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El episodio representa un cambio del funcionamiento anterior

English translation: The episode represents a change in previous functioning

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Spanish term or phrase:El episodio representa un cambio del funcionamiento anterior
English translation:The episode represents a change in previous functioning
Entered by: Adam Burman
Options:
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19:44 Oct 22, 2006
Spanish to English translations [PRO]
Medical - Medical (general) / Research report for new drug
Spanish term or phrase: El episodio representa un cambio del funcionamiento anterior
El episodio representa un cambio del funcionamiento anterior y también debe incluir no menos de 4 de los síntomas que se indican a continuación:

cambio significativo en el peso y/o en el apetito, insomnio o hipersomnio, agitación
Adam Burman
United Kingdom
Local time: 04:57
The episode represents a change in previous functioning
Explanation:
Thanks:-)

El episodio representa un cambio del funcionamiento anterior y también debe incluir no menos de 4 de los síntomas que se indican a continuación:

cambio significativo en el peso y/o en el apetito, insomnio o hipersomnio, agitación

The episode represents a change in previous functioning and there should also be evidence of at least 4 of the following symptoms....

Although teh "functioning" is a bit weird, I think they are saying that there has been a change in how a person previously "functioned"

The episode referred to is "depressive episode"

Psych Central: Major Depressive Episode Symptoms
Symptoms of a major depressive episode for clinical depression, dysthymic disorder, major depression and mood disorder.
psychcentral.com/disorders/sx5.htm - 19k - Cached - Similar pages

Major Depressive Episode
Fifth Digit Severity Code for Major Depressive Episode. ... All the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode have been met without interruption for the ...
www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/major_depression.htm - 50k - Cached - Similar pages

Mood Episodes
No Major Depressive Episode has been present during the first 2 years of the ... Note: There may have been a previous Major Depressive Episode provided ...
www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/dysthymic_cyclothymic_episodes.h... - 28k - Cached - Similar pages

Major Depressive Episode: DSM IV Diagnosis
Depression - major depressive episode- DSM IV Diagnosis.
www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm - 19k - Cached - Similar pages

All About Depression: Diagnosis: Major Depressive Disorder
Of those who have had a single major depressive episode, 50%-60% may develop a ... B. Another disorder does not better explain the major depressive episode. ...
www.allaboutdepression.com/dia_03.html - 30k - Cached - Similar pages

Depressions-Diagnosen - [ Translate this page ]
Abhängig von Anzahl und Schwere der Symptome ist eine depressive Episode als ... depressive Episode in Verbindung mit Störungen des Sozialverhaltens (F91. ...
www.dr-mueck.de/HM_Depression/HM_Depressions-Diagnosen.htm - 37k - Cached - Similar pages

Symptoms of a Depressive Episode
List of symptoms of a depressive episode. ... Signs and symptoms of depression (or a depressive episode) include:. Lasting sad, anxious, or empty mood ...
web4health.info/en/bipolar-sym-depepis.htm - 20k - Cached - Similar pages

Major Depressive Episode Symptoms

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2006-10-22 21:26:45 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

FUNCTIONING is OK. See here (it's "language of teh domain"):

Major Depressive Episode
Unless the symptoms are severe (defined as severely impaired functioning, ... All the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode have been met without ...
www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/major_depression.htm - 50k - Cached - Similar pages

Functioning after a major depressive episode: complete or ...
The goal of this study is to examine(1) whether functioning returns to pre-morbid levels after a major depressive episode(MDE),(2) predictors of incomplete ...
cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16322102 - Similar pages

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2006-10-22 21:31:22 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Hi Adam, I mentioned eslewhere about background reading. This will illustrate why: http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/dysthymic_cyclothymic_epis...

Disorders are usually described in very specific terms and doctors and scientists are REQUIRED to adhere to this language, in teh interest of scientific exactidue, comparability etc.

This, the "language of the domain" that you need, which is all over the web, in guidelines such as this one (the only thing you should do is doublecheck that teh sites are credible ones).

Mood Episodes - use "Back Button" to return to original page.

| Major | Manic | Mixed | Hypomanic |

Depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, as indicated either by subjective account or observation by others, for at least 2 years. Note: In children and adolescents, mood can be irritable and duration must be at least 1 year.

Presence, while depressed, of two (or more) of the following:

Poor appetite or overeating.
Insomnia or hypersomnia.
Low energy or fatigue.
Low self-esteem.
Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions.
Feelings of hopelessness.
Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day.

