Member since Oct '05

Working languages:
Italian to English
Spanish to English
English (monolingual)

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April 2021
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Jo Macdonald
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Ronda (MA), Andalucia, Spain

Native in: English Native in English
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This person has translated 2,049 words for Translators without Borders
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Feb 15 (posted via ProZ.com):  On-board weighing systems ...more, + 8 other entries »

Sample translations

Italian to English: Stazione di lavaggio farmaceutico
Source text - Italian
Stazione di lavaggio di contenitori (bins) farmaceutici, cestelli e pallet, composta da una cabina a due porte, che include un gruppo telescopico per il posizionamento automatico dello “spray ball” per il lavaggio interno del contenitore. Il lavaggio esterno è effettuato da ugelli irrigatori ad alto impatto.
Translation - English
Washing station for pharmaceutical bins, baskets and pallets, consisting of a cabin with two doors, and a telescopic unit for automatically positioning the “spray ball” used to wash inside the bin. The outside of the bin is washed with high impact irrigator nozzles.
Italian to English: Guida turistica
Source text - Italian
Nel 1586 i monaci benedettini affidano la costruzione di una nuova chiesa (nel luogo dove fin dal 1140 esisteva una chiesa dedicata a San Pietro) all’architetto bolognese Giulio Della Torre (segue i lavori il reggiano Prospero Pacchioni); la chiesa è arricchita nel 1765 da una torre campanaria e completata nel 1782 dalla facciata eseguita da Pietro Armani.
Translation - English
In 1586 the Benedictine monks entrusted the construction of a new church (on the site where a church dedicated to Saint Peter had stood until 1140) to the architect Giulio Della Torre from Bologna (Prospero Pacchioni from Reggio supervised the work); the church was embellished in 1765 with a bell tower and completed in 1782 with the facade by Pietro Armani.
Italian to English: Scheda tecnica
Source text - Italian
Se il trasformatore è costruito con più di un avvolgimento secondario o ha prese multiple, la potenza nominale è la somma dei prodotti della tensione secondaria nominale dei circuiti che possono essere caricati contemporaneamente.
Translation - English
If the transformer has several windings or multiple outlets, the nominal output is the sum of the nominal secondary voltages of the circuits that can be used at the same time.
Italian to English: Ceramica
Source text - Italian
Seguendo gli attuali trend cromatici e le nuove esigenze architettoniche, con NATURAL Xxxxx Xxxx propone una linea essenziale, caratterizzata da toni colore neutri e naturali e da una forte variazione grafica e materica, che possiamo ritrovare all’interno di ogni singola lastra.
Translation - English
To keep pace with current chromatic trends and new architectural requirements, Xxxxx Xxxx presents NATURAL, an essential line characterised by neutral and natural colours as well as strong variations in the design and materials, in every single tile.
Italian to English: Contratto sportivo
Source text - Italian
La Società ha il diritto, indipendentemente dal consenso scritto del Xxxxxx, di cedere, trasferire o trasmettere, con qualsivoglia modalità e termini, i benefici e gli oneri del presente contratto a favore di terzi previo l’impegno di questi di assumere ogni obbligo di cui alle disposizioni del contratto ceduto.
Translation - English
The Company has the right, without having to obtain the written consent of Xxxxxx, to make over, transfer, or transmit in any way and on any terms, the benefits and charges of the present contract to third parties as long as this or these parties assume every obligation inherent to the transferred contract.
Italian to English: Moda
Source text - Italian
Anche le calzature nascono dalla stessa filosofia, avvicinandosi allo stile degli scarponi "rocciatore", rivisti nelle forme e nei colori.
Translation - English
The footwear also derives from the same philosophy, similar to that "mountaineering boot" style, now in a new shape and colour.
Italian to English: Art
