Children with poor language skills at age five are significantly more likely to struggle with maths at age 11, a study for Save the Children suggests.
It found 21% of pupils who struggled with language as they began school, failed to meet the expected standards in national tests when they left.
The researchers said poor language skills had an effect on all children, regardless of family background.
Factors like parents’ education and poverty were also tied to attainment.
Academics at the Institute of Education analysed the progress of 5,000 children using data from the Millennium Cohort Study and the National Pupil Database in England. More.