights or well-being of another. Wanton disregard of another's rights is evidence of Gross Negligence."
Selected response from:

Flavio Posse
United States
Local time: 11:25
Grading comment
Gracias a todos por sus excelentes propuestas especialmente a Lucia y Flavio. Esta es la reflección que me queda luego de este torbellino de ideas:

- "wanton disregard (for human life)" parece ser el equivalente exacto para el dolo eventual como se lo conoce en estas latitudes.

- "recklessnes" o algún compuesto de palabras que contenga el sema de "temeridad" parece ser el equivalente exacto para la culpa conciente.

- "dolus eventualis" es el equivalente exacto para dolo eventual pero creo que se debe recurrir a una traducción "por el origen" sólo cuando cuando todo otro método ha fallado (lo cual es muy improbable).

¡Muchas gracias y hasta la próxima!.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +3wanton disregard (for human life)
Flavio Posse
3 +3dolus eventualis/recklessness
jacana54
4Criminal intent
Ruth Ramsey
4constructive malice/recklessness
Edward Tully
4oblique intent
Tom Thumb
5 -1deliberate/intentional....wrongdoing/ misbehavior
britos
4 -1(possible) malicious intentmargaret caulfield
3wilful missconduct
Mercedes Rizzuti


Discussion entries: 19





  

Answers


4 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): -1
(possible) malicious intent


Explanation:
I don't really think "possible" is necessary here, since I'd say it's covered by "intent".

margaret caulfield
Local time: 20:25
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 155

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Rosa Paredes: "Malicious intent" means intent to harm, evil purpose. http://dictionary.babylon.com/malicious intent/
4 hrs
  -> Pls see my link above. Also, it's obvious there was intent to harm from the context.

agree  britos: yes, but evidently he didn't care......he kept speeding so it is malicious....no respect for life
7 hrs
  -> Thanks again!

disagree  Edward Tully: no "intent" here just indifference to the consequences, very different legal concepts.
11 hrs
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
wilful missconduct


Explanation:
I think "dolo eventual", which means the possibility of harming others is wilful missconduct, and "dolo", which is the intention to harm is "malice".

Mercedes Rizzuti
Local time: 15:25
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 4
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4 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): -1
deliberate/intentional....wrongdoing/ misbehavior


Explanation:
the driver simply did not care

britos
Local time: 13:25
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish, Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 81

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
disagree  Rosa Paredes: Not caring is not the same as having the intention to do something. Deliberate is dolo as in examp,e 1 provided by asker
41 mins
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7 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +3
dolus eventualis/recklessness


Explanation:
Estoy llegando (nuevamente) a la conclusión de que se trata de un concepto que no maneja el derecho anglosajón.

Veo muchas citas de derecho internacional que lo ponen en latín, y tal vez esa podría ser una solución.

Ni hablar que despues, así como hay tantas "bibliotecas" sobre la teoría de la culpa, también hay diferentes posiciones sobre el dolo eventual, pero eso ya va más allá de un uso general de la expresión, que es el que corrientemente va a aparecer en las sentencias judiciales.



Revista Ius et Praxis Año 10 No 2 : 59 - 95, 2004
ARTÍCULOS DE DOCTRINA
La Estructura del Dolo Eventual y las Nuevas Fenomenologías de Riesgo

Stefano Canestrari (*)

(*) Profesor catedrático de Derecho Penal y Decano de la Faculdad de Derecho de la Universidad de Bolonia, Italia.

Traducción realizada por Beatriz Romero Flores, Doctora europea en Derecho.

RESUMEN

El texto aborda la discusión acerca de la estructura del dolo eventual, a partir de su fenomenología contemporánea, y el tratamiento que la jurisprudencia y doctrina alemana e italiana le han dado, particularmente en relación a supuestos relacionados con la transmisión de enfermedades de carácter sexual y de negativa de transfusión de sangre a menores por padres Testigos de Jehová. Se afirma que la doctrina dominante del consentimiento o aceptación no resuelve adecuadamente la fenomenología analizada y se plantea superar las dificultades que ello acarrea mediante la regulación legal del concepto de dolo eventual que se propone como conclusión.