Source text - Italian
Benvenuti a Gardaland. Pardon, a Xxxxxxxxxxland. Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx, il Grande Burattinaio di quello strano, anzi stranissimo, e bizzarro, e pressocch� inedito, e inesausto, fantasmagorico e strabiliante parco giochi di cui solo lui conosce regole e motivazioni, avrebbe voluto che io non pronunciassi mai quella parola. Gardaland. Oh, Gardaland! Gardaland, o cara. Io, invece, ho da pronunciarla, e mi si seccasse la lingua � e la penna, o se preferite ancora il mouse � se non lo far� ogni volta che vedr� comparirmi davanti all�improvviso, come una misteriosa apparizione, una sua scultura � rinoceronte appeso, o balena, o macchina da scrivere, o bagaglio da viaggio comprensivo appunto di rinoceronte, o rinoceronte-divano, o cartello a forma di bocca che sia. Gi�, perch� di Gardaland, il Xxxxxxxxxx conosce ogni anfratto e ogni segreto. Di Gardaland, il Xxxxxxxxxx � figlio naturale � l� ha fatto la sua accademia, il suo apprendistato, la sua scuola dell�obbligo. Gardaland �, che gli piaccia o no, al contempo la sua bottega artigiana e il suo romanzo di formazione. L�, a Gardaland, ancora giovanissimo, il Xxxxxxxxxx ha lavorato, vissuto, sudato, amato forse, e sofferto, e scoperto e imparato, uno a uno, tutti i trucchi del mestiere, come costruir balene e rinoceronti e mostri marini o fantastici o preistorici o quant�altro serve allo spettacolo del divertimento quotidiano.
Translation - English
Welcome to Gardaland. Sorry, to Xxxxxxxxxxland. Xxxxxx Xxxxxxxxxx is the Puppet Master of that strange, weird, bizarre, almost unprecedented and timeless, phantasmagorical and breath-taking adventure playground of which only he knows the rules and reason. Perhaps he would have wished I'd never used that word. Gardaland. Oh, Gardaland! Gardaland, my dear. I, however, have used that name, and may my tongue - or my pen - run dry, if I won't do so every time one of his sculptures - a flying rhinoceros, or whale, or typewriter, or suitcase with rhino, or rhino-sofa, or sign the shape of a mouth, appears in front of me suddenly, as if by magic. Xxxxxxxxxx knows every nook and cranny, every hidden secret of Gardaland. Xxxxxxxxxx is the natural son of Gardaland, this is where he studied, took his apprenticeship; this was his school. Gardaland is, whether you like it or not, just as much his workshop as the story of his making. In Gardaland, at a very young age, Xxxxxxxxxx worked, lived, sweated, perhaps even loved, suffered and discovered. He learnt all the tricks of the trade, one by one; how to make whales and rhinoceroses, sea monsters, fantastic or prehistoric creatures, or anything else for the show.
Spanish to English: Rolfing & sport
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Sports / Fitness / Recreation
Source text - Spanish
Los deportistas tienen en general mejor postura que las personas sedentarias, pero los entrenamientos exigentes pueden provocar sobrecargas y desequilibrios. Los corredores utilizan más el tren inferior que el superior,
si juegas al tenis tendrás un brazo más fuerte que otro… Si nos miramos en un espejo, podemos apreciar que curvamos la espalda, encogemos los hombros y adoptamos posturas incorrectas. Una mala postura
conlleva rigidez, dolor, malestar... y ello repercute en un mal rendimiento profesional y deportivo.
Translation - English
Sportsmen & women usually have better posture than people with a more sedentary lifestyle, but strenuous training regimes can overload the body and cause imbalance. Runners use the lower part of their body more than the upper part of the torso. A tennis player will have one arm stronger than the other. If we look in the mirror, we may see a slight curvature of the shoulder, we shrug it off but end up with bad posture. Bad posture leads to rigidity, discomfort ... and poor professional and sporting performance.
Spanish to English: Incompatible behaviour training
General field: Science
Detailed field: Psychology
Source text - Spanish
El adiestramiento de conductas incompatibles quizás sea la mejor manera para pedirle a tu perro que deje de hacer algo que te molesta y de eliminar problemas de conducta. Además de no ser traumático para tu perro, es mucho más efectivo que los castigos verbales y los MAR.

