ProZ.com global directory of translation services
 The translation workplace
Ideas
KudoZ home » Spanish to English » Law (general)

acusación a la cual se adhirió la victima

English translation: information to which the victim joined as coparty

Login or register (free and only takes a few minutes) to participate in this question.

You will also have access to many other tools and opportunities designed for those who have language-related jobs
(or are passionate about them). Participation is free and the site has a strict confidentiality policy.
GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Spanish term or phrase:acusación a la cual se adhirió la victima
English translation:information to which the victim joined as coparty
Entered by: Sandro Tomasi
Options:
- Contribute to this entry
- Include in personal glossary

09:30 Apr 8, 2013
Spanish to English translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law (general) / Venezuelan criminal law
Spanish term or phrase: acusación a la cual se adhirió la victima
I'm having trouble understanding this phrase from the record of a preliminary hearing in a Venezuelan Criminal Court in 2004, which I am translating into US English.

"En la Audiencia Preliminar, la representación Fiscal, ratifica su pedimiento y explana la acusación pide para el imputado el enjuiciamiento, que se dicte el correspondiente AUTO de APERTURA A JUICIO y que se admitan las pruebas ofrecidas en su acusación para el Juicio Oral al imputarle el delito de Homicidio Intencional Simple, previsto y sancionado en el artículo 412 del Código Penal, ***acusación a la cual se adhirio la víctima***."

Thanks in advance.
Jenny Westwell
Spain
Local time: 18:29
information to which the victim joined as coparty
Explanation:
Since many Latin-American countries allow private prosecutors (querellantes) to prosecute alongside the prosecutor (non-existent in common-law countries), you may have to add a translator’s note (TN) about the role of a private prosecutor and when, as in the case of Venezuela, a victim is allowed to join as coparty to the prosecution. To help you with a possible TN, I provide you with the pertinent Venezuelan statues (the words based on “adherir” are in bold below).

Since acusación can be translated as accusation, prosecution or information, it was necessary for me to translate the whole paragraph in order to see how the pieces fit together in context, which I now offer you in the following:

Source Language:
En la Audiencia Preliminar, la representación Fiscal, ratifica su pedimiento y explana la acusación pide para el imputado el enjuiciamiento, que se dicte el correspondiente AUTO de APERTURA A JUICIO y que se admitan las pruebas ofrecidas en su acusación para el Juicio Oral al imputarle el delito de Homicidio Intencional Simple, previsto y sancionado en el artículo 412 del Código Penal, acusación a la cual se adhirio la víctima.

Target Language:
At the Preliminary Hearing, counsel for the prosecution, confirms (their) motion [“y explana”?] the prosecution moves to try the defendant, have the Court bind over the case for trial and have the proffered evidence in the prosecutor’s information admitted for trial purposes charging the defendant with Murder in the Second Degree, set forth and penalized in Section 412 of the Penal Code, information to which the victim joined as coparty.

Black’s Law Dictionary (9th ed.)
coparty. A litigant or participant in a legal transaction who has a like status with another party; a party on the same side of a lawsuit. Also termed joint party.

information. A formal criminal charge made by a prosecutor without a grand-jury indictment. See Fed. R. Crim. P. 7. The information is used to prosecute misdemeanors in most states, and about half the states allow its use in felony prosecutions as well.

CÓDIGO ORGÁNICO PROCESAL PENAL DE LA REPÚBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA

Artículo 120. Derechos de la víctima. Quien de acuerdo con las disposiciones de este
Código sea considerado víctima, aunque no se haya constituido como querellante, podrá
ejercer en el proceso penal los siguientes derechos:
1. Presentar querella e intervenir en el proceso conforme a lo establecido en este Código;
2. Ser informada de los resultados del proceso, aun cuando no hubiere intervenido en él;
3. Solicitar medidas de protección frente a probables atentados en contra suya o de su familia;
4. Adherirse a la acusación del Fiscal o formular una acusación particular propia contra el imputado en los delitos de acción pública; o una acusación privada en los delitos dependientes de instancia de parte;
5. Ejercer las acciones civiles con el objeto de reclamar la responsabilidad civil proveniente del hecho punible;
6. Ser notificada de la resolución del Fiscal que ordena el archivo de los recaudos;
7. Ser oída por el tribunal antes de decidir acerca del sobreseimiento o antes de dictar cualquier otra decisión que ponga término al proceso o lo suspenda condicionalmente;
8. Impugnar el sobreseimiento o la sentencia absolutoria.