Dolo eventual. Regulación legal del dolo eventual. Derecho penal

ABSTRACT

The article discusses the structure of dolus eventualis (recklessness), considering its contemporary phenomenology, and the contributions of judicial decisions and legal scholarship in Germany and Italy. Especial consideration is given to the cases of sexually transmitted diseases and the refusal of blood transfusions to children by their Jehova's Witnesses parents. It is argued that the dominant doctrine of consent or acceptance does nor adequately resolve the analyzed phenomena, and a proposal is advanced towards a legal definition of the concept of recklessness.

Penal law. Reck lessness. Legal definition of reck lessness
http://www.scielo.cl/scielo.php?pid=S0718-00122004000200003&...


Reclaiming Fundamental Principles of Criminal Law in the Darfur Case
George P. Fletcher* and Jens David Ohlin**

* Cardozo Professor of Jurisprudence, Columbia University Law School; member of the Journal 's Board of Editors; fletch@law.columbia.edu. ** Ph.D., Columbia University; J.D., Columbia University Law School; jdo18@columbia.edu.

According to the authors, the Report of the UN Commission of Inquiry on Darfur and the Security Council referral of the situation in Darfur to the International Criminal Court (ICC) bring to light two serious deficiencies of the ICC Statute and, more generally, international criminal law: (i) the systematic ambiguity between collective responsibility (i.e. the responsibility of the whole state) and criminal liability of individuals, on which current international criminal law is grounded, and (ii) the failure of the ICC Statute fully to comply with the principle of legality. The first deficiency is illustrated by highlighting the notions of genocide and genocidal intent, as well as that of joint criminal enterprise. The second is exposed by drawing attention to the uncertainties and ambiguities surrounding such notions as recklessness and dolus eventualis, and in addition to the frequent reliance in both international case law and the legal literature on...
http://jicj.oxfordjournals.org/cgi/content/abstract/3/3/539

Abstract
New Criminal Law Review
Summer 2009, Vol. 12, No. 3, Pages 433–467 , DOI 10.1525/nclr.2009.12.3.433
Posted online on November 13, 2009.
(doi:10.1525/nclr.2009.12.3.433)

Dolus Eventualis and the Rome Statute Without It?

Mohamed Elewa Badar‌



Article 30 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court provides a general definition for the mental element required to trigger the criminal responsibility of individuals for serious violations of international humanitarian law. At first sight, it appears that the explicit words of Article 30 are sufficient to put an end to a long-lasting debate regarding the mens rea enigma that has confronted the jurisprudence of the two ad hoc Tribunals for the last decade, but this is not true. Recent decisions rendered by the International Criminal Court evidence the discrepancy among the ICC Pre-Trial Chambers in interpreting the exact meaning of Article 30 of the ICC Statute. The paper challenges that dolus eventualis is one of the genuine and independent pillars of criminal responsibility that forms, on its own, the basis of intentional crimes, and suggests its inclusion in the legal standard of Article 30 of the ICC Statute.
http://caliber.ucpress.net/doi/abs/10.1525/nclr.2009.12.3.43...

According to legal scholars and traditions, mens rea can take one of three forms:

- dolus directus (direct intent), where the consequences of an action were both foreseen and desired by the perpetrator. Here, a perpetrator desires the death of a victim and foresees that a certain act will bring about the death of the victim;

- dolus indirectus (indirect intent), where secondary consequences in addition to those desired by a perpetrator of an act were foreseen by the perpetrator as a certain result, although the perpetrator did not specifically desire these secondary consequences, he still committed the act with knowledge of them; and

- dolus eventualis, where a perpetrator foresees consequences other than those directly desired as a possibility, and not necessarily a certainty, but nevertheless proceeds with a criminal act.52
http://www.unt.edu/honors/eaglefeather/2006_Issue/jung4.shtm...

--------

Estuve buscando también: hace tiempo traduje "recklessness" como dolo eventual, y ahora veo que muchos autores lo aceptan y otros encuentran que no es exactamente lo mismo.

