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|Chinese to English: 限制热量摄入可改善Ⅱ型糖尿病患者心脏功能 – Limiting energy intake may improve the cardiac function of type 2 diabetics |
|Source text - Chinese|
|Translation - English|
At the recent annual meeting of the Radiological Society of North America, Dutch researchers reported that limiting the energy intake of type 2 diabetics may lead to improved cardiac function, which for sufferers means that a change in lifestyle may benefit the heart even more than medicine.
Using cardiac magnetic resonance imaging (CMR) technology, researchers from the University of Leiden measured the cardiac function, volume of pericardial fat and body mass index (BMI) of type 2 diabetics. Sufferers consumed just 500 calories of food and drink per day–significantly less than the daily adult energy intake requirement–for a period of four months, after which researchers repeated the above measurements.
The results indicated that the average BMI of participants decreased from 35.3 to 27.5, the average volume of pericardial fat (which can serve as an index to measure the risk of heart disease; the greater the volume of fat, the greater the risk) decreased from 39 millilitres to 31 millilitres and the E/A ratio (an index used to measure cardiac diastolic function) increased from 0.96 to 1.2.
Following this, sufferers began eating normally again. After 14 months, the average BMI had rebounded back to 31.7; however, the average volume of pericardial fat had increased only slightly to 32 millilitres, and the E/A ratio had decreased only slightly to 1.06–far better than the values prior to treatment.
Head researcher Sebastian Hammer said “Our results indicate that four months of energy intake limitation treatment improved the cardiac function of sufferers". He added that "more importantly, the cardiovascular benefits can be long-lasting".
In spite of this, researchers caution that energy intake limitation treatment certainly is not suited to all type 2 diabetics. Sufferers should consult their doctor before deciding upon treatment.
|Chinese to English: 希腊总理帕潘德里欧称将重新考虑全民公决决定 – Greek Prime Minister Papandreou to rethink referendum |
|Source text - Chinese|
|Translation - English|
In an Interior Cabinet meeting today Greek Prime Minister Papandreou said that he has no intention to resign, but will reconsider his decision to hold a referendum on the European Union Bailout Plan, and will seek to establish a united government.
According to a statement issued by the Office of the Prime Minister, Papandreou said that provided all political parties cooperate on the issue of forming a united government, he is willing to reverse his decision for a referendum.
Although many Cabinet ministers and ruling party members have requested that Papandreou resign, Papandreou expressed that he does not intend to do so, but that he will hold negotiations with his main opposition–New Democracy–within the next few hours in order to seek the establishment of a unified government.
In his statement Papandreou said that "although a referendum is certainly not the main objective, we do not fear the people's decision. I was very pleased to see that New Democracy was compelled by the discussion on a referendum to support the New Bailout Agreement of October 26”.
There has been a strong backlash both at home and abroad over the last few days in response to Papandreou's October 31 proposal for a referendum. After negotiating with Papandreou in Cannes, France on November 2, French President Nicolas Sarkozy and German Chancellor Angela Merkel expressed that if Greece is to hold a referendum it should proceed as soon as possible in order to eliminate uncertainty within the European Union on the issue. They also expressed that the topic of a referendum should be whether Greece will continue to remain within The Euro Zone, not whether to accept the New Bailout Plan.
|Chinese to English: 聚变简介 – An introduction to nuclear fusion |
|Source text - Chinese|
|Translation - English|
Fusion is the process by which light atomic nuclei (mainly the hydrogen isotopes deuterium and tritium) fuse together to form heavier atomic nuclei, releasing extremely large quantities of energy. This is the same principle behind solar light and heat generation and hydrogen bomb explosions. Fusion is characterised by large energy yields and abundant fuel resources–the amount of energy released from a fusion reaction using the deuterium contained within one litre of water is equivalent to the energy released from the combustion of 300 litres of gasoline, and there is enough deuterium in Earth's seawater for deuterium-deuterium fusion reactions to satisfy humanity's energy needs for more than 100 million years, as well as abundant reserves of lithium which is used to produce tritium. Furthermore, the product of fusion is helium, which is relatively stable. Because of its inherent safety, environmental advantages and abundant fuel resources, fusion energy is regarded to be one of humanity's most ideal forms of clean energy.
