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pebrina

English translation: pebrine

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GLOSSARY ENTRY (DERIVED FROM QUESTION BELOW)
Spanish term or phrase:pebrina
English translation:pebrine
Entered by: Lavinia Pirlog
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21:43 Jan 10, 2003
Spanish to English translations [Non-PRO]
/ enfermedad
Spanish term or phrase: pebrina
La enorme producción de seda del país se había visto muy afectada porque una enfermedad del gusano de seda, conocida como pebrina, había alcanzado proporciones epidémicas.

Gracias,
Tweety
Lavinia Pirlog
Romania
Local time: 20:47
pebrine
Explanation:
From harvard, must be it:
A New Method of Detection of Pebrine Disease in Tasar SilkMoth, Antheraea mylitta Drury (Saturniidae)S.K. Sharan, A.K. Bansal, R.M. Shukla and K. ThangaveluCentral Tasar Research and Training Institute, Nagri 835 303, Ranchi, INDIAIn the culture of Antheraea mylittaDrury, a semidomesticated Tasar SilkMoth, eggs of mother moths infected with Nosema sp., (microsporidian) mustbe discarded to avert any catastrophe on crops caused by this pathogen. Theinfected mother moths (pebrine diseased) are detected by a method derivedfrom that used in sericulture (Pasteur, 1870). In this method, the abdomenof an adult is severed with scissors, placed in a small mortar, mixed with waterand crushed with pestle. A drop of the smear is placed on a clean slide andexamined under a microscope for Nosema sp., spores. This operation is mostimportant but also time consuming in large grainages (insectaries wherepupae of A. mylittain their cocoons are held and at the onset of emergenceof adults, eggs produced are processed). In the presentstudy, technique isdescribed to shift the time of microscopic examination by examining theexuviae, which remain in cocoon shells after pupation, instead of gut exami-nation of mother moths. The new method and its advantages are discussed.The exuviae used in this study were from diapausing pupae of A. mylitta(Fig.1) reared during August-September, 1991 on primary host plants TerminaliatomentosaWright and Arnon and Terminalia arjunaBedd raised at the fields ofthe Central Tasar Research and Training Institute, Ranchi, India. As pebrinedisease can be acquired from mother moths (primary infection) or from theenvironment through food (secondary infection), spores of Nosema sp.can bedetected during any stage of the life cycle. Pupae selected for this study wereof three types: those raised from eggs laid by (1) pebrine infected mothers, (2)pebrine-free mothers later inoculated with Nosema sp.spores during mid IIIinstar and (3) pebrine free mothers (Control). 100 males and 100 females ofeach type, divided into five replications, were selected. Pupae were examinedside by side with their exuviae to determine presence or absence of thedisease.The specimens for microscopic examination were processed in two waysviz., a) conventional and b) centrifuge methods:a) conventional method: pupae were first washed with distilled water for twominutes, then the lower half of the abdomen (gut) was placed in a cleanmortar. The tissue was crushed and the smear examined under microscopeat 675 magnification for Nosema spores.b) Centrifugal method: The respective exuviae of the pupae were crushedwith 5 ml of 2 % KOH in a mortar with pestle, let stand for 3 minutes, mixedand filtered. The filterate was centrifuged at 500 rpm for 30 seconds. Thesupernatant was decanted and made up to 5 ml. with distilled water. The samewas centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes. The sediment was then smearedon a clean slideand five fields were examined for Nosema spores.
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Page 2
31(1-2):12-15, 199213Results are illustrated in Table 1. Nosema spores were found in the bodycontent as well as in their exuviae of the pupae, which became infectedthrough their mother moths. There was no difference in the percentage ofinfection due to conventional or centrifugal methods or between sexes. Thus,instead of gut examination of mother moths, their exuviae may be examinedto eliminate those individuals which acquired pebrine disease from theirmothers.In secondary infection, Nosema sp. spore-bearing pupae were higher innumber than in exuviae. Observations made on external symptoms ofpebrinised larvae of A. mylittaindicate that when I or early II instar larvae areinoculated with Nosema spores, black spots appear on the skin of larvae of IIIand early IV instars, but disappears in final instar (V). This indicates arelationship with detection of Nosema spores in exuviae in those individualswhich acquired infection during their feeding stages. The individuals whichwere