Esta estrategia es terriblemente sencilla y es sorprendente que no sea considerada en la mayoría de los libros antiguos. Para que la comprendas mejor, te pongo un ejemplo.

En los libros antiguos de adiestramiento se explican técnicas para evitar que tu perro te salte encima cuando llegas de la siguiente manera:

"Cuando el perro le salte encima, déle un rodillazo sorpresivo. Esto hará que deje de saltar"
"Cuando el perro le salte encima, písele suavemente las patas traseras"

Bueno, la utilidad de estas técnicas es prácticamente nula. Además, como te podrás imaginar, esos métodos pueden tener consecuencias realmente dramáticas para el pobre perro.

¿Dónde está el problema de esas técnicas? Primero, se utiliza el castigo físico. Segundo, se aplica el castigo cuando el perro ya ha saltado sobre la persona, así que no se evita la conducta que se quiere eliminar.

¿Cuál sería una estrategia alternativa para este problema? Enséñale a tu perro una conducta incompatible. Por ejemplo, tu perro no puede saltar mientras está sentado. Entonces, puedes enseñarle a sentarse y perfeccionar la orden "Sentado" hasta que sea muy confiable. Luego, simplemente dile "Sentado" cuando llegues a tu casa, antes de que te salte encima.

Listo! El problema se ha solucionado.

Otra posibilidad sería intentar que la conducta de saltar encima se extinga. Para esto simplemente tendrías que ignorar a tu perro cuando te salta encima. Sin embargo, esto no es muy fácil de lograr, especialmente con perros grandes. Por eso, el adiestramiento de una conducta incompatible es la mejor solución para este problema.

La gran ventaja del adiestramiento de conductas incompatibles es que cada una de esas conductas puede ser entrenada sin necesidad de castigos o MAR. Por tanto, no estresarás a tu perro ni le causarás ansiedad.
Translation - English
Incompatible behaviour training is the best way to get your dog to stop doing something annoying and solve behaviour problems. Beside not being traumatic for your dog, it's a lot more effective than verbal punishment and NRMs (No Reward Markers).

This is an incredible simple strategy and you'll be surprised to learn it wasn't even taken into consideration in most old books. To better explain it, here's an example.

Old training books described techniques to stop your dog jumping on you when you get home in the following way:

"When the dog jumps on you, knee it down. This will make it stop jumping."
"When the dog jumps on you, step lightly on its rear paws."

These techniques are all but useless. What's more, as you can easily imagine, these methods can lead to really dramatic consequences for the poor dog.

So what's the problem with these techniques? First, they use physical punishment. Second, the punishment is given when the dog has already jumped on the person, so this doesn't stop the behaviour you want to eliminate.

What's an alternative strategy for this problem? Teach your dog an incompatible behaviour. For example, your dog can't jump while it's sitting. So, you can teach it to sit and work on the order "Sit" until it gives really solid results. Then you simply tell your dog to "Sit" when you come home before it can jump on you.

That's it! Problem solved.

Another thing you can do is try and eliminate the jumping behaviour. To do this you simply ignore your dog when it jumps on you. Nevertheless, this isn't very easy to do, especially with big dogs. Therefore, incompatible behaviour training is the best solution to this problem.

The big advantage with incompatible behaviour training is that each of these ways to behave can be trained without the need for punishment or NRMs. So you won't subject your dog to stress or anxiety.
Spanish to English: Clicker training
General field: Science
Detailed field: Psychology
Source text - Spanish
Cómo funciona el adiestramiento con clicker

El adiestramiento con clicker se basa en el condicionamiento clásico y el condicionamiento operante.

Primero tienes que aplicar el condicionamiento clásico, haciendo que tu perro asocie el sonido del clicker con algo agradable (generalmente comida).

Lo que sigue es sencillo. Cada vez que tu perro ejecuta la conducta que le quieres enseñar, haces click y le das alguna recompensa. Con unas cuantas repeticiones, tu perro habrá aprendido lo que querías enseñarle.

Después que tu perro realiza frecuentemente esa conducta particular, tienes que añadirle una orden a toda la secuencia.

Por ejemplo, si quieres enseñarle a tu perro a sentarse, primero tiene que aprender a hacerlo sin la orden verbal. Una vez que lo hace frecuentemente para recibir su recompensa, le dices "Sentado" antes que él se siente. Después de unas cuantas repeticiones, él responderá a la orden.

¿Por qué usar el clicker en lugar de sólo darle la recompensa? Porque con el clicker podrás marcar el momento exacto en que tu perro realizó la conducta deseada, incluso si no estás cerca de él.

