一篇摘要的翻译
Thread poster: kenny2006woo (X)

kenny2006woo (X)

Local time: 18:47
English to Chinese
Jul 4, 2010

同学做课程论文需要写英文摘要,托我帮忙翻译。我深知不堪担此重任,但不好推却,只好勉强为之。下面是原文跟译文。原文标点符号很多用的是英文标点,文中还有不妥之处我改了一下。原文跟修改后的文字一并贴出。



摘 要:

液体橡胶一般是指数均相对分子质量为500~10 000 ,在常温下可流动的粘稠状的聚合物。可与固化剂进行化学反应形
... See more
同学做课程论文需要写英文摘要,托我帮忙翻译。我深知不堪担此重任,但不好推却,只好勉强为之。下面是原文跟译文。原文标点符号很多用的是英文标点,文中还有不妥之处我改了一下。原文跟修改后的文字一并贴出。



摘 要:

液体橡胶一般是指数均相对分子质量为500~10 000 ,在常温下可流动的粘稠状的聚合物。可与固化剂进行化学反应形成交联结构,其力学性能与固体生胶的力学相同。可以使用浇注工艺硫化成型,加工简便,易于实现连续化、自动化生产,不需要大型设备,可提高生产率,降低动力消耗。含有官能团的液体橡胶由于活性官能团的存在,更容易扩链和交联成固体硫化橡胶,可在常温下短时间内形成三维立体结构,大幅度提高物理性能。LNR 已广泛用于封装料、密封剂、填缝料、胶粘剂及橡胶制品等。



修改后的摘要:

液体橡胶一般是指数均相对分子质量为500~10 000 ,在常温下可流动的粘稠状的聚合物。可与固化剂进行化学反应形成交联结构,其力学性能与固体生胶的力学相同。可以使用浇注工艺硫化成型,加工简便,易于实现连续化、自动化生产,不需要大型设备,可提高生产率,降低动力消耗。含有活性官能团的液体橡胶更容易扩链和交联,常温下短时间内可形成三维立体机构的固体硫化橡胶,大幅度提高物理性能。LNR 已广泛用于封装料、密封剂、填缝料、胶粘剂及橡胶制品等。


译文:

Abstract: Liquid rubber is usually a kind of fluid, viscous polymer under room temperature, with a number-average-molecular weight ranging from 500 to 10,000. It can react with curing agents and form a cross-linked structure which renders the mechanical properties of the rubber the same as that of crude rubber. 可以使用浇注工艺硫化成型. Its good processability makes it suitable for continuous, automate production without the use of a bulky machine, therefore, higher productivity and lower energy consumption are possible. Liquid rubber with active functional groups tends to magnify its chains and cross-link. The outcome is substantial improvements in mechanical properties by formation of a three-dimensional structure in a very short time under room temperature. Liquid natural rubber has found wide uses in the production of sealants, crack fillers, adhesives and other similar products.


译文难尽人意,不妥之处当不少。望各位不吝赐教。步医先行谢过。

步医


[Edited at 2010-07-04 07:31 GMT]
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kenny2006woo (X)

