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Thread poster: Last Hermit

Last Hermit
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May 30, 2004

Necessary Fictions
蹇呰鐨勮櫄鏋
缈昏瘧锛歀ast Hermit



The most pathetic in Friedrich D眉rrenmatt's play The Visit is the Schoolmaster. The play tells the story of a town bribed by an enormously wealthy lady (the鈥渧isitor鈥漮f the title) to murder her former lover. That, at least, is the surface plot. The real plot is the reenactment by the townspeople of the archetypal ritual sacrifice that is the subject of Sir James Frazer's study of primitive religion, The Golden Bough , and that classical scholars such as Gilbert Murray and F. M. Cornford have found at the root of Greek tragedy. The play thus moves on two levels. On one, it is the story of a judicial murder for money, an indictment of materialism. On the other, it has nothing to do with motives in the conventional sense. It is a play about religious impulses that are independent of the ways people explain them.

鍦ㄥ紬閲屽痉鍒╁笇鈥㈡潨浠戦┈鐗圭殑鎴忓墽銆婃帰璁裤嬮噷锛屾渶绐濆泭鑰呰帿杩囦簬閭d綅鏍¢暱銆傝鍓ц杩颁竴浣嶈秴绾у瘜濠嗭紙鍓у悕涓殑鈥滄帰璁胯呪濓級涓鸿皨鏉鏃ф儏浜鸿屾敹涔板叏闀囦汉鐨勬晠浜嬨傝〃闈㈢湅鏉ワ紝鍓ф儏涓嶅濡傛銆傚疄闄呬笂锛屽畠鏄氳繃闀囦腑浜哄啀鐜颁簡鍘熷鐨勭キ绁浠紡锛屼害鍗宠┕濮嗗+路寮楅浄鑸嶇埖澹殑銆婇噾鏋濄嬫墍鐮旂┒鐨勫師濮嬪畻鏁欑殑璇鹃锛屼互鍙婂悏鑰充集鐗孤峰ⅷ鑾卞拰F路M路搴风寰风瓑鐮旂┒鍙ゅ笇鑵婃垨鍙ょ綏椹殑瀛﹁呬滑杩芥函甯岃厞鎮插墽鏍规簮鏃剁殑鍙戠幇銆傚洜姝わ紝鏈墽鏈濅袱鏂归潰鍙戝睍銆傚叾涓锛岃杩颁互鍚堟硶鎵嬫浣夸汉鏋夋浜庨噾閽变箣涓嬬殑鏁呬簨锛屼粠鑰屽鐗╄川鑷充笂涓讳箟鎻愬嚭鎺ц瘔銆傚叾浜岋紝瀹冧笉鍏虫秹浼犵粺瑙傚康涓婄殑鏉浜哄姩鏈恒傚畠鍏充箮闈炰竴鑸汉鍙互瑙i噴鐨勫畻鏁欏姏閲忋

D眉rrenmatt's Schoolmaster is a key figure because he represents the liberal and rational heritage of Western culture. He is鈥淗eadmaster of Guellen College, and lover of the noblest Muse.鈥滺e sponsors the town's Youth Club and describes himself as鈥渁 humanist, a lover of the ancient Greeks, an admirer of Plato.鈥滺e is a true believer in all those liberal and rational values that Western culture has inherited from antiquity.

鏉滀粦椹壒绗斾笅杩欎綅鏍¢暱鏄釜鍏抽敭浜虹墿锛屽洜涓轰粬鏄嚜鐢卞湴銆佺悊鎬у湴浼犳壙瑗挎柟鏂囧寲鐨勮薄寰併備粬鏄滃彜灏斾鸡瀛﹂櫌鐨勬牎闀匡紝宕囧皻鑷抽珮鏃犱笂鐨勭吉鏂傗濅粬鍑洪挶璧勫姪闀囬噷鐨勯潚骞翠汉淇变箰閮紝鑷О鏄滀汉鏂囦富涔夎咃紝鍠滄鍙ゅ笇鑵婏紝浠版厱鏌忔媺鍥俱傗濅絾鍑℃槸婧愯繙娴侀暱鐨勮タ鏂规枃鍖栦腑鐨勮嚜鐢变环鍊艰鍜岀悊鎬т环鍊艰锛屼粬閮界収鍗曞叏鏀躲

