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doctrina de la comisión por omisión.

English translation: doctrine of commission by omission

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11:10 Jun 27, 2013
Spanish to English translations [PRO]
Law/Patents - Law (general) / criminal trial
Spanish term or phrase: doctrina de la comisión por omisión.
El delito puede ser cometido mediante dolo directo, o de primer grado, o, por dolo indirecto, eventual o de segundo grado, siendo en este último caso relevante la posición de garante de los familiares más directos de la menor o menores víctimas de la ablación acudiendo, inclusive, a la doctrina de la comisión por omisión.

seems to be talking about failure to act, but can I put doctrine of the commission for failing to act?
twakely
Local time: 21:47
English translation:doctrine of commission by omission
Explanation:
It's actually very literal

'Duty to Act'and'Commission by Omission'in International Criminal Law
www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mnp/icla/2010/00000010/.../a...
by LC Berster - 2010 - Cited by 1 - Related articles
Oct 1, 2010 – Abstract: Whether a general rule on omission exists in international criminal law has long been fraught with controversy. It has recently met with ...
Omission and commission in judgment and choice
www.sas.upenn.edu/~baron/papers.htm/oc.html

Abstract. Subjects read scenarios concerning pairs of options. One option was an omission, the other, a commission. Intentions, motives, and consequences ...
Art. 11 1. Felonies and misdemeanours. / Commission by omission
www.admin.ch › ... › Swiss Legislation › SR 311.0 Swiss Criminal Code‎

Commission by omission. 1 A felony or misdemeanour may also be committed by a failure to comply with a duty to act. 2 A person fails to comply with a duty to ...

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Note added at 1 hr (2013-06-27 12:36:47 GMT)
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LexisNexis(TM) Academic - Document
org.elon.edu/justice/fire/murphybenef.htm‎
... be the basis of a prosecution for manslaughter by way of the doctrine of commission by omission. n33 An example of commission by way of failure to perform

Mass Atrocity, Ordinary Evil, and Hannah Arendt: Criminal ... - Page 86 - Google Books Result
books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=0300087535
Mark Osiel - 2001 - Law
Through the doctrine of “commission by omission,” incompetent supervision of one's subordinate exposes one to liability for his acts.163All officers have a legal ...
Selected response from:

Billh
Local time: 20:47
Grading comment
Yes, thanks Bill and that should be the last question for the time being.
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer



Summary of answers provided
5 +2principle that omission under a legal duty constitutes active commissionRebecca Jowers
4 +2doctrine of commission by omission
Billh
4 -1doctrine of acting by omission
kittilina


  

Answers


1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +2
doctrine of commission by omission


Explanation:
It's actually very literal

'Duty to Act'and'Commission by Omission'in International Criminal Law
www.ingentaconnect.com/content/mnp/icla/2010/00000010/.../a...
by LC Berster - 2010 - Cited by 1 - Related articles
Oct 1, 2010 – Abstract: Whether a general rule on omission exists in international criminal law has long been fraught with controversy. It has recently met with ...
Omission and commission in judgment and choice
www.sas.upenn.edu/~baron/papers.htm/oc.html

Abstract. Subjects read scenarios concerning pairs of options. One option was an omission, the other, a commission. Intentions, motives, and consequences ...
Art. 11 1. Felonies and misdemeanours. / Commission by omission
www.admin.ch › ... › Swiss Legislation › SR 311.0 Swiss Criminal Code‎

Commission by omission. 1 A felony or misdemeanour may also be committed by a failure to comply with a duty to act. 2 A person fails to comply with a duty to ...

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2013-06-27 12:36:47 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

LexisNexis(TM) Academic - Document
org.elon.edu/justice/fire/murphybenef.htm‎
... be the basis of a prosecution for manslaughter by way of the doctrine of commission by omission. n33 An example of commission by way of failure to perform

Mass Atrocity, Ordinary Evil, and Hannah Arendt: Criminal ... - Page 86 - Google Books Result
books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=0300087535
Mark Osiel - 2001 - Law
Through the doctrine of “commission by omission,” incompetent supervision of one's subordinate exposes one to liability for his acts.163All officers have a legal ...

Billh
Local time: 20:47
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 867
Grading comment
Yes, thanks Bill and that should be the last question for the time being.

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  AllegroTrans
5 hrs
  -> Thanks AT.

agree  Sandro Tomasi: commission by omission principle
7 hrs
  -> Yes, thanks Sandro. It's a frase hecha.
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18 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): -1
doctrine of acting by omission


Explanation:
It's a legal term, where omitting to act which causes damages is considered to be on equal terms with an act causing damages. (In negligence and tort)

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Note added at 1 hr (2013-06-27 12:48:41 GMT)
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Dolo is translated variously as wilful misconduct (eur-lex), intent (d-access) and many times as gross negligence. See also http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Omission_(criminal_law). I agree my reference to tort was misleading, sorry about that.

kittilina
Spain
Local time: 21:47
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 109

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  Billh: This is a criminal case, nothing to do with negligence or tort.....// Dolo is not negligence.
40 mins
  -> I know it says it is a criminal case, but I took it in context, dolo is negligence. Negligence can also be criminal.