During the 2-year period (1 year for children or adolescents) of the disturbance, the person has never been without the symptoms in Criteria A and B for more than 2 months at a time.

No Major Depressive Episode has been present during the first 2 years of the disturbance (1 year for children and adolescents); i.e., the disturbance is not better accounted for by chronic Major Depressive Disorder, or Major Depressive Disorder, In Partial Remission.

Note: There may have been a previous Major Depressive Episode provided there was a full remission (no significant signs or symptoms for 2 months) before development of the Dysthymic Disorder. In addition, after the initial 2 years (1 year in children or adolescents) of Dysthymic Disorder, there may be superimposed episodes of Major Depressive Disorder, in which case both diagnoses may be given when the criteria are met for a Major Depressive Episode.

There has never been a Manic Episode, a Mixed Episode, or a Hypomanic Episode, and criteria have never been met for Cyclothymic Disorder.

The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a chronic Psychotic Disorder, such as Schizophrenia or Delusional Disorder.

The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., hypothyroidism).

The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Major Depressive Episode:

Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

Note: Do not include symptoms that are clearly due to a general medical condition, or mood-incongruent delusions or hallucinations.

Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad or empty) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.

Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation made by others).

Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day. Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gains.

Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.

Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).

Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.

Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).

Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others).

Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

The symptoms do not meet criteria for a Mixed Episode

The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., hypothyroidism).

The symptoms are not better accounted for by Bereavement, i.e., after the loss of a loved one, the symptoms persist for longer than 2 months or are characterized by marked functional impairment, morbid preoccupation with worthlessness, suicidal ideation, psychotic symptoms, or psychomotor retardation.

Manic Episode:

A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least 1 week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary).

During the period of mood disturbance, three (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree:

Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.

Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).

More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.

Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.

Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).

Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.

Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli).

Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation.

Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments)

The symptoms do not meet criteria for a Mixed Episode

The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.

The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, or other treatment) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism).

Mixed Episode:

The criteria are met both for a Manic Episode and for a Major Depressive Episode (except for duration) nearly every day during at least a 1-week period.

The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.

The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, or other treatment) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism).

Hypomanic Episode:

A distinct period of persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting throughout at least 4 days, that is clearly different from the usual nondepressed mood.

During the period of mood disturbance, three (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree:

Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.

Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).

More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.

Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.

Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli).

Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation.

Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., the person engages in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments).

The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is
uncharacteristic of the person when not symptomatic.

The disturbance in mood and the change in functioning are observable by others.

The episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning, or to necessitate hospitalization, and there are no psychotic features.

The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, or other treatment) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism).

Selected response from:

xxxLia Fail
Spain
Local time: 05:57
Grading comment
Again - thanks Lia!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
4 +3The episode represents a change in previous functioningxxxLia Fail
3 +2The episode represents a change from the previous performance
Roxanna Delgado
4The episode represents an alteration in the functioning
Carol Gullidge


Discussion entries: 3





  

Answers


41 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5
The episode represents an alteration in the functioning


Explanation:
any change/alteration implies a change from the previous situation

Carol Gullidge
United Kingdom
Local time: 04:57
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 57
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

4 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 3/5Answerer confidence 3/5 peer agreement (net): +2
The episode represents a change from the previous performance


Explanation:
El español en que está escrito este documento es un poco confuso, no?

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 7 mins (2006-10-22 19:51:44 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Perdón, permiteme corregirme. en vez de 'episode", deberia haber usado "event" para este contexto.

The event represents a change from the previous performance.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 9 mins (2006-10-22 19:53:49 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

También podría usarse "status" en lugar de "performance".
De nuevo, esto se me ocurre luego de pensar un poco más en lo que diría el documento en español si estuviese mejor redactado.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2006-10-22 21:04:17 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

thanks Lia for asking about context. After Adam's answer, I'll keep my original answer with "episode" since it's obviously referring to the "depressive episode".

Roxanna Delgado
United States
Local time: 23:57
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in SpanishSpanish
PRO pts in category: 315

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Javier Perez:
18 mins
  -> Gracias de nuevo Javier.

agree  Sp-EnTranslator: De acuerdo con event, y también con status, pero no necesariamente, quizás pudiera ser output, ¿o no?
1 hr
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)

1 hr   confidence: Answerer confidence 4/5Answerer confidence 4/5 peer agreement (net): +3
The episode represents a change in previous functioning


Explanation:
Thanks:-)

El episodio representa un cambio del funcionamiento anterior y también debe incluir no menos de 4 de los síntomas que se indican a continuación:

cambio significativo en el peso y/o en el apetito, insomnio o hipersomnio, agitación

The episode represents a change in previous functioning and there should also be evidence of at least 4 of the following symptoms....