Los métodos de educación canina usados en esta técnica son: atracción, captura y moldeado.
Translation - English
How clicker training works

Clicker training is based on classical conditioning and operant conditioning.

First we have to use classical conditioning, so your dog associates the noise of the clicker with something nice (usually food).

The next step is simple. Every time the dog does what you're training it to do, click with the clicker and give it a reward. As you repeat the exercise your dog will learn what you want to teach it.

When your dog has learnt to frequently do what you wish, you add an order to the sequence.

For example, if you want to teach your dog to sit, first the dog must learn to sit without a verbal command. When the dog has learnt to sit frequently to receive the reward you say "Sit" before it sits down. The dog will respond to the command after you've repeated the exercise a few times.

Why should I use the clicker instead of just giving a reward? With the clicker you can click in exactly the right moment when your dog does what you want, even if you're not nearby.

The dog training methods used in this technique are called: luring, capturing and shaping.
Spanish to English: Rolfing article
General field: Medical
Detailed field: Medical (general)
Source text - Spanish
Sin apenas darnos cuenta, todos los días adoptamos malas postu- ras, tensiones y gestos que pueden acabar afectando a nuestra salud y bienestar. Factores genéticos, per- sonales, laborales influyen en la aparición de estas molestias. Pero hay otro elemento que incide espe- cialmente sobre la persona: la fuerza de la gravedad. De esto se dio cuen- ta hace años Ida P. Rolf, Doctora en Bioquímica por la Universidad de Columbia (EE.UU.) y creadora del Método de Integración Estructural, más conocido como Rolfing. Esta in- vestigadora norteamericana descu- brió que la forma de nuestro cuerpo se desarrolla y cambia por la influen- cia de la gravedad.
Translation - English
Without even really realizing it, every day we are adapting to bad posture, tension and movements that can affect our health and well-being. Genetic and personal factors, as well as working conditions, influence these problems. There is however another element that has an effect on people: the force of gravity. This was something that Ida P. Rolf, a Doctor specialized in Biochemistry at Columbia University (USA), and the creator of the Structural Integration Method, commonly known as Rolfing, had been considering for years. The North American researcher discovered that the shape of our body develops and changes under the influence of gravity.
Spanish to English: Destructive dogs
General field: Science
Detailed field: Psychology
Source text - Spanish
Los perros destructores son un gran problema para mucha gente y, muchas veces, para ellos mismos. Esos perros que se dedican a masticar los muebles, los zapatos, las plantas y todo lo que encuentran, suelen terminar abandonados o en un albergue en espera de una familia que quiera adoptarlos. Igual suerte suelen correr los perros que destrozan el jardín cavando huecos donde les da la gana.

Lastimosamente, las conductas destructivas son muy frecuentes en los perros y no creo que exista un solo perro que jamás haya sido destructor, aunque sea por un corto tiempo. Esto porque masticar cosas y cavar son conductas naturales en los perros. Tan naturales como respirar, alimentarse o hacer sus necesidades.

Por supuesto, algunos perros tienen más necesidad que otros de expresar estas conductas. A los terrier, por ejemplo, generalmente les encanta cavar y en muchos casos es imposible evitar que lo hagan. La conducta de masticar cosas es más común en todos los perros, pero los perros de caza y otras razas criadas para trabajos duros suelen tener más marcada esta conducta.

Aunque masticar cosas y cavar en el jardín son conductas inapropiadas para los humanos, también son conductas muy naturales para los perros y por eso no es conveniente tratar de erradicarlas. Lo mejor que puedes hacer para prevenir y solucionar problemas de destrucción es redirigir las conductas destructivas hacia objetos resistentes o lugares adecuados. Es decir que, más que adiestramiento canino, tienes que llevar a cabo un programa de enriquecimiento ambiental para tu perro (aunque algo de adiestramiento también hay en estas soluciones).

Los entrenadores de la vieja escuela tienden a solucionar los problemas de perros destructores mediante el castigo. Simplemente castigan a los perros cada vez que éstos empiezan alguna de las conductas destructivas. El problema con ese enfoque es que suele causar más problemas que aportar soluciones. La mayoría de los perros desarrollan otras conductas inapropiadas en respuesta a esos "tratamientos" e incluso pueden aumentar la intensidad y frecuencia de las conductas destructivas.