neutral  AllegroTrans: it's not about "acting" (civil law) but about "committing" offences
6 hrs
  -> Yes, I agree it's "committing" not acting. Must have been having a bad day....

disagree  Rosa Paredes: I think you are confusing terms. Dolo is not negligence (?)
19 hrs
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1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +2
principle that omission under a legal duty constitutes active commission


Explanation:
(not an easy concept to translate)

In criminal theory in Spain crimes may be classified (among other ways) according to the perpetrator's conduct. There are three classifications:

--delito de acción; delito activo; delito comisivo (crime of commission; act of commission; positive/affirmative act)

--delito de omisión--crime of omission; act of omission; negative act (perhaps the criminal law counterpart of the failure to act tort)

--delito de comisión por omisión--crime of commission by omission; defined as the commission of a crime by failure to advert a harm when there was a legal duty to do so. In this case the omission (failure to act) is tantamount to having actively committed a crime

An example that is used in textbooks is a mother who fails to feed a baby who subsequently starves to death. Under Spanish law this would be a form homicide.

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Note added at 2 hrs (2013-06-27 13:16:38 GMT)
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The idea expressed here is that there are many ways to commit a crime, and failure to prevent the ablation on the part of the parents or closest relatives (i.e., people in a "posición de garante") may be construed as tantamount to having performed the ablation/committed the crime.

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Note added at 11 hrs (2013-06-27 22:40:21 GMT)
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As AllegroTrans has suggested, concepts such as "duty to act", "legal duty," etc. may suggest civil law scenarios, but they are also principal elements of the definition of "delitos comisión por omisión" Here are some definitions:

Los delitos o faltas que consistan en la producción de un resultado sólo se entenderán cometidos por omisión cuando la no evitación del mismo, al infringir un especial DEBER JURÍDICO (= LEGAL DUTY) del autor, equivalga, según el sentido del texto de la Ley, a su causación. A tal efecto se equiparará la omisión a la acción: (a) cuando exista una específica OBLIGACIÓN LEGAL o contractual DE ACTUAR (= LEGAL DUTY TO ACT). (b) cuando el omitente haya creado una ocasión de riesgo para el bien jurídicamente protegido mediante una acción u omisión precedente.
(Article 11, Spanish Criminal Code)

Igual que en la omisión pura, en la comisión por omisión se exige que concurra una situación en la que el ordenamiento impone el DEBER DE ACTUAR (=LEGAL DUTY TO ACT).
http://www.unav.es/penal/crimina/topicos/comisionporomision....

Los requisitos del delito de comisión por omisión son: a) la producción de un resultado típico; b) la ausencia de la ACCIÓN determinada que le era EXIGIDA al agente (= DUTY TO ACT); c) la capacidad del omitente de realizar voluntariamente la acción que hubiera podido evitar la producción del resultado; y d) la posición del garante del omitente, que ha de nacer, bien de una OBLIGACIÓN LEGAL o contractual DE ACTUAR (= LEGAL DUTY TO ACT), bien de una ocasión de riesgo creado por el omitente.
(Diccionario Jurídico Aranzadi, 2004).

(Good explanation in non-technical language):
Los delitos o faltas que consistan en la producción de un resultado se podrán entender cometidos por omisión gracias a la figura de la comisión por omisión, también conocida como omisión impropia, recogida en el artículo 11 del Código Penal. ¿En qué consiste esta construcción jurídica? Esto quiere decir, que el hecho de no hacer algo y que como consecuencia de esa omisión se produzca, por no haberlo evitado, un resultado considerado como delito o falta, será tratado como si la persona que hubiese realizado la omisión, realmente hubiese producido el resultado a través de una conducta activa.
Esta equiparación entre la omisión y la acción no se produce en todos los casos en los que no hay una evitación del resultado que se produce, sino que sólo se da en el supuesto de que la persona que no evita el resultado tuviese un DEBER JURÍDICO (=LEGAL DUTY) de evitarlo. El hecho de tener ese DEBER JURÍDICO coloca al sujeto en lo que se conoce como posición de garante, es decir, en la OBLIGACIÓN JURÍDICA DE ACTUAR (=LEGAL DUTY TO ACT) en esa circunstancia con el fin de evitar el resultado.
http://queaprendemoshoy.com/la-comision-por-omision/


Rebecca Jowers
Spain
Local time: 21:47
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 1792

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
neutral  AllegroTrans: "omission under a legal duty" strikes me as a civil law concept, this is about criminal law where it is possible to commit a crime by omitting to do something
6 hrs
  -> Those unfamiliar with the peculiar Spanish criminal law construct of crimes of "comission by omission" might indeed mistake this for a civil law concept. The definition is pretty clear in my initial entry, but just in case I'll post a few others.

agree  jacana54: Esta sin duda es la explicación perfecta. La posición de garante.
11 hrs
  -> Gracias Lucía, me encanta tener la opinión de una abogada y sé que éste concepto es lo mismo en Uruguay que en España.

agree  Rosa Paredes
17 hrs
  -> Gracias Rosa
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