请教一个中文的语法问题
Thread poster: xxxwonita
xxxwonita
China
Local time: 15:07
Jun 25, 2009

中文常用“是不是”来提问。例如:

你是不是很累?
她是不是没来?

请教:这个“是不是”从语法的角度应该如何解释?

这个问题在中文教学里经常碰到,至今找不到一个合适的答案。


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xxxwonita
China
Local time: 15:07
TOPIC STARTER
形容词作谓语 Jun 25, 2009

中文一般形容词可以直接作谓语。例如:
我很累。
她身体不好。

但是西方人由于习惯了“主语+系词+表语”的结构,总是喜欢加上一个“是”字。例如,他们会说:

我是很累。
她身体是不好。
我是30岁。

这个“是”加上也不算错,但有时听起来很别扭,有时好像还可以。例如在回答“你是不是很累?“这个问题时,说“我是很累”就可以,但是有人问你"你好吗?",回答“我是很好”听起来就不舒服。

我这都是凭语感,没有系统的语法。查了很多语法书也找不到答案,所以学生觉得很难。


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wherestip  Identity Verified
United States
Local time: 13:07
Chinese to English
+ ...
predisposition Jun 25, 2009

Bin,

The way I see it, this construct is often used in a situation where the asker of the question is predisposed for the answer to be in the affirmative.

For example,
"你是不是很累?" is similar to the English sentence of "You're tired, aren't you?"
"她是不是没来?" is similar to the English sentence of "She hasn't arrived yet, has she?"

Whereas "你累吗?" or "她来了吗?" could be seen as the equivalent to simple questions such as "Are you tired?" or "Has she arrived?".


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xxxwonita
China
Local time: 15:07
TOPIC STARTER
反问句? Jun 25, 2009

有道理。

你很累,是不是? “是不是“对前面的句子做了一个反问。
你是不是很累?这句的“是不是“可以看作一个单独的反问成分。







wherestip wrote:

Bin,

The way I see it, this construct is often used in a situation where the asker of the question is predisposed for the answer to be in the affirmative.

For example,
"你是不是很累?" is similar to the English sentence of "You're tired, aren't you?"
"她是不是没来?" is similar to the English sentence of "She hasn't arrived yet, has she?"

Whereas "你累吗?" or "她来了吗?" could be seen as the equivalent to simple questions such as "Are you tired?" or "Has she arrived?".



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wherestip  Identity Verified
United States
Local time: 13:07
Chinese to English
+ ...
中文用法 Jun 25, 2009

Bin Tiede wrote:

有道理。

你很累,是不是? “是不是“对前面的句子做了一个反问。
你是不是很累?这句的“是不是“可以看作一个单独的反问成分。

wherestip wrote:

Bin,

The way I see it, this construct is often used in a situation where the asker of the question is predisposed for the answer to be in the affirmative.

For example,
"你是不是很累?" is similar to the English sentence of "You're tired, aren't you?"
"她是不是没来?" is similar to the English sentence of "She hasn't arrived yet, has she?"

Whereas "你累吗?" or "她来了吗?" could be seen as the equivalent to simple questions such as "Are you tired?" or "Has she arrived?".



Exactly. That's the way I would use this kind of construct, not that I have any occasion to apply it these days

Anyway, it's one aspect you can point out in your explanation. If German has a similar construct that your students could identify with, so much the better. Good luck.


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xxxwonita
China
Local time: 15:07
TOPIC STARTER
Very helpful Jun 25, 2009

To summarize: The rhetoric question can be answered with an extra "shi", otherwise not.

Thank you.


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Jason Young  Identity Verified
China
Local time: 02:07
Member (2008)
English to Chinese
+ ...
我的理解 Jun 26, 2009

个人认为(这一点与STEVE的理解相同),“是不是”或“是否”(置于主语后)可以理解为“吗”(置于句末)的变体,反之亦然。如“你是不是喜欢她?”和“你喜欢她吗?”。但两者在语气上有所不同,“是不是”的语气较为肯定(即可能在问的时候已经有所了解或已经看出某种迹象),而“吗”的语气则完全是期待一个未知的答案。


单就“是”而言:

中文在用到系动词“是”时,左右两边所“系”的多数都是名词(包括代词,因为代词终究是用来“代”名词的),如“他是(个)医生”。而表语换成其他词性便讲不通,如

“他是聪明”(形容词)
“他是这里”(副词)
“他是唱歌”(动词)

但如果是强调(多为让步从句)的情况,上述句子则又可以成立,如:

A: Tom 是个聪明人
B: 他是聪明,不过......

A: Tom 唱歌吗?
B: 他是唱歌,但唱得很难听。

当然,也有一句不成立,即“他是这里”,因为表示方位和地点的句子里必须把系动词换成“在”---“他在这里”。

个人理解,供你参考。

[Edited at 2009-06-26 15:39 GMT]

[Edited at 2009-06-26 15:48 GMT]


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xxxwonita
China
Local time: 15:07
TOPIC STARTER
很受启发 Jun 27, 2009

Jason Young wrote:

但如果是强调(多为让步从句)的情况,上述句子则又可以成立,如:

A: Tom 是个聪明人
B: 他是聪明,不过......

A: Tom 唱歌吗?
B: 他是唱歌,但唱得很难听。



有一本书讲到“是……的”是中文的一种强调句式,例如:

他很聪明。
他是很聪明的。

书中还说在某些情况下,可以/应该省略“的“,但是具体情况没作说明。按照你给的例子,如果是让步壮语从句,应该省掉“的“。


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chica nueva
Local time: 07:07
Chinese to English
copula 系动词 (?) Jul 3, 2009

Bin Tiede wrote:

中文常用“是不是”来提问。例如:

你是不是很累?
她是不是没来?

请教:这个“是不是”从语法的角度应该如何解释?

这个问题在中文教学里经常碰到,至今找不到一个合适的答案。


Hello Bin Tiede

IMO these translate as:
Are you tired? -> Yes, I am/No, I'm not.
你是不是很累? 是,很累。/不是,不累(还好)。
Hasn't she come? -> No, she hasn't. /Yes. She's here.
她是不是没来?是,好像没来。/不是,早就来了。

And the grammatical feature is: the verb 'to be' as 'copula 系动词'.

Lesley

[ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copula_(linguistics)#Use (English)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copula_(linguistics)#Chinese
In Chinese languages, both states and qualities are generally expressed with stative verbs (SV) with no need for a copula, e.g. in Mandarin, "to be tired" (累 lèi) ... 是 ... can be combined with the modifier 的 de to mean "yes" or to show agreement. e.g. Question: 你的汽车是不是红色的?... ]


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