Por eso se me ocurre que dejarlo en latín podría ser la opción más segura.

jacana54
Uruguay
Local time: 15:25
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 108

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Rosa Paredes: Muy acertado tu comentario y gracias por las referencias. Saludos.
7 hrs
  -> Gracias a ti, Rosa. Esta mañana veo la sugerencia de Flavio y es muy posible que para los EE. UU. sea eso... Saludos

agree  eski
23 hrs
  -> Gracias, Eski, buen fin de semana.

agree  Flavio Posse: Excelente!!!
1 day4 hrs
  -> Gracias, Flavio, buen fin de semana.
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11 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
oblique intent


Explanation:
compare:

1. direct intent
2. conditional intent
3. transferred malice



Example sentence(s):
  • Oblique intent: a person has oblique intent when they foresee the certainty of a consequence of their act

    Reference: http://www.proz.com/kudoz/spanish_to_english/law_general/727...
    Reference: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intention_(criminal_law)
Tom Thumb
Local time: 20:25
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 766
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11 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
constructive malice/recklessness


Explanation:
according to Alcaraz Varó's dictionary of legal terminology...

Edward Tully
Local time: 20:25
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 1578
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17 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +3
wanton disregard (for human life)


Explanation:
El equivalente en California en casos de homicidio vehicular es "Wanton disregard for human life". Si no me equivoco es uno de los elementos que la fiscalía debe probar.
Este concepto coincidiría con el ejemplo número 2.


http://www.insidesocal.com/crime/2008/05/wanton-disregard-fo...
"A Superior Court judge on Monday upheld the murder charge against Ara Grigoryan, the man charged in the July 2007 hit-and-run death of Elizabeth Sandoval. Grigoryan's defense team had sought to reduce the murder charge before going to trial, arguing that prosecutors made certain assumptions about the incident and had overblown the 20-year-old's prior driving infractions to infer a "wanton disregard" for human life -- a key finding for murder."

http://usmilitary.about.com/library/milinfo/mcm/bl118.htm
"(4) Act inherently dangerous to others.
(a) Wanton disregard of human life. Intentionally engaging in an act inherently dangerous to another—although without an intent to cause the death of or great bodily harm to any particular person, or even with a wish that death will not be caused—may also constitute murder if the act shows wanton disregard of human life. Such disregard is characterized by heedlessness of the probable consequences of the act or omission, or indifference to the likelihood of death or great bodily harm. Examples include throwing a live grenade toward another in jest or flying an aircraft very low over one or more persons to cause alarm. "

http://www.answers.com/topic/wanton-disregard
"Legal phrase used in Negligence cases to describe one person's overwhelming lack of care for the rights or well-being of another. Wanton disregard of another's rights is evidence of Gross Negligence."

Flavio Posse
United States
Local time: 11:25
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 368
Grading comment
Gracias a todos por sus excelentes propuestas especialmente a Lucia y Flavio. Esta es la reflección que me queda luego de este torbellino de ideas:

- "wanton disregard (for human life)" parece ser el equivalente exacto para el dolo eventual como se lo conoce en estas latitudes.

- "recklessnes" o algún compuesto de palabras que contenga el sema de "temeridad" parece ser el equivalente exacto para la culpa conciente.

- "dolus eventualis" es el equivalente exacto para dolo eventual pero creo que se debe recurrir a una traducción "por el origen" sólo cuando cuando todo otro método ha fallado (lo cual es muy improbable).

¡Muchas gracias y hasta la próxima!.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  jacana54: Estoy mirando el Black's Criminal Law Terms y creo que, por lo menos para los EE. UU., has dado en el clavo. Voy a copiar el texto (arriba) para fundamentar por qué creo que estás en lo cierto. Saludos.
4 hrs
  -> Es que tengo un martillo grande... Muchas gracias, Lucia.

agree  eski: Sale y vale: saludos! eski
13 hrs
  -> Muchas gracias eski. Saludos para vos también!

agree  Rosa Paredes: Excelente. Gracias.
22 hrs
  -> Muchas gracias, Rosa.
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21 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
Criminal intent


Explanation:
I think that the definitions in the Alcaraz Varó dictionary for "dolo" capture the essence of what is meant well. I would go with "criminal intent" because it gets across the meaning of deliberate or malicious motives.


    Reference: http://66.102.9.132/search?q=cache:_I3Xu98DbtIJ:legal-dictio...
Ruth Ramsey
United Kingdom
Local time: 19:25
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 184
1 corroborated select project
in this pair and field What is ProZ.com Project History(SM)?

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Flavio Posse: Criminal intent is one of the elements in first degree murder (example 1). Vehicular manslaughter (example 2) lacks intent, it's not willful or premeditated. Criminal intent is willful and often premeditated.
18 hrs
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