Artículo 268. Absolución. Si el imputado es absuelto la totalidad de las costas corresponderá al Estado, salvo que el querellante se haya adherido a la acusación del fiscal o presentado una propia. En este caso, soportará las costas, conjuntamente con el Estado, según el porcentaje que determine el tribunal.

Artículo 297. Desistimiento. El querellante podrá desistir de su querella en cualquier momento del proceso y pagará las costas que haya ocasionado.
Se considerará que el querellante ha desistido de la querella cuando:
1. Citado a prestar declaración testimonial, no concurra sin justa causa;
2. No formule acusación particular propia o no se adhiera a la del fiscal;
3. No asista a la audiencia preliminar sin justa causa;
4. No ofrezca prueba para fundar su acusación particular propia;
5. No concurra al juicio o se ausente del lugar donde se esté efectuando, sin autorización del tribunal.
El desistimiento será declarado de oficio o a petición de cualquiera de las partes. La decisión será apelable sin que por ello se suspenda el proceso.

Artículo 327. Audiencia preliminar. Presentada la acusación el Juez convocará a las partes a una audiencia oral, que deberá realizarse dentro de un plazo no menor de diez días ni mayor de veinte.
La víctima podrá, dentro del plazo de cinco días, contados desde la notificación de la convocatoria, adherir a la acusación del Fiscal o presentar una acusación particular propia cumpliendo con los requisitos del artículo 326.
La admisión de la acusación particular propia de la víctima al término de la audiencia preliminar, le conferirá la cualidad de parte querellante en caso de no ostentarla con anterioridad por no haberse querellado previamente durante la fase preparatoria. De haberlo hecho, no podrá interponer acusación particular propia si la querella hubiere sido declarada desistida.
Selected response from:

Sandro Tomasi
Local time: 12:29
Grading comment
Thanks to everybody for their contributions, all of which helped to solve the puzzle, but Sandro's answer was the most useful. In the end I used "to which the victim joined as coparty" with a TN explaining that "The Venezuelan Criminal Procedure Code allows the victim —or, as in this case, the victim’s estate— to privately prosecute the defendant alongside the public prosecutor. "
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +1information to which the victim joined as copartySandro Tomasi
5accusation to which the victim joined in
Billh
4accusation adhered to by the victim
Trad Siniestros
3indictment joined in by the (estate of) the victim
Tom Thumb
3an accusation which was supported / corroborated by the victim
Charles Davis


Discussion entries: 3





  

Answers


1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
accusation adhered to by the victim


Explanation:
Me gusta más "adhere to" que join

Trad Siniestros
Spain
Local time: 18:29
Works in field
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 4

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Billh: Not a term we would use in legal English.
8 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

2 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
an accusation which was supported / corroborated by the victim


Explanation:
I looked at this earlier and couldn't make sense of it, and wondered if it might have been a case of attempted homicide. After all, if the victim is dead, you would have thought he/she is not in a position to "adherirse".

But your further context makes it clear that the victim is indeed dead; it was an actual homicide. So unless the "víctima" refers to someone other than the person attacked and killed (and that doesn't seem possible), I can only assume "se adhirió" must refer to what the victim said before he/she died. In other words, the victim was struck on the head and subsequently died, but in the interim said something which supports the charge that has been laid.

Article 412 of the Venezuelan Criminal Code is about intent to wound but not kill:

"Artículo 412.- El que con actos dirigidos a ocasionar una lesión personal, causare la muerte de alguno, será castigado con presidio de seis a ocho años, en el caso del Artículo 407; de ocho a doce años, en el caso de Artículo 408; y de siete a diez años, en el caso del Artículo 409.
Si la muerte no habría sobrevenido sin el concurso de circunstancias preexistentes desconocidas del culpable, o de causas imprevistas o independientes de su hecho, la pena será la de presidio de cuatro a seis años, en el caso del artículo 407; se seis a nueve años, en el caso del artículo 408; y de cinco a siete años, en el caso del artículo 409."
http://www.oas.org/juridico/spanish/mesicic3_ven_anexo6.pdf

I am not entirely happy about interpreting "adherirse" as "support" or "corroborate", which is a bit forced, but I don't see any rational alternative.