Por eso, en esta sección encontrarás soluciones a través de la redirección de las conductas destructivas, y no a través del castigo. Es decir que, en lugar de enseñarle a tu perro a no masticar y no cavar, le enseñarás a masticar solamente sus juguetes y cavar solamente en un lugar determinado construido específicamente para eso.

La estrategia de redirigir las conductas inapropiadas es equivalente al enriquecimiento ambiental que se hace en los zoológicos modernos. No solo sirve para solucionar el problema en cuestión, sino también para mantener la salud psicológica y emocional de los animales (y muchas veces mejorar la salud física a través del ejercicio).
Translation - English
Destructive dogs are a big problem for many people and this can also often cause problems for the dogs too. Dogs that dedicate their time to chewing furniture, shoes, plants and anything else they can get their teeth on, usually end up abandoned, or in a kennel waiting to be adopted. Dogs that destroy the garden, digging holes anywhere they please, usually end up the same way.

Unfortunately, this kind of behaviour is very common in dogs and I don't think there's ever been a dog that was never destructive, at least once in its life. This is because, chewing things and digging holes is part of a dog's natural behaviour. To a dog, it's as natural as breathing, eating or having a pee.

Of course, some dogs have a greater tendency to behave like this. A terrier, for example, will love digging, and in many cases it'll be impossible to stop it. Chewing things is very common in all dogs, but hunting dogs and other breeds that were bred for hard work will usually have a more marked propensity for this type of behaviour.

While chewing things and digging in the garden are inappropriate for humans, it's only natural for a dog to behave like this, so it's not a good idea to try and eliminate this behaviour. The best thing to do to prevent and solve destructive behaviour is to redirect the destructive behaviour towards more resistant objects and appropriate places. In other words, rather than dog training, what you have to do is enrich your dog's environment with a specific plan (although there is also a little training involved in these solutions).

Old-school trainers tend to solve problems caused by destructive dogs using punishment. They simply punish the dogs every time the dog starts to behave destructively. The problem with this approach is that it usually causes more problems than it solves. Most dogs will develop other inappropriate behaviour in response to this "treatment" and the intensity and frequency of the destructive behaviour can increase.

Therefore, in this section you'll find solutions involving the redirection of destructive behaviour, not punishment. In other words, instead of teaching your dog to not chew or dig, you'll teach it to chew just its toys and dig only in a certain place you've dedicated to dog digging.

