IANA houses the many unique parameters and protocol values necessary for operation of the Internet and its future development. Types of numbers range from unique port assignments to the registration of character sets. In the past, these numbers were documented through the RFC document series, the last of these documents was RFC 1700 , which is also now outdated. Since that time, the assignments have been listed in this directory as living documents, constantly updated and revised when new information is available and new assignments are made. They are listed alphabetically. Please check back periodically if you need up to date information from these files. Thank you.
INTERNET CORPORATION FOR ASSIGNED NAMES AND NUMBERS
INTERNET ASSIGNED NUMBERS AUTHORITY
Internet Domain Name System Structure and Delegation (ccTLD Administration and Delegation)
This document is a summary of current practices of the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) in administering RFC 1591 , which includes the guidance contained in ccTLD News Memo #1 dated October 23, 1997. It DOES NOT reflect any changes in policy affecting the administration of DNS delegations. It is intended to serve as the basis for possible future discussions of policy in this area. Changes in ICANN/IANA policy will be made following public notice and comment in accordance with the ICANN Bylaws.
The IANA is the overall authority for day-to-day administration of the Internet Domain Name System (DNS). IANA staff carry out administrative responsibilities for the assignment of IP Addresses, Autonomous System Numbers, Top Level Domains (TLDs), and other unique parameters of the DNS and its protocols. This document provides general information on IANA policy for administering the DNS. Instructions on procedures to be followed in requesting TLD delegations or changes are available on the website at iana.org.
Top Level Structure of the DNS
The DNS structure contains a hierarchy of names. The root, or highest level, of the system is unnamed. Top Level Domains (TLDs) are divided into classes based on rules that have evolved over time. Most TLDs have been delegated to individual country managers, whose codes are assigned from a table known as ISO-3166-1 , which is maintained by an agency of the United Nations. These are called country-code Top Level Domains, or ccTLDs. In addition, there are a limited number of "generic" Top Level Domains (gTLDs), which do not have a geographic or country designation. Responsibility for adoption of procedures and policies for the assignment of Second Level Domain Names (SLDs), and lower level hierarchies of names, has been delegated to TLD managers, subject to the policy guidance contained in this document. Country code domains are each organized by a manager for that country. These managers are performing a public service on behalf of the Internet community. A list of current TLD assignments and names of the delegated managers can be accessed at .
The Management of Delegated Domains
As part of its responsibility for the overall coordination and management of the DNS, the IANA receives and processes all requests for new TLDs and for changes to existing TLDs. The following policies are applicable to management of TLDs. In general, the principles described here apply recursively to all delegations of the Internet DNS name space.
(a) Delegation of a New Top Level Domain. Delegation of a new top level domain requires the completion of a number of procedures, including the identification of a TLD manager with the requisite skills and authority to operate the TLD appropriately. The desires of the government of a country with regard to delegation of a ccTLD are taken very seriously. The IANA will make them a major consideration in any TLD delegation/transfer discussions. Significantly interested parties in the domain should agree that the proposed TLD manager is the appropriate party. The key requirement is that for each domain there be a designated manager for supervising that domain's name space. In the case of ccTLDs, this means that there is a manager that supervises the domain names and operates the domain name system in that country. There must be Internet Protocol (IP) connectivity to the nameservers and electronic mail connectivity to the entire management, staff, and contacts of the manager. There must be an administrative contact and a technical contact for each domain. The administrative contact must reside in the country involved for ccTLDs. The IANA may choose to make partial delegations of a TLD when circumstances, such as those in a developing country, so dictate. It may also authorize a "proxy" DNS service outside of a developing country as a temporary form of assistance to the creation of Internet connectivity in new areas. [N.B. The IANA continues to receive inquiries about delegation of new gTLDs. This is a significant policy issue on which ICANN will conduct a careful study and review based on the established decision making procedures. Information about this study will be disseminated on the website at icann.org.]
(b) TLD Manager Responsibility. TLD managers are trustees for the delegated domain, and have a duty to serve the community. The designated manager is the trustee of the TLD for both the nation, in the case of ccTLDs, and the global Internet community. Concerns about "rights" and "ownership" of domains are inappropriate. It is appropriate, however, to be concerned about "responsibilities" and "service" to the community.