Local time: 18:47
English to Chinese
TOPIC STARTER
另一篇摘要 May 23, 2011

天然胶乳具有优异的综合性能,用其制备的胶乳制品可作为病毒、细菌等的有效屏障,已广泛应用于医疗卫生及工业领域[1]。而天然胶乳制品生产时需加入硫化促进剂等助剂以满足产品性能要求,但目前乳胶工业大都采用仲胺型的硫化促进剂,在天然胶乳制品加工过程中容易产生致癌性的N-亚硝胺,其对人体健康有很大的影响。目前,随着胶乳制品的广泛应用,胶乳制品中N-亚... See more
天然胶乳具有优异的综合性能,用其制备的胶乳制品可作为病毒、细菌等的有效屏障,已广泛应用于医疗卫生及工业领域[1]。而天然胶乳制品生产时需加入硫化促进剂等助剂以满足产品性能要求,但目前乳胶工业大都采用仲胺型的硫化促进剂,在天然胶乳制品加工过程中容易产生致癌性的N-亚硝胺,其对人体健康有很大的影响。目前,随着胶乳制品的广泛应用,胶乳制品中N-亚硝胺含量对人类健康影响的问题已是天然胶乳制品面临的最大问题之一。
Natural rubber latex has good comprehensive properties. The products made from it which can effectively hold off viruses and bacterium, have found wide uses in the medical field and industries. To achieve the required performance of the products, however, vulcanization accelerators and other agents are needed in preparing the latex. Currently, one of the most used accelerators in the latex industry is the secondary amine accelerators which can lead to the formation of the carcinogenic N-nitrosamine in treating natural rubber latex. As the products made from natural rubber latex are finding more and more applications, the health risks posed by the use of N-nitrosamine have become one of the biggest problems the latex industry ever faced with.

绝大多数胶乳制品是通过高温硫化最终成型的,该过程中发生硫化反应的主要是硫化剂和硫化促进剂。其中仲胺基硫化促进剂在分解后会产生仲胺,并与大气中或配合剂中的氮氧化物在酸性条件下生成稳定的亚硝胺,生成的亚硝胺将DNA烷基化,有最终诱发致癌的可能性[2]。此外,亚硝胺的前体(亚硝酸盐、氮氧化物等)与某些添加剂在生产和储存过程中也可转变为亚硝胺。
Most products made from natural rubber latex experience curing at a high temperature. During the curing process, chemical reactions mainly take place to the vulcanizer and accelerator. The secondary amines that the secondary amine accelerator releases during its decomposition will react with nitrogen oxides present in the atmosphere or ligand under acidic conditions and form nitrosamine which is capable of alkylating DNA molecules and may induce carcinogenesis. Moreover, some additives and precursors of nitrosamine including nitrites and nitrogen oxides may change into nitrosamine during their production and storage.


本文以浓缩天然胶乳为原料,采用非亚硝胺型(ZBEC)、低亚硝胺型(ZDBC)传统型(ZDC)硫化促进剂分别加入天然胶乳中制备配合胶乳及硫化胶膜。考察硫化促进剂的种类和用量、氧化锌的用量、硫磺的用量及制品加工温度对天然胶乳的硫化性能与硫化胶膜物理机械性能的影响。
In this experiment, a non-nitrosamine accelerator ZBEC, a low-nitrosamine accelerator ZDBC and a conventional accelerator ZDC were respectively added into the concentrated natural rubber latex to prepare compounded latex and vulcanized rubber films. The effects of the type and dose of the accelerator, the dose of zinc oxide and sulfur and the processing temperature were investigated on the curing properties of the natural rubber latex and the mechanical properties of the cured films.

试验结果表明:①适当增加氧化锌用量,可明显提高天然胶乳硫化胶膜的交联密度和撕裂强度;②适当增加硫化促进剂或硫磺的用量,不仅可以加快胶膜的硫化速度,同时也可以有效的增大硫化胶膜的交联密度,从而提高硫化胶膜的物理机械性能;③天然胶乳胶膜的硫化温度控制在100℃左右,具有较大的交联密度和较好的物理机械性能;④从天然胶乳胶膜的硫化速度和硫化胶膜的物理机械性能方面考虑,采用环保硫化促进剂ZBEC、ZDBC代替传统的硫化促进剂ZDC是可行的。
The results of the experiment showed that 1) the crosslinking density and tear strength of the natural rubber latex could be greatly enhanced by more zinc oxide; and 2) more accelerator and sulfur could speed up the curing and effectively increase the crosslinking density of the cured rubber films, hence improved mechanical properties of the films; and 3) keeping the curing temperature at 100 ℃ for the making of the films helped to achieve relatively good crosslinking density and mechanical properties; and 4) from a perspective of the curing rate and mechanical properties of the films, it was viable to replace conventional accelerators with ZBEC and ZDBC which were more environment-friendly.