Redirecting inappropriate behaviour is the equivalent of environmental enrichment in modern zoos. It's not just used to solve the problem in question, but also to keep the animals psychologically and emotionally healthy (and this also often means an improvement in physical health too).
Italian to English: Motorcycle marketing
General field: Marketing
Source text - Italian
Aprilia è il Costruttore italiano più titolato tra i marchi motociclistici attualmente in corsa nel Mondiale velocità: dal 1992 a oggi, ha conquistato 31 titoli iridati nel Motomondiale, oltre a 4 titoli nel Mondiale Supermoto, 2 Mondiali nel Trial e 8 vittorie nei Gran Premi del Mondiale Superbike.
Translation - English
Aprilia has more titles than any other Italian motorcycle constructor currently competing in the MotoGP. Aprilia has won 31 GP world titles since 1992, 4 Supermotard world titles and 2 Trials world titles, and has also won 8 Superbike World Championship races.
Italian to English: Promotional
General field: Marketing
Source text - Italian
Si prosegue poi con il team di Freestyle, oggi composto da oltre 15 atleti tra skateboard, surf, snowboard, mentre Alfa Romeo è sponsor del campionato mondiale di superbike e di Luna Rossa, la barca italiana che ha preso parte all’America’s Cup, senza dimenticare il Maxy Jacht Alfa Romeo detto il “serial winner” dei mari per le innumerevoli vittorie ottenute in questi anni.
Translation - English
And then there’s the Freestyle team, currently consisting of 15 skateboarders, surfers and snowboarders, while Alfa Romeo sponsors the world superbike championship and Luna Rossa, the Italian boat which took part in the America’s Cup, without forgetting the maxi yacht Alfa Romeo, nicknamed the “serial winner” of the seas for its countless victories in recent years.
Italian to English: National Health Service
General field: Medical
Source text - Italian
Infatti, in osservanza dei diritti riconosciuti in materia sanitaria agli stranieri dalla legge, alcune ONP hanno deciso di non farsi carico di quella fascia di utenza che ha pieno diritto di accesso alle cure erogate dal SSN, assorbendo unicamente (o prevalentemente) quella frazione di domanda che non ha titolarità per accedere alla strutture pubbliche o private accreditate (irregolari e clandestini, limitatamente ad alcune prestazioni medico-ambulatoriali).
Translation - English
In fact, in observance of the legal rights recognised on the matter of health for foreigners, some non-profit organisations have decided not to take any responsibility for those patients with full access to the services of the National Health Service and therefore only (or chiefly) cater for those who fail to meet the legal requirements for being admitted to public or recognised private hospitals (illegal immigrants or stowaways, in the form of limited medical treatment).
Italian to English: Health services
General field: Social Sciences
Source text - Italian
Di grande significato, inoltre, risultano tutta una serie di servizi solo indirettamente correlabili a quelli di natura sanitaria quali l'accoglienza (75%), l'inserimento lavorativo (50%), i servizi socio-assistenziali (50%), l'assistenza legale (50%), la prevenzione della tratta (25%), tutti necessari a garantire quelle condizioni di contesto indispensabili a preservare un buono stato di salute (disporre di una casa, di un lavoro e quindi di un reddito, veder tutelati i propri diritti, etc.).
Translation - English
Furthermore, services which are only indirectly associated with health services are very important: these include advice bureaus (75%), job finding (50%), welfare services (50%), legal aid (50%), prevention of the slave trade (25%) and the indispensable requirements for guaranteeing the essential conditions necessary for a good state of health (a home, the protection of one's rights, a job and therefore an income, etc.).
Italian to English: Human rights
General field: Social Sciences
Source text - Italian
Il ruolo degli enti locali nella promozione del rispetto universale dei diritti umani e nell’opera di sensibilizzazione dell’opinione pubblica ebbe un ruolo importante.
Translation - English
Local organisations played an important role in promoting the universal respect for human rights and awakening public opinion.
Italian to English: Right to citizenship for women
General field: Social Sciences
Source text - Italian
E’ un’azione che porta ad un risultato positivo, visibile e comunicabile, che parte da un bisogno reale e che ha come obiettivo l’esercizio pieno dei diritti di cittadinanza da parte delle donne, le pari possibilità di scelta, di realizzazione e di agio nel mondo e sui luoghi di lavoro; può essere attuato in un contesto limitato, ma ha un valore esemplare e indica una strada che anche altre/i possono percorrere, anche in contesti differenti; come valore aggiunto rafforza l’autorevolezza delle donne e l’assunzione del principio della inviolabilità del corpo.
Translation - English
It is an action which produces a positive, visible and transmittable result. It derives from a real need with the aim of achieving total respect for the right to citizenship for women, the equal opportunity of choice, realization and comfort in the world and at work; it can be implemented in a limited context but it has an exemplary value and indicates the way for others to follow too, even in different contexts. What’s more it also reinforces the authority of women, and the principle of inviolability of the body.
Italian to English: Violations of human rights
General field: Social Sciences
Source text - Italian
Da allora, purtroppo, il numero delle vittime delle varie guerre, scoppiate in diverse parti del mondo, è continuato ad aumentare, così come sono in aumento le violazioni dei diritti umani.
Translation - English
Since then unfortunately the number of victims from various wars that have broken out throughout the world continues to grow, as is also the case for violations of human rights.
Italian to English: Equality
General field: Social Sciences
Source text - Italian
Lo scopo è quello di creare democrazia fra i generi e pari opportunità per le donne partecipanti a tutte le risorse (di potere, finanziarie, politiche, ecc.); questo implica l’abolizione di qualsiasi forma di violenza contro le donne.
Translation - English
The goal is to create a democratic situation between the sexes with equal opportunities for women participating in all sectors (power, financial, politics, etc.); this implies the abolition of all forms of violence against women.
Italian to English: Gender violence
General field: Social Sciences
Source text - Italian
- Maggiore conoscenza del fenomeno della violenza sulle donne, che consenta maggiori interventi di prevenzione.
Translation - English
- Shedding more light on the problem of violence against women, making more preventive interventions possible.





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