Fusion was first achieved during the early 1950's in the form of a hydrogen bomb explosion. It relied on the high temperature and pressure created by a fission bomb explosion to cause the deuterium-tritium thermonuclear fuel to undergo fusion, releasing extremely large quantities of energy and giving rise to formidable destructive power; however, the instantaneous and violent nature of the explosion made fusion uncontrollable. In order for the energy to be used for social production and in people's lives, this needed to be rectified. Ever since, scientists have dreamed of achieving controlled nuclear fusion.
Controlled fusion: Two stringent conditions
1. Extremely high temperature
In order for two atomic nuclei to fuse, they must be brought sufficiently close together–fusion will only occur when the distance between the nucleons in each nucleus is small enough to enable the nuclear force to exert an influence, binding them together to form a new atomic nucleus. However, because atomic nuclei have a positive charge, the closer they get, the greater the electrostatic repulsion (otherwise known as the electrostatic potential energy barrier) between them, which acts like an impenetrable wall keeping two nuclei separate. According to experimental data estimates, in order for two deuterium nuclei to overcome this barrier, the relative velocity at which they approach each other must be greater than 1000 kilometres per second. At this velocity, individual nuclei have extremely large kinetic energies, which translate into extremely high temperatures for groups of nuclei–for fusion to occur, the temperature must be greater than 100 million degrees (or 50 million degrees for deuterium-tritium fusion). This type of fusion reaction, which occurs at extremely high temperatures, is called a thermonuclear reaction. At these temperatures matter is ionized, creating high temperature plasma.
2. Full control
Full control means sustaining a high temperature plasma long enough to facilitate a fusion reaction that produces more energy than the total of the energy required to heat the plasma and the energy lost during the heating process. Under these conditions, the energy produced by the fusion reaction sustains the high temperature so that energy external to the system is no longer required, giving rise to self-sustaining fusion, scientifically referred to as ignition. For ignition to occur, a particular confinement time must be achieved. This varies as density varies–the higher the density, the more atomic nuclei participating in the reaction per unit time and the greater the release of energy, which corresponds to a reduced confinement time. Conversely, lower densities require greater confinement times. During the 1950's English scientist John Lawson conducted detailed research into the conditions which must be met to achieve ignition (known as Lawson conditions, or Lawson criteria), a common representation of which is the triple product of temperature T, confinement time τ and density n. At present, magnetic confinement and inertial confinement are the two methods of confining high temperature particles available.
Achieving ignition is only the first stage of research into achieving controlled fusion. The second stage is to produce net fusion energy by making energy output exceed energy input. Scientists refer to stage one as verification of the scientific feasibility of fusion, and stage two as verification of the engineering and technological feasibility of fusion.
|Master's degree - RMIT University, Australia|
|Years of translation experience: 4. Registered at ProZ.com: Feb 2012.|
|Chinese to English (National Accreditation Authority for Translators and Interpreters, verified)|
Chinese (University of Tasmania (BA in Chinese), verified)
Chinese (University of Tasmania (Honors in Chinese), verified)
Chinese to English (RMIT (MA in Translating and Interpreting Studies), verified)
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Professional Chinese-into-English Translator Qualifications
Skills and Attributes
- Professional Chinese-into-English Translation Accreditation issued by the National (Australian) Accreditation Authority of Translators and Interpreters
- Master of Translating and Interpreting Studies, RMIT University, Melbourne, Australia
- Bachelor of Arts with First Class Honors in Chinese, University of Tasmania
- Bachelor of Science majoring in Mathematics, University of Tasmania
- Advanced knowledge of the methods and vocabulary of science
- Scientifically trained in electromagnetism, thermodynamics, mechanics, dynamics, wave theory, kinetic theory, astrophysics, atmospheric physics, structural geology, petrology and paleontology
- Exceptional command of written English
- Excellent comprehension of written Chinese
- Highly creative
- Advanced science
- Experiment reports
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- International development
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