What is crucial and supports my reading, I think, is that the paragraph is in the present tense but "se adhirió" is in the preterite. If the victim were party to the prosecution (which I think is impossible in principle anyway), it would surely be "se adhiere" o "se ha adherido". "Se adhirió" indicates that this refers to something that happened previously.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2 hrs (2013-04-08 12:10:13 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

By the way, I think you must have an indefinite article before "accusation". This, if I remember right, is called apposition.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2 hrs (2013-04-08 12:11:35 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

(And with great respect to my friend Billh, I think you join in with something, rather than to something, and I don't think you can join in with or to an accusation.)

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 3 hrs (2013-04-08 13:10:20 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Oh dear! This gets stranger all the time. So the prosecutor says the person accused of homicide found the victim already dead? It's very strangely expressed. I'm sorry, but I'm stumped here.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 4 hrs (2013-04-08 14:06:14 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

I suppose it could mean people acting in the name of the victim (widow, family, legal representative).

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 6 hrs (2013-04-08 16:02:18 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

The past tense is probably not a problem; it just means that this action took place at some point prior to this. I have found examples of "la víctima se adhirió a la acusación" in Venezuela, and it seems to mean that the victim of a crime (or someone acting on the victim's behalf) instituted a private prosecution in conjunction with the public prosecution. This can't happen in the UK, as far as I'm aware, but it is like the "acusación particular" that you quite often get in criminal cases in Spain.

Charles Davis
Spain
Local time: 18:29
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 892
Notes to answerer
Asker: Thank you for this thoughtful answer, Charles, especially the very helpful link. The only problem with this reading is that, earlier in the same document, we get this: "Según la versión fiscal, [...] el aquí acusado [...] se encontró [sic] el cadáver de una persona del sexo masculino, a quien le fue dada una pedrada para despojarlo de sus pertinencias". This dead body turned out to be the body of the murder victim, suggesting he had been killed in the act.

Asker: As you say, very strange! Your last idea is interesting, though. I initially wondered if it could mean that the public prosecutor acts on behalf of the victim - but then there's that past tense that you point out, and the fact that the public prosecutor actually represents society as a whole and not specifically the victim. I'm not sure where to go from here! Thanks again :)

Asker: Yes, I found these examples, too: it seems to be fairly exclusive to Venezuela. Your explanation at least makes sense of it and I guess we have to assume that "la víctima" actually means a party representing the victim. In the end I have gone with "supported by the victim": many thanks, Charles :)


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Billh: See my explanation. It's not a case of corroboration but of becoming a prosecuting party. I'm trying to be obnoxious.
6 hrs
  -> Well, you'll have to try harder than that :) I agree, but I didn't see how a dead person could become a prosecuting party, and unfortunately you didn't address that point in your brief initial explanation, so I ventured a hypothesis.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5
accusation to which the victim joined in


Explanation:
ya

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 9 hrs (2013-04-08 18:53:49 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

To answer your question, in the Hispanic system accusations/prosecutions can be brought by private parties and/or public prosecutors. Joining in the accusation means effectively becoming a prosecution party in the process.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 9 hrs (2013-04-08 18:54:59 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

In English we would not say adhere, I don't think.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 9 hrs (2013-04-08 18:59:14 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

[PDF]
STATE OF MICHIGAN COURT OF APPEALS - Justia
statecasefiles.justia.com/.../20000530_C215237(0048)_215237.OPN....
File Format: PDF/Adobe Acrobat - Quick View
May 30, 2000 – County, prosecutors from both Ingham and Eaton Counties joined in the prosecution. MCL 767.24;. MSA 28.964 provides that the indictment for ...


US Settles Complaint Against Wisconsin Livestock Company for
www.justice.gov › Briefing Room
Jun 26, 2012 – The U.S. Attorney's Office for the Eastern District of Wisconsin joined in the prosecution of the matter. A complaint is merely a set of allegations ...