(c) Fair Treatment. The designated manager must be equitable and fair to all groups in the domain that request domain names. Specifically, the same rules must be applied to all requests and they must be processed in a non-discriminatory fashion. The policies and procedures for the use of each TLD must be available for public inspection. Generally these are posted on web pages or made available for file transfer. While variations in policies and procedures from country to country are expected due to local customs and cultural values, they must be documented and available to interested parties. Requests from for-profit and non-profit companies and organizations are to be treated on an equal basis. No bias shall be shown regarding requests that may come from customers of some other business related to the TLD manager. For example, no preferential service for customers of a particular data network provider. There can be no stipulation that a particular application, protocol, or product be used.
(d) Operational Capability. The TLD manager must do a satisfactory job of operating the DNS service for the domain. Duties such as the assignment of domain names, delegation of subdomains and operation of nameservers must be done with technical competence. This includes keeping the IANA or other higher-level domain manager advised of the status of the domain, responding to requests in a timely manner, and operating the database with accuracy, robustness, and resilience. Because of its responsibilities for the DNS, the IANA must be granted access to all TLD zones on a continuing basis. There must be a primary and a secondary nameserver that have IP connectivity to the Internet and can be easily checked via access to zones for operational status and database accuracy by the IANA.
(e) Transfers and Disputes over Delegations. For transfer of TLD management from one organization to another, the higher-level domain manager (the IANA in the case of TLDs), must receive communications from both the old organization and the new organization that assure the IANA that the transfer is mutually agreed, and that the proposed new manager understands its responsibilities. It is also very helpful for the IANA to receive communications from other parties that may be concerned or affected by the transfer. In the event of a conflict over designation of a TLD manager, the IANA tries to have conflicting parties reach agreement among themselves and generally takes no action unless all contending parties agree. On a few occasions, the parties involved in proposed delegations or transfers have not been able to reach an agreement and the IANA has been required to resolve the matter. This is usually a long drawn out process, leaving at least one party unhappy, so it is far better when the parties can reach an agreement among themselves. It is appropriate for interested parties to have a voice in the selection of the designated manager.
(f) Revocation of TLD Delegation. In cases where there is misconduct, or violation of the policies set forth in this document and RFC 1591, or persistent, recurring problems with the proper operation of a domain, the IANA reserves the right to revoke and to redelegate a Top Level Domain to another manager.
(g) Subdelegations of Top Level Domains. There are no requirements for management of subdomains of TLDs, including subdelegations, beyond the requirements for TLDs stated in this document and RFC 1591 . In particular, all subdomains shall be allowed to operate their own domain nameservers, providing in them whatever information the subdomain manager sees fit, as long as it is true and correct.
(h) Rights to Domain Names. The IANA has no special requirement for policies to be followed by TLD managers in connection with disputes over rights to domain names other than those stated generally in this document and RFC 1591 . Please note, however, that use of a particular domain name may be subject to applicable laws, including those concerning trademarks and other types of intellectual property.
(i) Uses of ISO 3166-1 Table. The IANA is not in the business of deciding what is and what is not a country. The selection of the SO-3166-1 list as a basis for country code top-level domain names was made with the knowledge that ISO has a procedure for determining which entities should be and should not be on that list. For more information about the ISO 3166 Maintenance Agency, please see the following webpage: .
(j) Maintenance Procedure for Root Zone File. The primary root zone file is currently located on the A root server, which is operated by Network Solutions, Inc.(NSI), under a cooperative agreement with the U.S. Government. Changes to the root zone file are made by NSI according to procedures established under Amendment 11 of that cooperative agreement.
¿Qué es la ICANN?
ICANN es la colaboración mundial privada, sin fines de lucro, de miembros independientes interesados y autorizados que pertenecen a los distintos grupos que integran la comunidad de Internet: técnicos, comerciales, no comerciales, académicos, empresariales, educativos y de defensa de derechos.