In keeping with these values, D眉rrenmatt's schoolmaster is horrified by the plans of his fellow townspeople, whom he has tried to inspire with visions of nobility, to commit murder. As the climax approaches, however, he crumbles. Not only does he know of the murder plan, he knows he will become a part of it:

灏卞湪鎭畧杩欎簺浠峰艰鐨勫綋鍎匡紝浠栧緱鐭ヤ粬鏇剧粡浠ラ珮杩滅殑蹇楀悜鍚开杩囩殑闀囬噷鐨勪埂浜蹭滑姝h鍒掓潃浜猴紝涓嶇鎯舵兌涓嶅彲缁堟棩銆傜劧鑰岋紝闅忕潃鍓ф儏杩涘叆楂樻疆锛屼粬缁堜簬宕╂簝浜嗐備粬涓嶄絾鐭ラ亾鏈夎繖涔堜釜鏉浜虹殑璁″垝锛屼粬杩樼煡閬撹嚜宸变篃灏嗘垚涓鸿鍒掔殑涓閮ㄥ垎锛

I know something else. I shall take part in it. I can feel myself slowly becoming a murderer. My faith in humanity is powerless to stop it.

鎴戣繕鐭ラ亾涓浜涗簨鎯呫傛垜灏嗚鍙備笌鍏朵腑銆傛垜鎰熷埌鑷繁姝f參鎱㈠湴鍙樻垚涓涓潃浜哄嚩鎵嬨傛垜鎵淇′话鐨勪汉鏂囦富涔夛紝瀵规鏃犺兘涓哄姏銆

The Schoolmaster has discovered that the apparently absolute values of 鈥渢he ancient Greeks鈥nd Plato鈥 have limits. Other values, hidden and irrational, are at least as powerful. Are the latter true and the former nothing more than lovely and venerable fictions?

鏍¢暱鍏堢敓鍙戠幇锛屸滃彜甯岃厞鏂囧寲鈥︹﹀強鏌忔媺鍥锯濈瓑璨屼技鑷抽珮鏃犱笂鐨勪环鍊艰骞堕潪鎵鍚戞姭闈°傚叾瀹冪湅涓嶈鐨勩侀潪鐞嗘х殑浠峰艰锛屼笣姣笉鐢樼ず寮便傛槸鍚﹀悗鑰呮墠鏄湡鐨勶紝鑰屽墠鑰呬笉澶栦箮鏄厼鏄ソ鐪嬬殑銆佹暀浜哄績椹扮寰鐨勫够璞$舰浜嗭紵

The Visit brilliantly explores one of the most ancient paradoxes in Western experience, a paradox that appears in the Old Testament in the contrast between the Gentiles who worship graven idols and the Hebrews who worship invisible truth: 鈥淭hou shalt not make unto thee any graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth underneath, or that is in the waters under the earth.鈥 The same paradox recurs in the conflict between pagan learning and Christian revelation in the early centuries of the Christian era, and again, in the high Middle Ages, in the debate between Thomistic rationalism, which sees the world as an intelligible and orderly expression of divine reason, and the mysticism of St. Bonaventure's The Mind's Road to God , which sees the world as a delusion and turns from it to suprarational experience. In the seventeenth century the paradox is embodied in the conflict between science and revelation, a conflict that was renewed in the nineteenth century by the publication of Darwin's Origin of Species.

銆婃帰璁裤嬪阀濡欏湴鎺㈣浜嗗瓨鍦ㄤ簬瑗挎柟缁忛獙涓殑涓涓瀬涓哄彜鑰佺殑鎮栬銆傚畠鍦ㄣ婃棫绾︺嬩腑鍑虹幇鏃讹紝浠ュ磭鎷滈洉鍍忎箣澶栭偊浜轰笌宕囨嫓涓嶅彲瑙佷箣鐪熺悊鐨勫笇浼幈浜轰簰涓哄姣旓細鈥涓嶅彲浠ヤ负鑷繁闆曞埢鍋跺儚锛涗篃涓嶅彲浣滀粈涔堝舰璞′豢浣涗笂澶┿佷笅鍦板拰鍦板簳涓嬨佹按涓殑鐧剧墿銆鈥濆悓鏍风殑鎮栬锛屽湪鍩虹潱绾厓鏈鍒濈殑鍑犱釜涓栫邯涓紝鍐嶆鍑虹幇鍦ㄥ紓鏁欑爺绌朵笌鍩虹潱鍚ず涓よ呯殑鍐茬獊涓紝缁ц屽湪涓笘绾紟鐩涙湡锛屽啀鑰屽湪鎵橀┈鏂悊鎬т富涔変笌鍦b㈡尝鎷挎枃閮芥媺鐨勩婃湞鍦d箣璺嬬殑绁炵涓讳箟璁轰簤涓傛墭椹柉鐞嗘т富涔夎涓栫晫涓哄绾悊鎬х殑鍙煡鑰屽張鏈夊簭鐨勮〃杩帮紝鑰屽湥鈥㈡尝鎷挎枃閮芥媺鍒欒涓栫晫涓哄够璞″張鐢卞够璞″寲浣滆秴鐞嗘х殑浣撻獙銆傚埌浜嗗崄涓冧笘绾紝杩欎竴鎮栬渚垮嚭鐜板湪绉戝涓庡惎绀虹殑鍐茬獊涓紝鑷冲崄涔濅笘绾紝鍙堝洜杈惧皵鏂囩殑銆婄墿绉嶈捣婧愩嬪啀璧蜂簤绔

It is still with us. No one could be more devoted to humane values鈥攐r more knowledgeable in the field of biology鈥攖han Jacques Monod, co-recipient of the 1965 Nobel Prize for medicine and physiology. In a much-admired essay,鈥淥n Values in the Age of Science鈥(1969), Monod proclaimed the end of the Age of Faith:

鍒板浠婏紝瀹冭繕鍦ㄨ窡鐫鎴戜滑璧般1965骞磋璐濆皵鐢熺悊瀛﹀強鍖诲濂栧緱涓讳箣涓闆呭厠鈥㈣帿璇猴紝瀵逛汉閬撲环鍊艰鐮旂┒涔嬬儹鐖憋紝鐢氭垨瀵圭敓鐗╁涔嬬〝鐔燂紝鍙皳鏃犱汉鑳藉強銆備粬鍦ㄤ粬閭g瘒鏁欎汉鍑昏妭璧炶祻鐨勬枃绔犮婅绉戝鏃朵唬涔嬩环鍊艰銆嬶紙1969锛変腑瀹gО鈥滀俊浠版椂浠b濆凡缁忕粨鏉燂細



Modern nations鈥till teach and preach some more or less modernized version of traditional systems of values, blatantly incompatible with what scientific culture they have. The western, liberal-capitalist countries still pay lip service to a nauseating mixture of Judeo-Christian religiosity, 鈥淣atural鈥 Human Rights, pedestrian utilitarianism and XIX Century progressivism鈥hey all lie and they know it. No intelligent and cultivated person, in any of these societies can really believe in the validity of these dogma鈥



閭d簺鐜颁唬鍥藉鈥︹﹁嚦浠婁緷鐒跺湪鑻﹀彛濠嗗績鍦板悜浜轰滑鐏岃緭閭f垨澶氭垨灏戝甫鏈夌幇浠h壊褰╃殑浼犵粺浠峰艰锛屽叕鐒朵笌瀹冧滑鐜版湁鐨勭瀛︽枃鍖栧敱鍙嶈皟銆傝タ鏂硅嚜鐢辫祫鏈富涔夊浗瀹讹紝鎶婄姽澶紞鍩虹潱鏁欐暀涔夈佲滃ぉ璧嬧濅汉鏉冦佸钩搴稿疄鐢ㄤ富涔変互鍙婂崄涔濅笘绾殑杩涙涓讳箟鈥︹︽弶鎴愪竴鍥㈡暀浜哄弽鑳冪殑涓滆タ鍚庯紝渚濈劧瀵圭潃瀹冨ぇ鍞遍珮璋冦傚畠浠叏閮ㄥ湪鎾掕皫锛屽畠浠篃蹇冪煡鑲氭槑銆傚湪杩欎簺绀句細閲岋紝浣嗗嚒鏈夋櫤涔嬪+銆佹湁璇嗕箣浜洪兘涓嶄細褰撶湡鐩镐俊杩欎簺鏁欐潯鈥︹

While a great many 鈥渋ntelligent and cultivated persons鈥 undoubtedly agree with Monod, many others do not. D眉-rrenmatt is a case in point. What he shows through his Schoolmaster is that a rational and secular value system of the kind proposed by Monod is delusion that may crumble as soon as it is subjected to stress. D眉rrenmatt had good reason to believe his message. The Visit was written in 1956 when memories of the Holocaust were still vivid. Since then, confidence in rational and secular values has continued to decline. In 1979, in what was almost a national paroxism of disgust, the people of Iran rejected Western rationalism and opted for a form of government that looks very much like theocracy. The diatribes of Iran's Mullahs are hardly less passionate than tirades of America's Moral Majority and the sermons of its radio and television evangelists. It is interesting and significant that the American Mullahs consistently identify 鈥渟ecular humanism鈥 as the chief corruption of modern society. In fact, in 1979 the General Convention of the Episcopal Church, a normally moderate body, felt the pressure sufficiently to include a denunciation of 鈥渉umanistic secularization鈥 in its proceedings.

鏈変竴澶ф壒鈥滄湁鏅轰箣澹佹湁璇嗕箣浜衡濇鏃犱繚鐣欏湴璧炲悓鑾鐨勮鐐圭殑鍚屾椂锛屼篃鏈夎澶氫汉涓嶄互涓虹劧銆傛潨浠戦┈鐗逛究鏄叾涓銆備粬閫氳繃绗斾笅鐨勯偅浣嶆牎闀垮憡璇夋垜浠紝鑾鎵鍊″鐨勯偅绉嶇悊鎬х殑銆佷笘淇楃殑浠峰间綋绯伙紝鍙笉杩囨槸涓鍦哄够瑙夛紝涓鏃﹂亣鍒板帇鍔涗究浼氱牬鐏紝鍖栦负涔屾湁銆傛潨浠戦┈鐗瑰疄鍦ㄦ湁鐞嗙敱鐩镐俊鑷繁杩欐牱鍚彂浜烘槸瀵圭殑銆傘婃帰璁裤嬪啓浜1956骞达紝褰撴椂浜轰滑瀵圭撼绮瑰ぇ灞犳潃渚濈劧璁板繂鐘规柊銆備粠閭f椂璧凤紝浜轰滑瀵圭悊鎬х殑銆佷笘淇楃殑浠峰艰瓒婃潵瓒婃病鏈変俊蹇冦1979骞达紝浼婃湕鍑犱箮鏄湪鍏ㄥ浗涓鐗囧斁楠傚0涓姏寮冧簡瑗挎柟鐞嗘т富涔夛紝閫夋嫨浜嗕竴涓嚑涔庝笌绁炴潈鏃犲紓鐨勬斂搴溿備紛鏈楁瘺鎷変滑璧峰姴鐨勬极楠傚0锛屽姣斾簬缇庡浗閬撳痉澶氭暟浼氱殑鐥涙枼澹板強鍏剁數鍙般佺數瑙嗗彴绂忛煶浼犳挱鑰呯殑甯冮亾澹帮紝涓濇涓嶉亼澶氳銆傛湁鎰忔濈殑鏄紝缇庡浗鐨勬瘺鎷変滑鍗村缁堣鈥滀笘淇椾汉鏂囦富涔夆濅负鐜颁唬绀句細鏈澶х殑鍫曡惤锛岃繖渚夸笉瀹瑰皬瑙戜簡銆備簨瀹炰笂锛屽睘浜庝竴鑸俯鍜屽洟浣撶殑鍦e叕浼氬ぇ浼氾紝涔熶簬1979骞存劅鍒版湁蹇呰灏嗚按璐b滀汉鏂囦富涔変笘淇楀寲鈥濈撼鍏ヤ粬浠殑璁▼涓

While the Schoolmasters of Western society dream of nobility, the Faithful quote the Sermon on the Mount:

瑗挎柟绀句細鐨勬牎闀夸滑鍦ㄥ仛鍏堕珮杩滀箣姊︾殑褰撳効锛岃檾璇氱殑淇″緬浠嵈鍦ㄥ北涓婃憳涓嬪涓嬭瑷锛



No man can serve two masters: for either he will hate the one and love the other; or else he will hold to the one, and despise the other. Ye cannot serve God and Mammon.


涓涓汉涓嶈兘浜嬪涓や釜涓汇備笉鏄伓杩欎釜鐖遍偅涓紝灏辨槸閲嶈繖涓交閭d釜銆備綘浠笉鑳藉張浜嬪绁烇紝鍙堜簨濂夌帥闂ㄣ

And:

Take therefore no thought of the morrow, for the morrow shall take no thought for the things of itself.


杩樻湁锛
聽鎵浠ワ紝涓嶈涓烘槑澶╁咖铏戯紝鍥犱负鏄庡ぉ鑷湁鏄庡ぉ鐨勫咖铏戙

And:

Everyone that heareth these things, and doeth them not, shall be likened unto a foolish man, which built his house upon sand.


杩樻湁锛
鍑″惉瑙佹垜杩欒瘽涓嶅幓琛岀殑锛屽ソ姣斾竴涓棤鐭ョ殑浜猴紝鎶婃埧瀛愮洊鍦ㄦ矙鍦熶笂銆

The conflict between the graven idols of secular humanism and the invisible realities known only to the saving remnant of the devout is very much alive today. If D眉rrenmatt is correct, there is little to be said for humanism. It is an illusion, a fiction, a thin coating of rationalizations covering something awesome and terrifying. The Mullahs have won.

涓栦織浜烘枃涓讳箟宕囨嫓鍋跺儚锛岃岀鏋滀粎瀛樼殑铏旇瘹鐨勪俊寰掑療鐜板疄浜庢棤褰紝涓よ呰嚦浠婁緷鐒剁悍浜変笉鏂傚樿嫢鏉滀粦椹壒瑙傜偣姝g‘锛屼汉鏂囦富涔変笉鍊间竴璋堛傚畠涔冩槸骞昏薄锛屾槸铏氭瀯锛屾槸瑁圭潃钖勮杽鐨勭悊鎬т富涔夊琛g殑銆佺厡鐒剁殑鐙扮嫗涔嬬墿銆傛瘺鎷変滑鏄儨鍒╄呫

Before abandoning humanism and all its works, however, let us consider it from another angle. For the sake of speculation, let us imagine a humanism that is a way of seeing. The things it sees are human creations or things that have special human significance. This sort of humanism will be interested in the values these things express but not in any particular set of those values.

鍦ㄦ垜浠憭寮冧汉鏂囦富涔夊強鍏舵墍鏈変綔鍝佸墠锛屼笉濡ㄨ鎴戜滑浠庡彟涓涓搴︾湅鐪嬨備负渚夸簬鎬濊冿紝鎴戜滑涓嶅Θ鎯冲儚鏈変竴绉嶄汉鏂囦富涔変互瑙傚療鏂瑰紡瀛樺湪銆傛墍瑙傝咃紝涔冧汉鏂囧垱閫犳垨鍏风壒娈婁汉鏂囨剰涔変箣浜嬨傝繖绉嶄汉鏂囦富涔夊叧娉ㄧ殑鏄繖浜涗簨鎯呮墍琛ㄨ揪鐨勪环鍊艰锛岃岄潪褰撲腑鏌愪竴鐗瑰畾鐨勪环鍊艰銆

A humanism that is a way of seeing will be committed describing what it sees. It will seek to fix the condition of the human spirit at a particular place in a particular moment of time in relation to a particular experience, and it will choose its places and times and experiences because they express the condition of the human spirit with particular clarity. They are the evidence concerning the nature of the human spirit that has accumulated throughout history. In other words, they are to humanism what the raw materials of physics, biology, and chemistry are to science.

浠ヤ竴绉嶈瀵熸柟寮忓瓨鍦ㄧ殑浜烘枃涓讳箟锛屽畾褰撳敖蹇冩弿杩版墍瑙備箣浜嬨傚畠蹇呭畾浼氬湪涓庢煇涓鐗瑰畾缁忓巻鐩稿叧鐨勭壒瀹氬湴鐐广佺壒瀹氭椂鍒伙紝鎯虫柟璁炬硶鍘讳慨鏁翠汉鏂囩簿绁炵殑鐘舵侊紝鎵閫変箣鍦扮偣銆佹椂闂淬佺粡鍘嗭紝蹇呭畾缂樹簬瀹冧滑鑳界壒鍒竻妤氬湴琛ㄨ揪浜烘枃绮剧鐨勭姸鎬併傚畠浠嵃璇佷簡浜烘枃绮剧鏈川鐨勬暣涓Н绱繃绋嬨傛崲瑷涔嬶紝瀹冧滑涔嬩簬浜烘枃涓讳箟锛屽嵆濡傜墿鐞嗗師鏂欍佺敓鐗╁師鏂欏強鍖栧鍘熸枡涔嬩簬绉戝




[Edited at 2004-05-31 15:10]


 

Yongmei Liu  Identity Verified
United States
Local time: 03:39
English to Chinese
+ ...
鑻辨枃鐪嬪緱涓嶆槸澶噦锛屾劅瑙夌炕寰椾笉閿 May 30, 2004

闅忎究璇村嚑涓笉鎴愮啛鐨勬兂娉曪細

The most pathetic锛氭渶绐濆泭鑰
杩欓噷鐨刾athetic 鏄痠nviting sympathy, not scorn锛屾墍浠モ滀护浜哄悓鎯呪濊緝濡

瓒呯骇瀵屽﹩
鏋佷负瀵屾湁鐨勫浜 浣曞锛

judicial murder 锛氫互鍚堟硶鎵嬫
鐢氫匠

he represents the liberal and rational heritage of Western culture/浠栨槸鑷敱鍦般佺悊鎬у湴浼犳壙瑗挎柟鏂囧寲鐨勮薄寰
浠栦唬琛ㄧ潃瑗挎柟鏂囧寲鐨勮嚜鐢卞拰鐞嗘х殑浼犵粺銆傦紙Plato鍦ㄦ椂闂翠笂鍦–hristianity涔嬪墠锛屾墍浠ヨ鏄痟eritage)

In keeping with these values:灏卞湪鎭畧杩欎簺浠峰艰鐨勫綋鍎
鏍规嵁锛屼緷鐓э紝涓庛傘傘備繚鎸佷竴鑷

D眉rrenmatt's schoolmaster is horrified by the plans of his fellow townspeople锛氫笉绂佹兌鎯朵笉鍙粓鏃
horrified=repulsed 鎰熷埌鏋佸害闇囨儕銆佸帉鎭 not frightened

paradox锛 鎮栬
paradox=contradition, antagonism 浼间箮鍙敤鈥滅煕鐩锯濃滃鎶椻

D眉rrenmatt had good reason to believe his message.鏉滀粦椹壒瀹炲湪鏈夌悊鐢辩浉淇¤嚜宸辫繖鏍峰惎鍙戜汉鏄鐨勩
銆傘傘傝嚜宸辩殑瑙傜偣銆傘傘

Moral Majority 缇庡浗閬撳痉澶氭暟浼
鈥滈亾寰风殑澶у鏁扳濓紙杩欓噷鏄Monad璁や负鐜颁唬鍥藉鍦ㄧ淮鎸佸畻鏁欎紶缁燂紝鑰屾瘺鎷変滑鎰熷埌瀹楁暀鍦ㄨ繀閫熸病钀斤級

Sermon on the Mount锛氳檾璇氱殑淇″緬浠嵈鍦ㄥ北涓婃憳涓嬪涓嬭瑷
銆婄櫥灞卞疂璁嬶紝椹お绂忛煶浜旂珷鍒颁竷绔 see
http://www.readusa.cn/Bible/BIBLE4.htm

the mysticism of St. Bonaventure's The Mind's Road to God , which sees the world as a delusion and turns from it to suprarational experience: 鍦b㈡尝鎷挎枃閮芥媺鐨勩婃湞鍦d箣璺嬬殑绁炵涓讳箟...瑙嗕笘鐣屼负骞昏薄鍙堢敱骞昏薄鍖栦綔瓒呯悊鎬х殑浣撻獙
turns from it to suprarational experience: turns away from it and turns to suprarational experience

The last 2 paragraphs are very difficult for me to understand, but:

It will seek to fix the condition of the human spirit at a particular place in a particular moment of time in relation to a particular experience, and it will choose its places and times and experiences because they express the condition of the human spirit with particular clarity. 瀹冨繀瀹氫細鍦ㄤ笌鏌愪竴鐗瑰畾缁忓巻鐩稿叧鐨勭壒瀹氬湴鐐广佺壒瀹氭椂鍒伙紝鎯虫柟璁炬硶鍘讳慨鏁翠汉鏂囩簿绁炵殑鐘舵侊紝鎵閫変箣鍦扮偣銆佹椂闂淬佺粡鍘嗭紝蹇呭畾缂樹簬瀹冧滑鑳界壒鍒竻妤氬湴琛ㄨ揪浜烘枃绮剧鐨勭姸鎬併
Here "fix" does not mean "淇暣", rather it means "place ... at a particular time or place" cf: "LA County Surgeon fixed the time of death at between 5 and 8 am on Sunday morning..."
"浣滀负涓绉嶈瀵熸柟娉曠殑浜烘枃涓讳箟锛屽畾褰撳敖鍔涙弿杩版墍瑙傚療鐨勪簨鐗┿傚畠璇曞浘灏嗕汉鏂囩簿绁炵殑鐘舵侊紝瀹氫綅浜庝笌鏌愪竴鐗瑰畾缁忓巻鐩稿叧鐨勭壒瀹氬湴鐐瑰拰鐗瑰畾鏃跺埢..."
纭垏鐨勫惈涔夋槸浠涔堬紝鍚句笉鐭ヤ篃icon_smile.gif

Thoroughly enjoyable nevetheless. Merci beaucoup (pardon my french)


 

Yongmei Liu  Identity Verified
United States
Local time: 03:39
English to Chinese
+ ...
pagan learning 鍙互鐞嗚В涓轰笘淇楃殑鐭ヨ瘑, 鍗崇瀛 May 30, 2004

as opposed to religious learning/revelation 瀹楁暀鐨勭煡璇

 


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