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proyectivas

English translation: projective tests

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Spanish term or phrase:proyectivas
English translation:projective tests
Entered by: Suzanne Couture
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07:46 May 25, 2002
Spanish to English translations [PRO]
Medical
Spanish term or phrase: proyectivas
"También se evaluó su personalidad a través de pruebas proyectivas."
Suzanne Couture
United States
Local time: 08:30
PROJECTIVE TESTS
Explanation:
A Cognitive-Perceptual Analysis of Projective Tests in Children

There are both general and specific problems with projective tests—the production, comprehension, and interpretation of two-dimensional visual representations. At the general level, there is a need to integrate findings from the neuro- and cognitive sciences; cognitive, perceptual, and affective development; and the understanding and interpretation of pictorial material based on the accumulated research base in the arts. At the specific level, much of the research base on projective tests is poor or outdated, the evidence for clinical utility is mixed or negative, and the tests themselves possess poor reliability and validity while the putative underlying psychological process of “projection” has not been subject to rigorous empirical examination—the term remains vague and elusive. While earlier critiques and reviews have focused on problems in validity and reliability, there has been a lack of attention to the development of children's pictorial abilities as pertains to projective techniques. Although many of the principles delineated here also apply to adolescent and adults, the article challenges clinicians to develop and employ better methods in the “projective” assessment of children.


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Note added at 2002-05-25 08:01:05 (GMT)
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The best known projective psychological test is the Rorschach, or inkblot test. The patient is asked to look at each blot and to say what it looks like or what it could be. Because the stimulus is ambiguous, the patient must impose his or her own structure. In doing so, thoughts, feelings, and themes, some of which are unconscious, are projected into the material. Projective tests tend to have lower validity and reliability than objective tests. That is, they are less stable, and have lower relationships with other criteria. However, the information which they provide tends to be richer and more varied.

The Rorschach test is particularly useful for detecting the types of disordered thought patterns seen in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The scoring of this test takes into account the popularity of the patient\'s responses, the content of the responses, whether the figures are seen as moving or stationary, response complexity, whether color or shading is used, and other factors. As with most tests, there are no single responses which are seen as necessarily pathological. Response frequencies and ratios are compared to normal and abnormal averages to determine if pathology or a particular tendency is present.

Other projective tests include the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), in which the patient tells stories about pictures, the Sentence Completion test, Draw-A-Person, and House-Tree-Person. The TAT is often used in a test battery in conjunction with the Rorschach. The TAT provides information about important themes in a person\'s life or the content of their thinking, whereas the Rorschach provides information about the process and form of a person\'s thoughts.

Selected response from:

Maria Luisa Duarte
Spain
Local time: 15:30
Grading comment
Thanks again! Your explanations are outstanding!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4PROJECTIVE TESTS
Maria Luisa Duarte


  

Answers


12 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
PROJECTIVE TESTS


Explanation:
A Cognitive-Perceptual Analysis of Projective Tests in Children

There are both general and specific problems with projective tests—the production, comprehension, and interpretation of two-dimensional visual representations. At the general level, there is a need to integrate findings from the neuro- and cognitive sciences; cognitive, perceptual, and affective development; and the understanding and interpretation of pictorial material based on the accumulated research base in the arts. At the specific level, much of the research base on projective tests is poor or outdated, the evidence for clinical utility is mixed or negative, and the tests themselves possess poor reliability and validity while the putative underlying psychological process of “projection” has not been subject to rigorous empirical examination—the term remains vague and elusive. While earlier critiques and reviews have focused on problems in validity and reliability, there has been a lack of attention to the development of children's pictorial abilities as pertains to projective techniques. Although many of the principles delineated here also apply to adolescent and adults, the article challenges clinicians to develop and employ better methods in the “projective” assessment of children.


--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2002-05-25 08:01:05 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

The best known projective psychological test is the Rorschach, or inkblot test. The patient is asked to look at each blot and to say what it looks like or what it could be. Because the stimulus is ambiguous, the patient must impose his or her own structure. In doing so, thoughts, feelings, and themes, some of which are unconscious, are projected into the material. Projective tests tend to have lower validity and reliability than objective tests. That is, they are less stable, and have lower relationships with other criteria. However, the information which they provide tends to be richer and more varied.

The Rorschach test is particularly useful for detecting the types of disordered thought patterns seen in schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. The scoring of this test takes into account the popularity of the patient\'s responses, the content of the responses, whether the figures are seen as moving or stationary, response complexity, whether color or shading is used, and other factors. As with most tests, there are no single responses which are seen as necessarily pathological. Response frequencies and ratios are compared to normal and abnormal averages to determine if pathology or a particular tendency is present.

Other projective tests include the Thematic Apperception Test (TAT), in which the patient tells stories about pictures, the Sentence Completion test, Draw-A-Person, and House-Tree-Person. The TAT is often used in a test battery in conjunction with the Rorschach. The TAT provides information about important themes in a person\'s life or the content of their thinking, whereas the Rorschach provides information about the process and form of a person\'s thoughts.



Maria Luisa Duarte
Spain
Local time: 15:30
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in PortuguesePortuguese
PRO pts in pair: 3168
Grading comment
Thanks again! Your explanations are outstanding!
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