Although teh "functioning" is a bit weird, I think they are saying that there has been a change in how a person previously "functioned"

The episode referred to is "depressive episode"

Psych Central: Major Depressive Episode Symptoms
Symptoms of a major depressive episode for clinical depression, dysthymic disorder, major depression and mood disorder.
psychcentral.com/disorders/sx5.htm - 19k - Cached - Similar pages

Major Depressive Episode
Fifth Digit Severity Code for Major Depressive Episode. ... All the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode have been met without interruption for the ...
www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/major_depression.htm - 50k - Cached - Similar pages

Mood Episodes
No Major Depressive Episode has been present during the first 2 years of the ... Note: There may have been a previous Major Depressive Episode provided ...
www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/dysthymic_cyclothymic_episodes.h... - 28k - Cached - Similar pages

Major Depressive Episode: DSM IV Diagnosis
Depression - major depressive episode- DSM IV Diagnosis.
www.mental-health-today.com/dep/dsm.htm - 19k - Cached - Similar pages

All About Depression: Diagnosis: Major Depressive Disorder
Of those who have had a single major depressive episode, 50%-60% may develop a ... B. Another disorder does not better explain the major depressive episode. ...
www.allaboutdepression.com/dia_03.html - 30k - Cached - Similar pages

Depressions-Diagnosen - [ Translate this page ]
Abhängig von Anzahl und Schwere der Symptome ist eine depressive Episode als ... depressive Episode in Verbindung mit Störungen des Sozialverhaltens (F91. ...
www.dr-mueck.de/HM_Depression/HM_Depressions-Diagnosen.htm - 37k - Cached - Similar pages

Symptoms of a Depressive Episode
List of symptoms of a depressive episode. ... Signs and symptoms of depression (or a depressive episode) include:. Lasting sad, anxious, or empty mood ...
web4health.info/en/bipolar-sym-depepis.htm - 20k - Cached - Similar pages

Major Depressive Episode Symptoms

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2006-10-22 21:26:45 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

FUNCTIONING is OK. See here (it's "language of teh domain"):

Major Depressive Episode
Unless the symptoms are severe (defined as severely impaired functioning, ... All the criteria for a Major Depressive Episode have been met without ...
www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/major_depression.htm - 50k - Cached - Similar pages

Functioning after a major depressive episode: complete or ...
The goal of this study is to examine(1) whether functioning returns to pre-morbid levels after a major depressive episode(MDE),(2) predictors of incomplete ...
cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=16322102 - Similar pages

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 1 hr (2006-10-22 21:31:22 GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

Hi Adam, I mentioned eslewhere about background reading. This will illustrate why: http://www.psychnet-uk.com/dsm_iv/dysthymic_cyclothymic_epis...

Disorders are usually described in very specific terms and doctors and scientists are REQUIRED to adhere to this language, in teh interest of scientific exactidue, comparability etc.

This, the "language of the domain" that you need, which is all over the web, in guidelines such as this one (the only thing you should do is doublecheck that teh sites are credible ones).

Mood Episodes - use "Back Button" to return to original page.

| Major | Manic | Mixed | Hypomanic |

Depressed mood for most of the day, for more days than not, as indicated either by subjective account or observation by others, for at least 2 years. Note: In children and adolescents, mood can be irritable and duration must be at least 1 year.

Presence, while depressed, of two (or more) of the following:

Poor appetite or overeating.
Insomnia or hypersomnia.
Low energy or fatigue.
Low self-esteem.
Poor concentration or difficulty making decisions.
Feelings of hopelessness.
Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day.

During the 2-year period (1 year for children or adolescents) of the disturbance, the person has never been without the symptoms in Criteria A and B for more than 2 months at a time.

No Major Depressive Episode has been present during the first 2 years of the disturbance (1 year for children and adolescents); i.e., the disturbance is not better accounted for by chronic Major Depressive Disorder, or Major Depressive Disorder, In Partial Remission.

Note: There may have been a previous Major Depressive Episode provided there was a full remission (no significant signs or symptoms for 2 months) before development of the Dysthymic Disorder. In addition, after the initial 2 years (1 year in children or adolescents) of Dysthymic Disorder, there may be superimposed episodes of Major Depressive Disorder, in which case both diagnoses may be given when the criteria are met for a Major Depressive Episode.

There has never been a Manic Episode, a Mixed Episode, or a Hypomanic Episode, and criteria have never been met for Cyclothymic Disorder.