这是我帮同学翻译的另一篇摘要,恳请诸位不吝赐教。
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ysun  Identity Verified
United States
Local time: 05:47
English to Chinese
+ ...
一些看法 May 24, 2011

对于这种翻译讨论,我总是支持的。但如今这里对翻译讨论真正感兴趣的人是越来越少了,更别提这种专业性较强的文章了。所以,你前一篇译文贴出将近一年了,仍无人回应,也没多少人看。这一篇的命运估计也不会好很多。当然,像这种难译的文章,你能把它译出来,是很不容易的。总的说来,你译得还不错。下面,我简单谈一些看法。
绝大多数胶乳制品是通过高温硫化最终成型的,该过程中发生硫化反应的主要是硫化剂和硫化促进剂。其中仲胺基硫化促进剂在分解后会产生仲胺,并与大气中或配合剂中的氮氧化物在酸性条件下生成稳定的亚硝胺,生成的亚硝胺将DNA烷基化,有最终诱发致癌的可能性[2]。此外,亚硝胺的前体(亚硝酸盐、氮氧化物等)与某些添加剂在生产和储存过程中也可转变为亚硝胺。
Most products made from natural rubber latex experience curing at a high temperature. During the curing process, chemical reactions mainly take place to the vulcanizer and accelerator. The secondary amines that the secondary amine accelerator releases during its decomposition will react with nitrogen oxides present in the atmosphere or ligand under acidic conditions and form nitrosamine which is capable of alkylating DNA molecules and may induce carcinogenesis. Moreover, some additives and precursors of nitrosamine including nitrites and nitrogen oxides may change into nitrosamine during their production and storage.


虽然全文讲的是天然胶乳,但这一段对天然胶乳和合成胶乳都是适用的。因此,你在翻译第一句时,不宜添加natural一词 。Latex就是胶乳的意思,rubber一词也可以省略。原文中的“硫化反应”,应译为vulcanization,而不是笼统的”chemical reactions”。 配合剂译为 ligand也不妥。此处的配合剂应该是指compounding agents,也就是指下面的添加剂。 最后一句中,你在译文中把“亚硝胺的前体”与“某些添加剂”的次序颠倒了一下,从而改变了原意。“某些添加剂”是指整个配方的添加剂,而不是亚硝胺的“某些添加剂”。这一段是否改成这样:

Most of latex products are ultimately molded by curing at high temperatures. During the process, it is mainly the vulcanizer and vulcanization accelerator that take part in vulcanization. Among the vulcanization accelerators, the secondary amine accelerators will yield secondary amines upon decomposition, and the secondary amines will react with nitrogen oxides present in the atmosphere or in the compounding agents under acidic conditions and form stable nitrosamine which may alkylate DNA molecules and potentially induce carcinogenesis. Moreover, some precursors of nitrosamine, such as nitrites and nitrogen oxides, and some of the additives may also convert to nitrosamine during their production and storage.

试验结果表明:①适当增加氧化锌用量,可明显提高天然胶乳硫化胶膜的交联密度和撕裂强度;②适当增加硫化促进剂或硫磺的用量,不仅可以加快胶膜的硫化速度,同时也可以有效的增大硫化胶膜的交联密度,从而提高硫化胶膜的物理机械性能;③天然胶乳胶膜的硫化温度控制在100℃左右,具有较大的交联密度和较好的物理机械性能;④从天然胶乳胶膜的硫化速度和硫化胶膜的物理机械性能方面考虑,采用环保硫化促进剂ZBEC、ZDBC代替传统的硫化促进剂ZDC是可行的。
The results of the experiment showed that 1) the crosslinking density and tear strength of the natural rubber latex could be greatly enhanced by more zinc oxide; and 2) more accelerator and sulfur could speed up the curing and effectively increase the crosslinking density of the cured rubber films, hence improved mechanical properties of the films; and 3) keeping the curing temperature at 100 ℃ for the making of the films helped to achieve relatively good crosslinking density and mechanical properties; and 4) from a perspective of the curing rate and mechanical properties of the films, it was viable to replace conventional accelerators with ZBEC and ZDBC which were more environment-friendly.

原文中前两点结论的句型是一样的,所以你在译文中最好也采用同样的句型。此外,你把“增加氧化锌用量”译为“more zinc oxide”,不妥。同样,第二点中的"more accelerator and sulfur”也不妥。 原文中“不仅...,同时...”的意思,在译文中没有表达出来。翻译科技文章应尽量按照原文的结构,不宜译得太活。还有,原文是“适当增加硫化促进剂或硫磺的用量”,你把“或”字译为"and”,这也不妥。前两点结论是否改成这样:

The results of the experiment show that 1) properly increasing the amount of zinc oxide could significantly increase crosslinking density and tear strength of cured films of natural latex; 2) properly increasing the amount of accelerator or sulfur could not only accelerate the curing process, but also effectively increase the crosslinking density of the cured latex films, hence improving physical and mechanical properties of the films;

以上看法不一定对,仅供参考。最近我很忙,恕我只能简单谈几点看法,不能针对全文进行详细讨论。就算是抛砖引玉吧!

[Edited at 2011-05-24 19:41 GMT]


 

kenny2006woo (X)

Local time: 18:47
English to Chinese
TOPIC STARTER
多谢老孙指教 May 25, 2011

多谢老孙指教

我就猜到您会是第一个回答的人,呵呵。您所指出的不妥之处我差不多都同意,就是还有个疑问:latex products是否可指用胶乳做成的固体制品,而不是各种胶乳?

前几天一直在帮同学翻译论文摘要,忙得头昏脑胀,因为科技英文我读得本来就不多,加之专业有没有学好,所以做起来颇感吃力,译文也不免漏洞百出。能得到您指点,我真是非常高兴,再次谢谢您。

现在答辩完了,四年的大学生活就这么一晃而过了,自己感觉什么都不懂,迷茫得很。


[Edited at 2011-05-25 06:38 GMT]


 

ysun  Identity Verified
United States
Local time: 05:47
English to Chinese
+ ...
都可以,要根据上下文来判断 May 25, 2011

kenny2006woo wrote:

您所指出的不妥之处我差不多都同意,就是还有个疑问:latex products是否可指用胶乳做成的固体制品,而不是用来各种胶乳?

Latex products 可以指用胶乳作为原料而制成的固体制品,例如:
http://my.clevelandclinic.org/disorders/latex_allergy/hic_latex_allergy.aspx
The following list highlights some (but not all) of the latex products you should avoid in the home:
• Rubber sink stoppers and sink mats
• Rubber or rubber-grip utensils
• Rubber electrical cords or water hoses
...

Latex products 也可以指作为原料的各种胶乳产品,供加工厂生产乳胶制品。例如:
http://www.kirkside.com.au/L80/latex-products/
EN-TECH is proud to supply all its latex products formaldehyde-free.
此网页上的表格就列出了各种各样的胶乳产品,而不是胶乳制品。

所以,要根据上下文来判断。你的这个表达方式比较明确,不易引起混淆:Most products made from natural rubber latex。

祝贺你结束了大学生活。大学里只是打个基础,掌握些学习方法。主要还是靠在今后的工作和生活中继续学习。你比我幸运多了。当年我大学一毕业就和约300名同学一起被送去大西北修理戈壁滩了,修了将近两年也没修好。现在回想起来,那好像还是昨天的事情似的!
Good luck!


 

kenny2006woo (X)

Local time: 18:47
English to Chinese
TOPIC STARTER
多谢老孙鼓励,我会努力的。 May 25, 2011

多谢老孙鼓励,我会努力的,日后还请您和各位前辈多多提携。:mrgreen:

 


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