Henry T. King Jr., Prosecutor at Nuremberg, Dies at 89 - Obituary ...
www.nytimes.com/2009/05/12/us/12king.html
May 12, 2009 – In 1945 and 1946, the United States, Britain, France and the Soviet Union had joined in the prosecution of 21 Nazi officials. Among them were ...

*************

As you can see, to join in the prosecution is pretty standard legal English although non-English speakers may find the term strange.......

Billh
Local time: 17:29
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 867
Notes to answerer
Asker: Oh, this is great stuff. Now I understand your answer! Many thanks for this. It still seems very strange that a dead man should be joining in the prosecution, but I suppose we have to assume the text refers to a party acting on his behalf. :)

Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

12 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +1
information to which the victim joined as coparty


Explanation:
Since many Latin-American countries allow private prosecutors (querellantes) to prosecute alongside the prosecutor (non-existent in common-law countries), you may have to add a translator’s note (TN) about the role of a private prosecutor and when, as in the case of Venezuela, a victim is allowed to join as coparty to the prosecution. To help you with a possible TN, I provide you with the pertinent Venezuelan statues (the words based on “adherir” are in bold below).

Since acusación can be translated as accusation, prosecution or information, it was necessary for me to translate the whole paragraph in order to see how the pieces fit together in context, which I now offer you in the following:

Source Language:
En la Audiencia Preliminar, la representación Fiscal, ratifica su pedimiento y explana la acusación pide para el imputado el enjuiciamiento, que se dicte el correspondiente AUTO de APERTURA A JUICIO y que se admitan las pruebas ofrecidas en su acusación para el Juicio Oral al imputarle el delito de Homicidio Intencional Simple, previsto y sancionado en el artículo 412 del Código Penal, acusación a la cual se adhirio la víctima.

Target Language:
At the Preliminary Hearing, counsel for the prosecution, confirms (their) motion [“y explana”?] the prosecution moves to try the defendant, have the Court bind over the case for trial and have the proffered evidence in the prosecutor’s information admitted for trial purposes charging the defendant with Murder in the Second Degree, set forth and penalized in Section 412 of the Penal Code, information to which the victim joined as coparty.

Black’s Law Dictionary (9th ed.)
coparty. A litigant or participant in a legal transaction who has a like status with another party; a party on the same side of a lawsuit. Also termed joint party.

information. A formal criminal charge made by a prosecutor without a grand-jury indictment. See Fed. R. Crim. P. 7. The information is used to prosecute misdemeanors in most states, and about half the states allow its use in felony prosecutions as well.

CÓDIGO ORGÁNICO PROCESAL PENAL DE LA REPÚBLICA BOLIVARIANA DE VENEZUELA

Artículo 120. Derechos de la víctima. Quien de acuerdo con las disposiciones de este
Código sea considerado víctima, aunque no se haya constituido como querellante, podrá
ejercer en el proceso penal los siguientes derechos:
1. Presentar querella e intervenir en el proceso conforme a lo establecido en este Código;
2. Ser informada de los resultados del proceso, aun cuando no hubiere intervenido en él;
3. Solicitar medidas de protección frente a probables atentados en contra suya o de su familia;
4. Adherirse a la acusación del Fiscal o formular una acusación particular propia contra el imputado en los delitos de acción pública; o una acusación privada en los delitos dependientes de instancia de parte;
5. Ejercer las acciones civiles con el objeto de reclamar la responsabilidad civil proveniente del hecho punible;
6. Ser notificada de la resolución del Fiscal que ordena el archivo de los recaudos;
7. Ser oída por el tribunal antes de decidir acerca del sobreseimiento o antes de dictar cualquier otra decisión que ponga término al proceso o lo suspenda condicionalmente;
8. Impugnar el sobreseimiento o la sentencia absolutoria.

Artículo 268. Absolución. Si el imputado es absuelto la totalidad de las costas corresponderá al Estado, salvo que el querellante se haya adherido a la acusación del fiscal o presentado una propia. En este caso, soportará las costas, conjuntamente con el Estado, según el porcentaje que determine el tribunal.

