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|English to Chinese: 'Twisted light' carries 2.5 terabits of data per second|
General field: Science
Detailed field: Physics
|Source text - English|
'Twisted light' carries 2.5 terabits of data per second
The "twist" of the waves within a light beam is a means to carry potentially vast amounts of data
Researchers have clocked light beams made of "twisted" waves carrying 2.5 terabits of data - the capacity of more than 66 DVDs - per second.
The technique relies on manipulating what is known as the orbital angular momentum of the waves.
Recent work suggests that the trick could vastly boost the data-carrying capacity in wi-fi and optical fibres.
The striking demonstration of the approach, reported in Nature Photonics, is likely to lead to even higher rates.
Angular momentum is a slippery concept when applied to light, but an analogy closer to home is the Earth itself.
Our planet has "spin angular momentum" because it spins on its axis, and "orbital angular momentum" because it is also revolving around the Sun.
Light can have both these types, but the spin version is the far more familiar - as what is commonly called polarisation, or the direction along which light waves wiggle. Polarising sunglasses and many 3D glasses work by passing one polarisation and not another.
In many data-carrying applications involving light, more data is packed on to light waves by encoding one polarisation with one data stream, and another with a different stream.
That means twice as much information can fit within the same "bandwidth" - the range of colours that the transmitting equipment is able to process.
Orbital angular momentum, or OAM, on the other hand, has only recently come to the fore as a promising means to accomplish the same trick.
The idea is not to create light waves wiggling in different directions but rather with different amounts of twist, like screws with different numbers of threads.
Most recently, Bo Thide of the Swedish Institute of Space Physics and a team of colleagues in Italy demonstrated the principle by sending beams made up of two different OAM states across a canal in Venice, an experiment they described in the New Journal of Physics.
Eight beams, each with its own "twist", were prepared for the data-rate test
Most data traffic in optical fibres around the world is made up of different data streams on slightly different colours of light, which are split into their constituent colours at the receiving end in a technique called multiplexing.
To fully realise OAM's potential, similar multiplexing of different "twists" must be developed.
Alan Willner and his team at the University of Southern California, along with colleagues at Nasa's Jet Propulsion Laboratory and Tel Aviv University, have now demonstrated one way to do that.
The team prepared two sets of four light beams, each with a set level of OAM twist, and each of the eight containing its own data stream.
The two sets were then filtered to have different polarisations, and arranged into a single beam with four streams at the centre and four in a doughnut-shape around the edge.
At the receiving end, the process is undone and the single beam was unpacked to yield its eight constituent beams, together carrying about 2.5 terabits per second.
Initial experiments were only carried out over a distance of about a metre, and Prof Willner said that challenges remained for adapting the approach to fibres or for longer-distance transfer.
"One of the challenges in this respect is turbulence in the atmosphere," he explained.
"For situations that require high capacity... over relatively short distances of less than 1km, this approach could be appealing. Of course, there are also opportunities for long-distance satellite-to-satellite communications in space, where turbulence is not an issue."
Commenting on the work in an accompanying article in Nature Photonics, Juan Torres of the Institute of Photonic Sciences in Barcelona wrote that it "contributes a new chapter to the long history of telecommunications by demonstrating the potential of OAM... for increasing the transmission capacity".
However, he said that for wider application, a number of robust tools would be needed to manipulate OAM states and to create and deliver beams made up of several of them.
"The true impact of this development in the telecommunications industry will depend on how several important issues... are addressed and solved," he wrote.
|Translation - Chinese|
|English to Chinese: RSA returns to BofA Merrill in broker rejig|
General field: Bus/Financial
Detailed field: Investment / Securities
|Source text - English|
FTSE 100 insurance group RSA has dropped Deutsche Bank as its corporate broker and has returned to the arms of Bank of America Merrill Lynch, reversing a decision it took in 2010.