secondarily infected by Nosema during different stages of their larval liferequire detailed and systematic study with regard to: a) time required forappearance of black spots on the skin from the time of infection, b) examina-tion of the molted skins for infection, c) intensity of infection in variousorgans and their route of migration to different tissues in larvae, pupae andadults, d) difference of infection between sexes, and e) mode of entry ofNosema spores into eggs. Only after these studies, pupae raised from larvaeinfected during feeding in the field may be screened for Nosema infection inA. mylittaby this method.The present accepted method of pebrine detection in grainage is solelybased on adults. This includes microscopic gut examination of mother mothsfor microsporidia spores (Pasteur, 1870), use of India ink in the microscopicfield (Geetha Bai, et al., 1985) for dry moth testing, enzyme-linkedFig. 1Photograph of a pupa of Antheraea mylitta Drury showing its cocoon shell,pupa and exuviae.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 3
14J. Res. Lepid.Table 1. Results of Microscopic Examination of pupae and their exuviae.Sl. Type ofSex% of pupae% of exuivae Remarks#Infectionfound Infected found Infectedabab1. Primary100100100100Raised from infectedmother moth2. Primary100100100100Raised from infectedmother moth3. Secondary90966771Inoculated with Nosemaspores in mid III instar oflarval stage4. Secondary92955367Inoculated with Nosemaspores in mid III instar oflarval stage5. Control0000Infection free6. Control0000Infection freeNote: (a) = Conventional and (b) = Centrifugal methods of detection of infection.immunosorbent assay, ELISA,(Kawarabata and Hayasaka, 1987), indirectfluorescent antibody techniques, (Sato, et al., 1981, Huang et al. 1983), latexbead agglutination, (Hayasaka and Ayuzawa, 1987), fluorescent antibodytechnique, (Huang, 1983), slide agglutination test (Hyasaka, 1983 and Li,1985), and monoclonal antibody detection (Zhaoxi, et al., 1990). All thesemethods are accurate, but are cumbersome for large commercial grainagesby requiring expensive laboratory facilities and skilled personnel. Pebrinedetection through microscopic examination of exuviae may help the tasarindustry to produce quality breeding material.Tropical tasar silkworm diapausing pupae are preserved from November toMay in bivoltine and February to May in trivoltine races. During this preser-vation period, exuviae examination for Nosema spore bearing insects can bedone in the month of May. This reduces microscopic examination activitiesfrom production time. During production time, including moth eclosion,mating, oviposition and processing of eggs, the microscopic examination ofmother moths must be done during a short span of 15 to 20 days for a stockof nearly 400,000 to 500,000 cocoons. This is laborious and time consuming,therefore affecting the quality of seed production. The new method has anadvantage of distributing the grainage work evenly from May to June insteadof demanding all activities during June.Acknowledgments.Authors are thankful to Shri N.N. Saxena, CTR & TI, Ranchi for hisvaluable help during this work.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 4
31(1-2):12-15, 199215LITERATURECITEDGEETHABAI, M. PATIL, C.S. & KASTURIBAI, A.R. 1985. A new method for easy detectionof Pebrine spores. Sericologia 25: 297-300.HAYASAKA, S. 1983. Effect of passage in a different host insect and cell cultures on thespore surface antigens of Nosema bombycis(Microsporidia: Protozoa). Acta sericol.127: 22-29.HAYASAKA, S. & AYUZAWA, C. 1987. Diagnosis of microsporidians Nosema bombycis andclosely related species by antibody sensitized latex. J. Seri. Sci. Japan. 56: 167-170.HUANG, Z., ZHENG, X. & LU, Y. 1983. Detection of Pebrine Sporooan, Nosema bombycis,in the silkworm Bombyx mori, by fluorescent antibody techniques. Sci. Sericul., 9:59-60.KAWARABATA, T. & HAYASAKA, S. 1987. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay todetect Alkali-soluble spore surface antigens of Nosema bombycis (Microspora:Nosematidae) J. Invertebr. Pathoil. 50: 118-123.LI, D., 1985. On the Serological diagnosis of the pebrine of silkworm, Bombyx mori.Sci. Sericul., 11: 99-102.PASTEUR, L. 1870. Etudes sur la maladie des vers a soie. Gauthier-Villars, Paris. TomeI, 322 pp. Tome II, 327 pp.SATO, R., KOBAYASHI, M., WATANABA, H. & FUJIWARA, T. 1981. Serological discreminationof several kinds of microsporidians spores isolated from the silkworm B. moribyan indirect fluoresecent antibody technqiue. J. Sericul. Sci. Japan. 50: 180-184.ZHAOXIKE, WEIDONGXIE, XUNZHANGWANG, QUINGXINGLONG& ZHELONGPU. 1990. Amonoclonal antibody of Nosema bombycis its use for identification of Microsprodianspores. J. Invert. Pathol. 56: 395-400.