The disturbance does not occur exclusively during the course of a chronic Psychotic Disorder, such as Schizophrenia or Delusional Disorder.

The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., hypothyroidism).

The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

Major Depressive Episode:

Five (or more) of the following symptoms have been present during the same 2-week period and represent a change from previous functioning; at least one of the symptoms is either (1) depressed mood or (2) loss of interest or pleasure.

Note: Do not include symptoms that are clearly due to a general medical condition, or mood-incongruent delusions or hallucinations.

Depressed mood most of the day, nearly every day, as indicated by either subjective report (e.g., feels sad or empty) or observation made by others (e.g., appears tearful). Note: In children and adolescents, can be irritable mood.

Markedly diminished interest or pleasure in all, or almost all, activities most of the day, nearly every day (as indicated by either subjective account or observation made by others).

Significant weight loss when not dieting or weight gain (e.g., a change of more than 5% of body weight in a month), or decrease or increase in appetite nearly every day. Note: In children, consider failure to make expected weight gains.

Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.

Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).

Fatigue or loss of energy nearly every day.

Feelings of worthlessness or excessive or inappropriate guilt (which may be delusional) nearly every day (not merely self-reproach or guilt about being sick).

Diminished ability to think or concentrate, or indecisiveness, nearly every day (either by subjective account or as observed by others).

Recurrent thoughts of death (not just fear of dying), recurrent suicidal ideation without a specific plan, or a suicide attempt or a specific plan for committing suicide.

The symptoms do not meet criteria for a Mixed Episode

The symptoms cause clinically significant distress or impairment in social, occupational, or other important areas of functioning.

The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication) or a general medical condition (e.g., hypothyroidism).

The symptoms are not better accounted for by Bereavement, i.e., after the loss of a loved one, the symptoms persist for longer than 2 months or are characterized by marked functional impairment, morbid preoccupation with worthlessness, suicidal ideation, psychotic symptoms, or psychomotor retardation.

Manic Episode:

A distinct period of abnormally and persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting at least 1 week (or any duration if hospitalization is necessary).

During the period of mood disturbance, three (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree:

Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.

Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).

More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.

Insomnia or hypersomnia nearly every day.

Psychomotor agitation or retardation nearly every day (observable by others, not merely subjective feelings of restlessness or being slowed down).

Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.

Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli).

Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation.

Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., engaging in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments)

The symptoms do not meet criteria for a Mixed Episode

The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.

The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, or other treatment) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism).

Mixed Episode:

The criteria are met both for a Manic Episode and for a Major Depressive Episode (except for duration) nearly every day during at least a 1-week period.

The mood disturbance is sufficiently severe to cause marked impairment in occupational functioning or in usual social activities or relationships with others, or to necessitate hospitalization to prevent harm to self or others, or there are psychotic features.

The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, or other treatment) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism).

Hypomanic Episode:

A distinct period of persistently elevated, expansive, or irritable mood, lasting throughout at least 4 days, that is clearly different from the usual nondepressed mood.

During the period of mood disturbance, three (or more) of the following symptoms have persisted (four if the mood is only irritable) and have been present to a significant degree:

Inflated self-esteem or grandiosity.

Decreased need for sleep (e.g., feels rested after only 3 hours of sleep).

More talkative than usual or pressure to keep talking.

Flight of ideas or subjective experience that thoughts are racing.

Distractibility (i.e., attention too easily drawn to unimportant or irrelevant external stimuli).

Increase in goal-directed activity (either socially, at work or school, or sexually) or psychomotor agitation.

Excessive involvement in pleasurable activities that have a high potential for painful consequences (e.g., the person engages in unrestrained buying sprees, sexual indiscretions, or foolish business investments).

The episode is associated with an unequivocal change in functioning that is
uncharacteristic of the person when not symptomatic.

The disturbance in mood and the change in functioning are observable by others.

The episode is not severe enough to cause marked impairment in social or occupational functioning, or to necessitate hospitalization, and there are no psychotic features.

The symptoms are not due to the direct physiological effects of a substance (e.g., a drug of abuse, a medication, or other treatment) or a general medical condition (e.g., hyperthyroidism).



xxxLia Fail
Spain
Local time: 05:57
Specializes in field
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish
PRO pts in category: 100
Grading comment
Again - thanks Lia!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  Sonia Iujvidin
4 hrs

agree  silviantonia: Totalmente.
5 hrs

agree  liz askew: yes. Definitely.
16 hrs
Login to enter a peer comment (or grade)




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