RSA, formerly known as Royal and Sun Alliance, appointed Deutsche Bank as corporate broker in June 2010. Deutsche Bank replaced Merrill Lynch, which had held the mandate since 2004.
However, RSA revealed in a statement today that it had reappointed Bank of America Merrill Lynch to work alongside long-term incumbent JP Morgan Cazenove. A spokesman from the insurer said: “We believe it's good governance to review brokers periodically, and with a new chief financial officer and investor relations director, we think fresh thinking will help.”
Changes in corporate broker often follow changes in company management. RSA, which has a market cap of £4.6bn, appointed Richard Houghton as chief financial officer and Matt Hotson as head of investor relations early last year. The beauty parade for a new corporate broker came late last year.
While working as RSA’s joint corporate broker, Deutsche Bank advised RSA on its rejected £5bn bid for Aviva’s general insurance businesses in the UK, Ireland and Canada.
Deutsche Bank also advised RSA on its successful $411m acquisition of GCAN Insurance in October 2010. On the other side of the table was Bank of America Merrill Lynch, advising GCAN.
Deutsche Bank cut back its corporate finance team last year. Bankers who have left the bank include James Cass, a mergers and acquisition execution specialist; Andrew Thompson and Rupert Green, both members of the corporate broking team; and Omar Faruqui, a well-regarded dealmaker.
Anthony Parsons, vice-chairman of UK mergers and acquisitions at Deutsche Bank, also left the firm in May last year to join advisory boutique Greenhill.
Including the RSA win, Bank of America Merrill Lynch currently has 26 FTSE 100 corporate broking clients, according to the latest data published at the end of 2012 by Morningstar. The Wall Street bank also acts as broker for car insurer Admiral, and investment and insurance services firm Legal & General.
Michael Findlay, co-head of corporate broking who re-joined Bank of America Merrill Lynch last April, and Tony White, director in corporate finance, will be managing the RSA mandate for the US bank.
Bank of America Merrill Lynch and Deutsche Bank did not respond for comment in time for press.
|Translation - Chinese|
|English to Chinese: New Methods For Quantifying Antisense Drug Delivery To Target Cells And Tissues|
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Genetics
|Source text - English|
Powerful antisense drugs that target disease-associated genes to block their expression can be used to treat a broad range of diseases. Though antisense therapy has been proven effective, challenges remain in ensuring that the drugs reach their intended targets. Two new methods for detecting and measuring the levels of antisense drugs in cells that could accelerate the development of improved antisense drugs are described in an article in BioResearch Open Access, a bimonthly peer-reviewed open access journal from Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., publishers. The article is available on the BioResearch Open Access website.
In the article "Development of Novel Bioanalytical Methods to Determine the Effective Concentrations of Phosphorodiamidate Morpholino Oligomers in Tissues and Cells," Frederick Schnell, Stacy Crumley, Dan Mourich, and P.L. Iversen, from Sarepta Therapeutics and Oregon State University (Corvallis, OR), describe two fast and sensitive methods for detecting a promising type of antisense therapeutic called a phosphorodiamidate morpholine oligomer, or PMO. Using these novel methods they were able to detect PMO delivery to individual cells and quantify how much PMO resides in a particular tissue in the body, such as the lung. For example, the authors describe the measurement of intranasally delivered PMO in lung tissue and, more specifically, in different cell types in the lung. They were able to measure the clearance kinetics of the PMO and determine whether it stayed in the lung tissue.
"The development of novel, rapid PMO detection techniques such as these will advance the field of PMO research in a significant way, providing valid alternatives to the current time-consuming and labor-intensive methods," says Editor-in-Chief Jane Taylor, PhD, MRC Centre for Regenerative Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland.
|Translation - Chinese|
| relate to, rush |
|Graduate diploma - Shanghai International Studies University, China.|
|Years of translation experience: 1. Registered at ProZ.com: May 2011.|
|Across, Adobe Acrobat, Microsoft Excel, Microsoft Word, OmegaT, Passolo, Powerpoint|
|CV available upon request|
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