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Note added at 2003-01-10 22:02:38 (GMT)
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sORRY, I DIDN;T MEAN TO POST THE WHOLE DAMN THING
Selected response from:

Jane Lamb-Ruiz
Grading comment
Thank you!
4 KudoZ points were awarded for this answer

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Summary of answers provided
5 +4pebrineJane Lamb-Ruiz


  

Answers


5 mins   confidence: Answerer confidence 5/5 peer agreement (net): +4
pebrine


Explanation:
From harvard, must be it:
A New Method of Detection of Pebrine Disease in Tasar SilkMoth, Antheraea mylitta Drury (Saturniidae)S.K. Sharan, A.K. Bansal, R.M. Shukla and K. ThangaveluCentral Tasar Research and Training Institute, Nagri 835 303, Ranchi, INDIAIn the culture of Antheraea mylittaDrury, a semidomesticated Tasar SilkMoth, eggs of mother moths infected with Nosema sp., (microsporidian) mustbe discarded to avert any catastrophe on crops caused by this pathogen. Theinfected mother moths (pebrine diseased) are detected by a method derivedfrom that used in sericulture (Pasteur, 1870). In this method, the abdomenof an adult is severed with scissors, placed in a small mortar, mixed with waterand crushed with pestle. A drop of the smear is placed on a clean slide andexamined under a microscope for Nosema sp., spores. This operation is mostimportant but also time consuming in large grainages (insectaries wherepupae of A. mylittain their cocoons are held and at the onset of emergenceof adults, eggs produced are processed). In the presentstudy, technique isdescribed to shift the time of microscopic examination by examining theexuviae, which remain in cocoon shells after pupation, instead of gut exami-nation of mother moths. The new method and its advantages are discussed.The exuviae used in this study were from diapausing pupae of A. mylitta(Fig.1) reared during August-September, 1991 on primary host plants TerminaliatomentosaWright and Arnon and Terminalia arjunaBedd raised at the fields ofthe Central Tasar Research and Training Institute, Ranchi, India. As pebrinedisease can be acquired from mother moths (primary infection) or from theenvironment through food (secondary infection), spores of Nosema sp.can bedetected during any stage of the life cycle. Pupae selected for this study wereof three types: those raised from eggs laid by (1) pebrine infected mothers, (2)pebrine-free mothers later inoculated with Nosema sp.spores during mid IIIinstar and (3) pebrine free mothers (Control). 100 males and 100 females ofeach type, divided into five replications, were selected. Pupae were examinedside by side with their exuviae to determine presence or absence of thedisease.The specimens for microscopic examination were processed in two waysviz., a) conventional and b) centrifuge methods:a) conventional method: pupae were first washed with distilled water for twominutes, then the lower half of the abdomen (gut) was placed in a cleanmortar. The tissue was crushed and the smear examined under microscopeat 675 magnification for Nosema spores.b) Centrifugal method: The respective exuviae of the pupae were crushedwith 5 ml of 2 % KOH in a mortar with pestle, let stand for 3 minutes, mixedand filtered. The filterate was centrifuged at 500 rpm for 30 seconds. Thesupernatant was decanted and made up to 5 ml. with distilled water. The samewas centrifuged at 2000 rpm for 10 minutes. The sediment was then smearedon a clean slideand five fields were examined for Nosema spores.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 2
31(1-2):12-15, 199213Results are illustrated in Table 1. Nosema spores were found in the bodycontent as well as in their exuviae of the pupae, which became infectedthrough their mother moths. There was no difference in the percentage ofinfection due to conventional or centrifugal methods or between sexes. Thus,instead of gut examination of mother moths, their exuviae may be examinedto eliminate those individuals which acquired pebrine disease from theirmothers.In secondary infection, Nosema sp. spore-bearing pupae were higher innumber than in exuviae. Observations made on external symptoms ofpebrinised larvae of A. mylittaindicate that when I or early II instar larvae areinoculated with Nosema spores, black spots appear on the skin of larvae of IIIand early IV instars, but disappears in final instar (V). This indicates arelationship with detection of Nosema spores in exuviae in those individualswhich acquired infection during their feeding stages. The individuals whichwere secondarily infected by Nosema during different stages of their larval liferequire detailed and systematic study with regard to: a) time required forappearance of black spots on the skin from the time of infection, b) examina-tion of the molted skins for infection, c) intensity of infection in variousorgans and their route of migration to different tissues in larvae, pupae andadults, d) difference of infection between sexes, and e) mode of entry ofNosema spores into eggs. Only after these studies, pupae raised from larvaeinfected during feeding in the field may be screened for Nosema infection inA. mylittaby this method.The present accepted method of pebrine detection in grainage is solelybased on adults. This includes microscopic gut examination of mother mothsfor microsporidia spores (Pasteur, 1870), use of India ink in the microscopicfield (Geetha Bai, et al., 1985) for dry moth testing, enzyme-linkedFig. 1Photograph of a pupa of Antheraea mylitta Drury showing its cocoon shell,pupa and exuviae.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 3
