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English: html General field: Social Sciences Detailed field: History
Source text - English "What Went Wrong" "Bernard Lewis"
"THE QUEST FOR WEALTH AND POWER" -
(pg. 39) Before the end of the eighteenth century Turks, Iranians, and other Middle Easterners had had very little opportunity for direct observation of the West – nothing remotely comparable with the opportunities that Westerners had enjoyed in the East even in the period when the West was inferior in every material and cultural respect. Contacts occurred mainly in three areas – diplomacy, commerce, and war. But while the European powers from relatively early times maintained offices, then consulates, and eventually embassies in the East, the Eastern powers did not follow this practice and sent only rare and brief special missions.
Translation - English "أين الخطأ" " برنارد لويس
السعى وراء الثروة والسلطة"
(ص 39 )
قبل نهاية القرن الثامن عشر، كان لدى الأتراك والإيرانيين وبعض الجنسيات الأخرى من الشرق الأوسط فرصة ضئيلة جدا لمراقبة الغرب عن كثب – وذلك على عكس ما كان يتمتع به الغربيون في الشرق ، حتى في الفترة التي كان فيها الغرب لا يتمتع إلا بالقدر القليل من الجانب المادي والثقافي ، وفى الواقع كان هناك ثلاثة اتجاهات رئيسية يتم من خلالها التواصل – الدبلوماسية، والتجارة، والحرب.
بيد أنه عندما احتفظت السلطات الأوروبية منذ زمن بعيد نسبيا بمكاتب تليها قنصليات ، وأخيرا سفارات في الشرق، لم تنتهج السلطات الشرقية هذا العرف، بل اكتفت بإرسال بعثات خاصة ومحدودة.
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