La ICANN fue establecida por el Departamento de Comercio de EE.UU. para que asumiera, en lugar del gobierno federal, la responsabilidad de mantener los esquemas de direccionamiento que dirigen la información por la Internet. Los nombres de dominio (como ala.org) son nombres que identifican a los servidores en Internet, mientras que los números de dominio integran el sistema de direccionamiento interno utilizado por los enrutadores de Internet para dirigir el tráfico. A medida que los nombres de dominio adquieren cada vez más valor (sobre todo en el ámbito comercial, donde los nombres de dominio pueden ser también nombres de marcas), ha aumentado la intensidad de los conflictos sobre los derechos de uso de los nombres. El nombre de dominio es necesario para existir en la Internet, de manera que el control de la concesión de nombres de dominio podría utilizarse para ejercer otras formas de reglamentación, por ejemplo, negando direcciones a sitios que no cumplan determinadas normas o rechazando el anonimato de un sitio.
Si desea obtener más información sobre los nombres de dominio, consulte el folleto "Your Place in Cyberspace" (Su lugar en el ciberespacio) Center for Democracy and Technology.
Si quiere obtener más información sobre la estructura de la ICANN y su mandato, sírvase consultar la página ICANN Fact Sheet (Reseña de la ICANN) .
The Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) is the non-profit corporation that was formed to assume responsibility for the IP address space allocation, protocol parameter assignment, domain name system management, and root server system management functions previously performed under U.S. Government contract by IANA and other entities.
The Board of ICANN is composed of nineteen Directors: nine At-Large Directors, nine selected by :
The ICANN Bylaws provide for three Supporting Organizations (SOs) to assist, review and develop recommendations on Internet policy and structure within three specialized areas. (See Bylaws, Article VI.) The SOs help to promote the development of Internet policy and encourage diverse and international participation in the technical management of the Internet. Each SO names three Directors to the ICANN Board.
The three SOs are:
1. The Address Supporting Organization (ASO) is concerned with the system of IP addresses, such as 22.214.171.124, that uniquely identify the Internet's networked computers.
2. The Domain Name Supporting Organization (DNSO) is concerned with the domain name system (DNS), the system of names commonly used to identify Internet locations and resources. The DNS translates heirarchically-structured, easy-to-remember names (like www.icann.org) into IP addresses that have been assigned to specific computers.
3. The Protocol Supporting Organization (PSO) is concerned with the assignment of unique parameters for Internet protocols, the technical standards that let computers exchange information and manage communications over the Internet.
InterNIC (Network Information Center) is an independent agency set up to serve the Internet community. It makes the rules, administers the registration process, and maintains the official data base of registered Domain Names. All applications are subject to InterNIC approval.
InterNIC does not screen names for registered trademarks or other rights. Since domain names are registered on a first come, first serve basis, it is best to register Internet business and brand names before they are taken.
Some InterNIC Registration Requirements
· InterNIC requires a name search to assure that the requested name is still available. You can search InterNIC's Whois database from our site - see below.
· InterNIC requires applicants to have both a primary and secondary Domain Name Server (DNS) to translate between domain names and numeric IP numbers. InterNET CROSSROADS Ltd. provides the required Domain Name Service as part of your application.
· Soon after your domain name is registered, InterNIC will bill you directly for $70 US, which covers their registration fee for two years. After two years they will bill you an annual fee of $35 US. Billing is made to the domain's "Billing Contact" via Email, or by US postal mail if you specify this preference in the "comments" section of our application.
Welcome to the InterNIC Website!
This website has been established to provide the public information regarding Internet domain name registration services and will be updated frequently.
For a list of ICANN-accredited registrars that are currently taking registrations in the .com, .net and .org domains, please go to The Accredited Registrar Directory
As a result of competition, numerous domain name registration service providers from around the world are providing .com, .net and .org domain name registration services. The Accredited Registrar Directory provides a listing of ICANN-accredited domain name registrars that are currently taking domain name registrations. The directory is available in the following formats:
Alphabetical listing by company/organization name.
Listing by location of registrar.
Listing by laguage supported.
Since new accredited registrars are establishing registration services on an ongoing basis, this directory will be updated frequently. It is suggested that you refer to this directory often for new, up-to-date information.
To view a list of all entities accredited by ICANN to register names in .com, .net and .org, including those that are not currently operational, please refer to the About Registrar Accreditation
ICANN is a technical coordination body. Our primary objective is ensuring the stability of the Internet's system of assigned names and numbers. This objective is furthered by the requirement that every business desiring to become a registrar with direct access to ICANN-designated top-level domains must first become accredited for this purpose by ICANN.