Artículo 297. Desistimiento. El querellante podrá desistir de su querella en cualquier momento del proceso y pagará las costas que haya ocasionado.
Se considerará que el querellante ha desistido de la querella cuando:
1. Citado a prestar declaración testimonial, no concurra sin justa causa;
2. No formule acusación particular propia o no se adhiera a la del fiscal;
3. No asista a la audiencia preliminar sin justa causa;
4. No ofrezca prueba para fundar su acusación particular propia;
5. No concurra al juicio o se ausente del lugar donde se esté efectuando, sin autorización del tribunal.
El desistimiento será declarado de oficio o a petición de cualquiera de las partes. La decisión será apelable sin que por ello se suspenda el proceso.

Artículo 327. Audiencia preliminar. Presentada la acusación el Juez convocará a las partes a una audiencia oral, que deberá realizarse dentro de un plazo no menor de diez días ni mayor de veinte.
La víctima podrá, dentro del plazo de cinco días, contados desde la notificación de la convocatoria, adherir a la acusación del Fiscal o presentar una acusación particular propia cumpliendo con los requisitos del artículo 326.
La admisión de la acusación particular propia de la víctima al término de la audiencia preliminar, le conferirá la cualidad de parte querellante en caso de no ostentarla con anterioridad por no haberse querellado previamente durante la fase preparatoria. De haberlo hecho, no podrá interponer acusación particular propia si la querella hubiere sido declarada desistida.

Sandro Tomasi
Local time: 12:29
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 313
Grading comment
Thanks to everybody for their contributions, all of which helped to solve the puzzle, but Sandro's answer was the most useful. In the end I used "to which the victim joined as coparty" with a TN explaining that "The Venezuelan Criminal Procedure Code allows the victim —or, as in this case, the victim’s estate— to privately prosecute the defendant alongside the public prosecutor. "
Notes to answerer
Asker: Very, very informative, thank you, Sandro. :)

Asker: Thanks again for such a comprehensive answer, Sandro. I've been looking at your dictionary with great interest and plan to invest in it very soon (unfortunately shipping to Spain doubles the price). :)


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Edward Tully: For the US, as stated by the asker
3 days4 mins
  -> Thank you, Edward.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

13 hrs   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5
indictment joined in by the (estate of) the victim


Explanation:
I'm surprised no one is picking up on the indictment point or, from the UK, has mentioned the Fatal Accidents Act 1976.

I agree, though,with Sandro T. that, as in the US, an information or several informatrions in the plural can be 'laid'.

The US films 'The Paper Chase ' and 'Legally Blond' featuring the Socratic method of teaching law at Harvard University: Lecturer picking on a student >'How can a dead person claim damages or jointly prosecute the offender?'. Answer:' the victim's estate can'.






--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 22 hrs (2013-04-09 08:10:29 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Indictment and indictable'offenses' are also US law terms (Barron's). Also remember the term from the legendary US TV series Perry Mason.

Example sentence(s):
  • An indictment in the common law system, is a formal accusation that a person has committed a crime en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indictment
  • The Fatal Accidents Act 1976 (c 30) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom, that allows relatives of people killed by the wrongdoing of others to recover damages.
Tom Thumb
Local time: 18:29
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 766
Notes to answerer
Asker: The translation is for the US, but thank you for this, Tom, and for reminding me of 'The Paper Chase', which I used to love! Must get hold of a copy...


Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Sandro Tomasi: I've used the acusación>indictment xlation b4. Only prob. I hv is that in US an ind. issued by grand jury, whereas information issued by prosecutor. Is it the same in UK? // Yes, prsctr sbmts bill of indictmt. to GJ; GJ foreperson signs ind. if true bill.
15 hrs
  -> R U sure about the issue BY a US grand jury? Barron's: 'formal written accusation... submitted TO a grand jury by the public prosecuting attorney...' No such thing as a grand jury in UK & arraignment means taking a plea. Information goes to Magistrate.
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




Return to KudoZ list


Changes made by editors
Apr 13, 2013 - Changes made by Sandro Tomasi:
Created KOG entryKudoZ term » KOG term


KudoZ™ translation help
The KudoZ network provides a framework for translators and others to assist each other with translations or explanations of terms and short phrases.



See also: