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Off topic: The 2009 Nobel Prize in Physics
Thread poster: xxxwonita
xxxwonita
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Local time: 02:35
Oct 6, 2009

The Nobel Prize in Physics goes to Charles K. Kao "for groundbreaking achievements concerning the transmission of light in fibers for optical communication" and to Willard S. Boyle and George E. Smith "for the invention of an imaging semiconductor circuit – the CCD sensor".

Charles K. Kao
half 1/2 of the prize
Standard Telecommunication Laboratories
Chinese University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong, China
b. 1933
in Shanghai, China

http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/2009/

[Edited at 2009-10-06 11:37 GMT]


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redred  Identity Verified
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congrats Oct 7, 2009

粗略的记忆,拿Nobel的7名理工科学类华人,是生于中国,成长于异邦,本土从没出产过,是能力缺乏,还是诺奖委会员的评审们不愿给中国籍人士呢.

[Edited at 2009-10-07 02:14 GMT]


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Zhoudan  Identity Verified
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优秀人才都跑到外面去了 Oct 7, 2009

不管在哪里,得奖都是好事。
redred wrote:

粗略的记忆,拿Nobel的7名理工科学类华人,是生于中国,成长于异邦,本土从没出产过,是能力缺乏,还是诺奖委会员的评审们不愿给中国籍人士呢.

[Edited at 2009-10-07 02:14 GMT]


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wherestip  Identity Verified
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A transcript from NPR Oct 7, 2009

http://pbs.vo.llnwd.net/kip0/_pxn=1%20_pxI0=A3337%20_pxL0=begin%20_pxM0=%20_pxR0=10800%20_pxK=17082/newshour/rss/media/2009/10/06/20091006_physics.mp3




http://www6.lexisnexis.com/publisher/EndUser?Action=UserDisplayFullDocument&orgId=574&topicId=100007185&docId=l:1051351188&isRss=true


...

JEFFREY BROWN: All right, so the fiber optics is the work of Charles Kao. Let`s start with that. Explain the breakthrough that he made there and what that -- and then we`ll get to what that`s led to.

MARIETTE DICHRISTINA: OK. So way back in the 1930s, medical doctors were already starting to use light pipes or fiber optics for imaging into the body in certain ways, but one particular problem that they had was that you couldn`t transmit that light very far, and it was useful for one patient or another, but not for sending information over longer distances.

The work that Kao did and the essential innovation and insight that he had there is that, if you could somehow remove some of the more, quote, "the impurities" in that light fiber, that fiber optic, then you could send more information through that tube than you could ever do previously. And how he realized...

JEFFREY BROWN: So the -- oh, I`m sorry. Go ahead. Go ahead.

MARIETTE DICHRISTINA: How he realized that was, even though at the time they had rather pure glass, he realized that, if you fused silica or quartz, you could get an even more pure glass pipe and therefore reflect light. You could think of it as if you were bouncing light down a highway made of mirrors.

JEFFREY BROWN: But the problem -- just to be clear -- the essential problem was that the transmission of light, the light would be dissipated in its travels through the glass...

MARIETTE DICHRISTINA: Right.

JEFFREY BROWN: ... so it wasn`t traveling far enough to carry the information.

MARIETTE DICHRISTINA: In Kao`s day, you could only send, let`s say, 1 percent of the light across a fiber optic tube of, say, 20 meters, which you can think of as about two school bus lengths in distance. And by that, you know, the light that you started with, you know, after it went just that short distance, 99 percent of it would be gone.

JEFFREY BROWN: The academy, I read today, they were comparing where we are today, and they said that, if they unraveled all of the fiber optics that we have today, it would now cover 600 million miles, so from his day until now, quite a difference.

MARIETTE DICHRISTINA: You could circle the globe with those fibers 25,000 times. But what`s neat about the light transmission that`s done today is, in Kao`s day, where he could only transmit, say, 1 percent of the light over that two bus lengths in distance, today we can transmit more than 95 percent of that light over a kilometer or half a mile.

JEFFREY BROWN: And what does that mean? I mean, now -- now tell us how that translates to our daily lives.

MARIETTE DICHRISTINA: Right, so this is our information highway. Today, we have the luxury of living a 24/7 instant-on Internet access with beautiful pictures, which we`ll talk about in just a minute, and all the information we want to at the touch of a button. In fact, when the Nobel Prize was announced this morning, all that information went around the world at the speed of light thanks to this invention.

...


JEFFREY BROWN: All right, let me just ask you one more thing before I let you go. I mean, you watch these Nobel prizes all the time. Some years the physics prize goes to something that only other physicists could know and love, right? And then other years, it`s like this, where it has applications in daily lives. Is there any pattern that you discern here?

MARIETTE DICHRISTINA: Right. Well, here`s one of the wonderful things about basic science research. Now, of course, the Nobel prizes acknowledge science that has transformed research and our understanding of the world and maybe even, in our case, right, we were talking about the universe, because we`re looking with the Hubble telescope at beautiful, profound images from the edge of the universe, at Mars next door.

And in the cases of the physics awards, I think one thing for us all to remember is that maybe today we don`t know why those basic research advances are going to be so important to us in our lives, but, hey, how about 10 years, 20 years from now? These basic pieces that help us understand the world around us could then change us in applied ways some years down the line.

JEFFREY BROWN: All right, Mariette DiChristina of Scientific American, thanks very much.

MARIETTE DICHRISTINA: Thanks for having me.



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xxxwonita
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Local time: 02:35
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More about Charles K. Kao Oct 7, 2009

http://zh.wikipedia.org/wiki/高錕

生平

1933年,高錕出生於上海,祖父是清末民初時期南社著名文人高吹萬,父親高君湘是留美歸國的執業律師,叔父高君平為近代著名天文學家[5],弟弟高鋙[6],幼時一家住在法租界一棟三層高的房子[7]。入學前,父親聘請老師回家,教導高錕和高鋙誦讀四書五經。10歲,高錕就讀世界學校(即今日的國際學校)[8],需要讀中文之外,也要讀英文和法文,學校聘請留法的學者回來教授,高錕開始接觸中國之外的人事文化,他說:「影響很大!」。[來源請求]

童年的高锟对化学十分感兴趣,家裡房子的三樓就成了他的實驗室。高氏曾经自制氯气,制造灭火筒、焰火、烟花和相纸;最危险的一次是混合红磷粉与氯酸钾,加上水並調成糊狀,再掺入泥里,搓成泥炸弹。[9][7]后来他又迷上了无线电,很小便成功地装了一部有五六个真空管的收音机。[10]

1948年家族移居台灣,後高錕父親攜其家眷再迁往香港,高錕中学就读于香港圣若瑟书院,高中畢業後雖已考上香港大学,但因立志攻读电机工程,當時港大没有这个专业,於是他輾轉就讀了當時位於倫敦東部的伍利奇理工學院(現為格林威治大學),于1957年取得英國伦敦大学[10]电子工程理学学士学位,及後1965年在倫敦帝国理工学院获得英國倫敦大學的哲學博士学位 (帝國理工學院於2007年正式脫離英國倫敦大學系統)。

高锟与夫人黄美芸相识在伦敦[11],当时他刚从香港赴英国读书,夫人是当地华裔。[3]两人于1959年结婚[12][13],育有长子明漳、次女明淇[12],现时皆在美国硅谷生活和工作[11]。

1957年,高锟进入国际电话电报公司(ITT),在旗下一英国子公司标准电话与电缆公司任工程师。[14]1960年,他进入ITT设于英国的欧洲中央研究机构——标准通讯实验室,在那里服务了十年,其职位从研究科学家升至研究经理。[14]

高錕在ITT時期,鑽研利用玻璃纖維進行信號傳送,並將实验成果,發表多篇論文,其中在1966年發表的《光频率介质纤维表面波导》论文[15]中指出:用石英基玻璃纤维进行长距离信息传递,将带来一场通讯事业的革命,并提出当玻璃纤维损耗率下降到每公里20分贝时,光纤通讯即可成功。他的研究为人类进入光导新纪元打开了大门。为此,获得2009年诺贝尔物理学奖[16]以及爱迪生电信奖、马可尼国际奖、贝尔奖、巴伦坦奖章、利布曼奖和光电子学奖金等。

高锟于1970年应香港中文大学邀请筹办电子工程系[13],担任中大电子系学教授及讲座教授,任职四年。[12]1974年又返回ITT公司,在位于美国弗吉尼亚州劳诺克的光电产品部担任主任科学家,后擢升为工程主任。[14]1982年,因卓越的研究与管理才能而被任命为首位“ITT执行科学家”,在康尼迪克州的先进技术中心工作。[14]

1987年,出任香港中文大学第三任校长,直至1996年正式退休。[17]退休後居於香港,並擔任香港特區政府科技創新委員會委員。中國科學院紫金山天文台于1996年宣佈命名一顆新發現的小行星為「高錕星」(国际编号3463),以表扬他在科学上所做的杰出贡献。[18]他花近十年时间完成的自传,於2005年出版中文譯本《潮平岸闊——高錕自述》。[4]

2009年初高锟證實罹患早期老年痴呆症,接受治療[19],其夫人黄美芸接受香港《明报》采访时指高锟“老人家记性差”,时而忘记锁匙或书本放在哪里,不过病情轻微,認人、認路均沒有問題。[3][20]


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ysun  Identity Verified
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中国籍诺贝尔奖得主 Oct 7, 2009

李政道和杨振宁获诺贝尔奖时,他们的国籍还仍然是中国籍。

李政道1926年生于上海,1957年获诺贝尔物理学奖,时年31岁;1962年加入美国籍。

杨振宁1922年生于安徽,1957年获诺贝尔物理学奖,时年35岁;1964年加入美国籍。


[Edited at 2009-10-08 02:28 GMT]


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ysun  Identity Verified
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诺贝尔委员会怎回事? Oct 9, 2009

高錕的科学成就经受了几十年实践的考验,他得诺贝尔物理奖是当之无愧。 只是这个奖颁得太晚,连光纤之父都已经忘记了光纤是啥玩意儿,而且看电视新闻时都不知是自己得奖。

有的人才干了几个月,照样也能得诺贝尔奖。从那个和平奖中国得主的例子看来,最胡来的就是诺贝尔和平奖。:D


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pkchan  Identity Verified
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一招一式不含糊 Oct 9, 2009



中新社三藩市十月七日電:十月七日上午,在美國矽谷一個為智障和體障老人服務的健康中心,三十八位老人正在做椅子操。伸手、抬腿、轉動拳頭,老人們跟著老師一起喊數。

 身材瘦弱,雙鬢灰白,著紅色圓領衫的高錕坐在第二排,抿著嘴笑嘻嘻看老師,一招一式不含糊

中評社香港10月9日電/剛奪得諾貝爾物理學獎的“光纖之父”高錕,因患上老人癡呆症,已經忘了自己畢生研究、造福世人的光纖科技,其妻黃美芸亦形容患病後的丈夫“不再是以前那個人”。不過,高錕並沒有忘記同行半世紀的愛妻,也惦念著其他同病相憐的人,他和太太正考慮將部分獎金捐給香港聖雅各福群會老人中心和美國一個老人癡呆症研究協會。

[修改时间: 2009-10-09 15:43 GMT]


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lbone  Identity Verified
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看不出来 Oct 9, 2009

pkchan wrote:



中新社三藩市十月七日電:十月七日上午,在美國矽谷一個為智障和體障老人服務的健康中心,三十八位老人正在做椅子操。伸手、抬腿、轉動拳頭,老人們跟著老師一起喊數。

 身材瘦弱,雙鬢灰白,著紅色圓領衫的高錕坐在第二排,抿著嘴笑嘻嘻看老師,一招一式不含糊

中評社香港10月9日電/剛奪得諾貝爾物理學獎的“光纖之父”高錕,因患上老人癡呆症,已經忘了自己畢生研究、造福世人的光纖科技,其妻黃美芸亦形容患病後的丈夫“不再是以前那個人”。不過,高錕並沒有忘記同行半世紀的愛妻,也惦念著其他同病相憐的人,他和太太正考慮將部分獎金捐給香港聖雅各福群會老人中心和美國一個老人癡呆症研究協會。

[修改时间: 2009-10-09 15:43 GMT]


看照片样子挺好的。这病真可怕。不是有遗传吧。我以前老板这年龄时挺精神的,还带学生,工作在第一线呢。

[Edited at 2009-10-09 21:15 GMT]


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wherestip  Identity Verified
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Genetic risks Oct 10, 2009

lbone wrote:

看照片样子挺好的。这病真可怕。不是有遗传吧。



看来 Alzheimer's 和基因是有一定关系的.

http://www.nia.nih.gov/Alzheimers/Publications/geneticsfs.htm


又听到过有多吃蔬菜、少吃肉这么一说 ...

http://www.vegsource.com/articles/alzheimers_homocysteine.htm


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ysun  Identity Verified
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祝高錕先生健康地安享晚年 Oct 10, 2009

ysun wrote:

高錕的科学成就经受了几十年实践的考验,他得诺贝尔物理奖是当之无愧。 只是这个奖颁得太晚,连光纤之父都已经忘记了光纤是啥玩意儿,而且看电视新闻时都不知是自己得奖。

光纤之父忘记了光纤是啥玩意儿没关系,不知自己得奖也没关系。 安享晚年的时候,这些东西忘得越干净越好。 不过,人们会永远记得他是光纤之父,记得他因此而获诺贝尔物理奖。

诺贝尔委员会往往太迟钝,有些该得奖的也许就耽误了。老舍、沈从文大概就是例子。 可有时候诺贝尔委员会又快得出奇,没法说。:D


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redred  Identity Verified
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It is unfair Oct 10, 2009

奥巴马何德何能,上任不到一年,轻易摘取别人几生都拿不到的诺奖.由此看出诺奖的不公正和随心所欲,哪个国家掌权,喜欢哪个就给哪个,从奥巴马就可一窥端倪.

[Edited at 2009-10-10 02:41 GMT]


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ysun  Identity Verified
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“马胡” Oct 10, 2009

redred wrote:

奥巴马何德何能,上任不到一年,轻易摘取别人几生都拿不到的诺奖.由此看出诺奖的不公正和随心所欲,哪个国家掌权,喜欢哪个就给哪个,从奥巴马就可一窥端倪.

[Edited at 2009-10-10 02:41 GMT]

我对奥巴马并无恶感,但也觉得这个奖颁得有点“马胡”。颁奖“马胡”,还不如“马胡”共享。:D

http://www.nytimes.com/2009/10/10/world/10nobel.html
Still, Mr. Obama, who was described as “very surprised” when he received the news, said he himself was not quite convinced, adding that the award “deeply humbled” him.


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redred  Identity Verified
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鸡肋 Oct 10, 2009

如果是中国的叛逆人士,如什么喇嘛,就会封你个奖的,哈哈,不要太当真.

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nigerose  Identity Verified
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奥氏得奖好 Oct 10, 2009

以后他如果想发动war的话,会不由自主地想到这个奖。

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