14J. Res. Lepid.Table 1. Results of Microscopic Examination of pupae and their exuviae.Sl. Type ofSex% of pupae% of exuivae Remarks#Infectionfound Infected found Infectedabab1. Primary100100100100Raised from infectedmother moth2. Primary100100100100Raised from infectedmother moth3. Secondary90966771Inoculated with Nosemaspores in mid III instar oflarval stage4. Secondary92955367Inoculated with Nosemaspores in mid III instar oflarval stage5. Control0000Infection free6. Control0000Infection freeNote: (a) = Conventional and (b) = Centrifugal methods of detection of infection.immunosorbent assay, ELISA,(Kawarabata and Hayasaka, 1987), indirectfluorescent antibody techniques, (Sato, et al., 1981, Huang et al. 1983), latexbead agglutination, (Hayasaka and Ayuzawa, 1987), fluorescent antibodytechnique, (Huang, 1983), slide agglutination test (Hyasaka, 1983 and Li,1985), and monoclonal antibody detection (Zhaoxi, et al., 1990). All thesemethods are accurate, but are cumbersome for large commercial grainagesby requiring expensive laboratory facilities and skilled personnel. Pebrinedetection through microscopic examination of exuviae may help the tasarindustry to produce quality breeding material.Tropical tasar silkworm diapausing pupae are preserved from November toMay in bivoltine and February to May in trivoltine races. During this preser-vation period, exuviae examination for Nosema spore bearing insects can bedone in the month of May. This reduces microscopic examination activitiesfrom production time. During production time, including moth eclosion,mating, oviposition and processing of eggs, the microscopic examination ofmother moths must be done during a short span of 15 to 20 days for a stockof nearly 400,000 to 500,000 cocoons. This is laborious and time consuming,therefore affecting the quality of seed production. The new method has anadvantage of distributing the grainage work evenly from May to June insteadof demanding all activities during June.Acknowledgments.Authors are thankful to Shri N.N. Saxena, CTR & TI, Ranchi for hisvaluable help during this work.
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Page 4
31(1-2):12-15, 199215LITERATURECITEDGEETHABAI, M. PATIL, C.S. & KASTURIBAI, A.R. 1985. A new method for easy detectionof Pebrine spores. Sericologia 25: 297-300.HAYASAKA, S. 1983. Effect of passage in a different host insect and cell cultures on thespore surface antigens of Nosema bombycis(Microsporidia: Protozoa). Acta sericol.127: 22-29.HAYASAKA, S. & AYUZAWA, C. 1987. Diagnosis of microsporidians Nosema bombycis andclosely related species by antibody sensitized latex. J. Seri. Sci. Japan. 56: 167-170.HUANG, Z., ZHENG, X. & LU, Y. 1983. Detection of Pebrine Sporooan, Nosema bombycis,in the silkworm Bombyx mori, by fluorescent antibody techniques. Sci. Sericul., 9:59-60.KAWARABATA, T. & HAYASAKA, S. 1987. An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay todetect Alkali-soluble spore surface antigens of Nosema bombycis (Microspora:Nosematidae) J. Invertebr. Pathoil. 50: 118-123.LI, D., 1985. On the Serological diagnosis of the pebrine of silkworm, Bombyx mori.Sci. Sericul., 11: 99-102.PASTEUR, L. 1870. Etudes sur la maladie des vers a soie. Gauthier-Villars, Paris. TomeI, 322 pp. Tome II, 327 pp.SATO, R., KOBAYASHI, M., WATANABA, H. & FUJIWARA, T. 1981. Serological discreminationof several kinds of microsporidians spores isolated from the silkworm B. moribyan indirect fluoresecent antibody technqiue. J. Sericul. Sci. Japan. 50: 180-184.ZHAOXIKE, WEIDONGXIE, XUNZHANGWANG, QUINGXINGLONG& ZHELONGPU. 1990. Amonoclonal antibody of Nosema bombycis its use for identification of Microsprodianspores. J. Invert. Pathol. 56: 395-400.

--------------------------------------------------
Note added at 2003-01-10 22:02:38 (GMT)
--------------------------------------------------

sORRY, I DIDN;T MEAN TO POST THE WHOLE DAMN THING

Jane Lamb-Ruiz
Native speaker of: Native in EnglishEnglish, Native in PortuguesePortuguese
PRO pts in pair: 7709
Grading comment
Thank you!

Peer comments on this answer (and responses from the answerer)
agree  xxxx-Translator
7 mins

agree  xxxfbasag: Pebrine is also known as "silkworm disease".
17 mins
  -> but there are others

agree  mónica alfonso
23 hrs

agree  LoreAC
2 days13 hrs
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